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Training / Education

Applied Vehicle Dynamics

2020-10-19
Take notes! Take the wheel! There is no better place to gain an appreciation for vehicle dynamics than from the driver’s seat. Spend three, intense days with a world-renowned vehicle dynamics engineer and SAE Master Instructor, his team of experienced industry engineers, and the BMW-trained professional driving instructors. They will guide you as you work your way through 12 classroom modules learning how and why vehicles go, stop and turn. Each classroom module is immediately followed by an engaging driving exercise on BMW’s private test track.
Technical Paper

Transitioning from IC Engine to Electric Vehicle: An Optimized Wheel End Solution

2020-10-05
2020-01-1632
This paper discusses the change in vehicle parameters when moving from a conventional internal combustion engine to electric motor. It discusses the impact on the wheel end bearings. Typically these include higher GAWRs (Gross Axle Weight Rating) at lower center of gravity heights. These changes require bearings to handle higher loads. Typically, larger loads will increase the bearing size and with it the mounting interface dimensions to auxiliary components. Timken demonstrates an alternative bearing design that can handle higher vehicle GAWRs but would allow for continuity in the surrounding brake corner components – saving OEMs significant design costs and delays.
Technical Paper

A Full-System Approach to Maximise Energy Efficiency of a Wheel Bearing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1631
Environmental sustainability is morphing Automotive technical development strategies and driving the evolution of vehicles with a speed and a strength hardly foreseeable a decade ago. The entire vehicle architecture is impacted, and energy efficiency becomes one of the most important parameters to reach goals, which are now not only market demands, but also based on regulatory standards with penalty consequences. Therefore, rolling drag from all bearings in multiple rotating parts of the vehicle needs to be reduced; wheel bearings are among the biggest in size regardless of the powertrain architecture (ICE, Hybrid, BEV) and have a significant impact. The design of wheel bearings is a complex balance between features influencing durability, robustness, vehicle dynamics, and, of course, energy efficiency.
Technical Paper

Pre-Curve Braking Planning of Battery Electric Vehicle based on Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperative System

2020-10-05
2020-01-1643
Braking energy recovery is an important method for Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) to save energy and increase driving range. Vehicle braking system performs regenerative braking control based on driver operations. Different braking operations have a significant impact on energy recovery efficiency. This paper proposes a method for planning the braking process of a BEV based on Intelligent Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperative System (IVICS). By actively planning the braking process, the braking energy recovery efficiency is improved. Vehicles need to decelerate and brake before entering a curve. The IVICS is used to obtain information about the curve section in front of the vehicle's driving route. Then calculating the reference speed of the curve, and obtaining the vehicle's braking target in advance, so as to actively plan the vehicle braking process.
Technical Paper

On Prediction of Automotive Clutch Torsional Vibrations

2020-09-30
2020-01-1508
Automotive clutches are prone to rigid body torsional vibrations during engagement, a phenomenon referred to as take-up judder. This is also accompanied by fore and aft vehicle motions. Aside from driver behaviour in sudden release of clutch pedal (resulting in loss of clamp load), and type and state of friction lining material, the interfacial slip speed and contact temperature can significantly affect the propensity of clutch to judder. The ability to accurately predict the judder phenomenon relies significantly on the determination of operational frictional characteristics of the clutch lining material. This is dependent upon contact pressure, temperature and interfacial slip speed. The current study investigates the ability to predict clutch judder vibration with the degree of complexity of the torsional dynamics model. For this purpose, the results from a four and nine degrees of freedom dynamics models are compared and discussed.
Technical Paper

Asian Consumers Challenging the NVH Performance of European Cars – Implications on the Product Development in the 2020ies

2020-09-30
2020-01-1552
Sales of SUV and luxury cars on the largest market of the world – China – are growing at a high rate. The highways in large cities like Beijing or Shanghai are increasingly populated with cars from all over the world like Japan, USA, Europe and Korea and even some refined domestic brands. More than 10 million rich people can afford those cars and are skilled drivers. This huge group of potential consumers is targeted by luxury brand OEMs and by startup companies. It has been understood, that these people have a strong attitude towards comfort. The twistbeam rear axle was replaced by multilink, double clutch transmissions were improved by comfort-mode drive programs, interior trims raised to Western standard performance levels, tyres specially developed for comfort in China, localized insulation materials and packages engineered to a one vehicle class higher level.
Technical Paper

Research on the Subjective Rating Prediction Method for the Ride Comfort with Deep Learning

2020-09-30
2020-01-1566
Suspension is an important chassis part which is vital to ride comfort. However, it is difficult to achieve our targeted comfortability level in a short time. Therefore, improving efficiency of damper development is our primary challenge. We have launched a project which aims to reduce the workload on developing dampers by introducing analytical approaches to the improvement of ride comfort. To be more specific, we have been putting effort into developing subjective rating prediction, vehicle dynamics prediction, the damping force prediction. This paper describes the subjective rating prediction method which output a subjective rating corresponding to the physical value of the vehicle dynamics with Deep Learning. As a result of verifying with the unlearning data, DNN(Deep Neural Network) prediction method could almost predict the subjective rating of the expert driver.
Technical Paper

Study of dynamics stiffness and shape factor of rubber bush to address high frequency resonance issue in electric powertrain mounting system.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0341
Electric motor mounts resonance at high frequency in the range of 600 to 900Hz with motor frequency results isolation performance deterioration. There is a selection process of motor mounts such that the high frequency resonance is avoided. The dynamic stiffness plays a major role on resonance frequency. Rubber shape factor and compound are directly contribute the dynamic stiffness properties of mount. Isolation efficiency depends on force transfer to the body and resonance phenomenon. In this paper, the design aspect of motor mounts are discussed which affect high frequency resonance. The wings effect of rubber bush has shown along with the impact of frequency shift. Finally it is shown for a given EV (Electric vehicle) powertrain system, a proper selection of mounts along with its internal structure play a big role in resonance avoidance, higher kinetic energy decoupling and very small CoG (Center of Gravity) movement under torque.
Technical Paper

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF HELICAL BAFFLED SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER USING NUMERICAL METHODS

2020-09-25
2020-28-0362
The ideology behind the project is to alter the helical angle of the baffles attached to the heat exchanger such that it increases the velocity of the flow of high viscous fluids. Investigations of thermo-hydraulic performance were conducted on five trisection helical baffle heat exchangers with different inclination angles, baffle shapes, or connection patterns, and one segmental baffle heat exchanger (SEG). A comparative analysis of three sector baffle schemes with inclination angles of 10° (10°S), 15° (15°S), and 20° (20°S); an ellipse baffle scheme with an inclination angle of 15° (15°E); and an axial overlap sector baffle scheme with an inclination angle of 20° (20°D) was performed. Local images were constructed to obtain pressure loss characteristics and flow field distributions. The flow field characteristics, such as the Dean vortex secondary flow and bypass leakage between adjacent baffles, are clearly shown and discussed.
Technical Paper

Tadpole configuration for Three-wheeled vehicles

2020-09-25
2020-28-0359
With the increasing adoption of electric vehicle in India, autos are also getting in the electrification race with lighter lithium-ion batteries and motor replacing the bulkier engine and transmission. This trend has to lead to a lighter vehicle which in-turn gives better mileage figure but at the loss of dynamic stability of the vehicle making them very unsafe. The current auto-rickshaws are using delta configuration wheel geometry which in turn are more prone to the rollover while cornering. The three-wheeled configuration vehicle is less dynamically stable than the normal four-wheeled configurations. While working for on prototype vehicle for Shell Eco-Marathon Asia pro and cons for both configurations for a three-wheeled vehicle was considered and tadpole configuration was found to be more stable and better than current delta configuration.
Technical Paper

Optimal Selection of Steering Mechanism for Electric Vehicles

2020-09-25
2020-28-0446
This paper focuses on an optimal selection of steering mechanisms for electric vehicles (specifically BEV). In the first phase, we try to develop an atlas of steering mechanisms and in the second phase do an optimal steering mechanism selection to be used in the electric vehicle. The steering system is critical for the optimal performance of the e-vehicle. Because of the absence of an engine, the propulsive electric motor is dominant. But whenever BEV moves in city limits, it imposes peculiar constraints leads to the selection of best possible choice of propulsive motor control unit (MCU), battery control unit (BCU) and other relevant controllers of an electric vehicle. Most of the researchers pay attention to the MCU and BCU but ignores the steering system. For the proper functioning of BEVs, we also have to pay attention to the steering system. The steering system incorporates types of mechanisms, linkages, joints, connections to the control motors.
Technical Paper

Prediction of centre of gravity for tractor by considering safety devices at concept level

2020-09-25
2020-28-0476
Farm tractor accidents are estimated to claim many lives annualy throughtout the world.Tractors mainly shoud have the weight transfer methods of 40% at front wheels and 60% at rear wheels for two wheel drive. India nowadys safety requirements are getting mandatory for saftey devices.In tractor improper distribution of weight related to front and rear wheels lead to increase in front lifting. In this present study the static form does not taken into the account the tractive firce and the rolling resistance force. It is based purely on the static force analysis of the tractor where considering the rear safety devices such as Roll Over Protrctive structure (ROPS), PTO guards and towing devices etc. By formulating centre of gravity with the consideration of rear safety which will reduce the front lifting by increasing front weight ratio on the tractor at the concept stage level itself.
Technical Paper

A Unique Methodology to Evaluate the Structural Robustness of a Dual-Mass Flywheel Under Real-World Usage Conditions

2020-09-25
2020-28-0475
Dual mass flywheel (DMF) is an excellent solution to improve the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) characteristic of any vehicle by isolating the driveline from the engine torsional vibrations. For the same reason, DMFs are widely used in high power-density diesel and gasoline engines. However, the real-world usage conditions pose a lot of challenges to the structural robustness of the DMF. In the present work, a new methodology is developed to evaluate the robustness of a DMF fitted in a compact sports utility vehicle (SUV) with real-wheel drive architecture. The abuse conditions (mis-gear, sudden braking, etc) in the real-world usage could lead to a sudden engine stall leading to an abnormally high angular deceleration of the driveline components. The higher rate of deceleration coupled with the higher rotational moment of inertia of the real-wheel drive architecture end up in introducing a significantly high impact torque on the DMF.
Technical Paper

Ergonomic study of occupant seating using near-vertical posture for shared mobility applications

2020-09-25
2020-28-0519
Transportation system is at the brink of revolution and many new ways of mobility are arising in the market to ease the pressure on the established transportation infrastructure. Many companies and government around the world are exploring innovative options in the space of shared mobility to reduce the overall carbon footprint. To expedite the adoption of shared mobility based travelling options in India, it is necessary to make such options comfortable and cost-effective. To make the mobility option cost-effective, it is important to comfortably allow as many passengers per vehicle foot-print as possible. This paper aims to evaluate a novel method of occupant seating to maximize the number of passages the vehicle cabin can accommodate. Since shared mobility options are used for a short duration of commute, the comfort of the seat can be compromised for increasing the no. of occupants. This paper studies the relation between occupant comfort and the inclination of seat cushion.
Technical Paper

Slip Speed and Drive Torque Planning of Multivariable Controller for an Electrified Vehicle with Dual Clutch Transmission

2020-09-15
2020-01-2243
The demand for electrified vehicles is increasing due to increased environmental pollution regulations and the increasing demand for vehicles with high energy efficiency. In response to these demands, research on electrified vehicles equipped with dual clutch transmission (DCT) has been actively conducted to improve the energy efficiency and ride quality of the electrified vehicle, maximizing the acceleration performance and increasing the maximum speed. However, since DCT requires clutch to clutch shifting, it is difficult to control drive torque and slip speed by using two clutch actuators. To solve this problem, research on multivariable shift controllers using power source torque and clutch actuator as inputs has been conducted. However, this study chose the heuristic planning method to control the two outputs. Because slip speed and drive torque are coupled, heuristic planning can create unnecessary control inputs or reduce shift control performance.
Event

Exhibit/Sponsor - Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Symposium

2020-08-08
Innovative and enquiring specialists gather together 2020 SAE International Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Symposium (HDD) expand their knowledge collaborate most promising new technologies: emission control strategies, in-service maintenance, retro-fitting exhaust after-treatment equipment, global harmonization emission standards, regulatory activities
Event

FAQs - Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Symposium

2020-08-08
Innovative and enquiring specialists gather together 2020 SAE International Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Symposium (HDD) expand their knowledge collaborate most promising new technologies: emission control strategies, in-service maintenance, retro-fitting exhaust after-treatment equipment, global harmonization emission standards, regulatory activities
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