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Technical Paper

Two-Stroke Engine Mapping with Aerospace Testing Standard AS6971

Small two-stroke engine performance reports between manufacturers and third party tests have unexplained discrepancies. The impact of different testing conditions on performance metrics provides reason for a universally accepted engine testing standard that applies specifically for engines used in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has proposed an aerospace engine testing standard, AS6971, as a solution to engine testing discrepancies. The work presented here is the first implementation of the AS6971 draft standard to a port fuel injected 60.5 cc two-stroke spark ignited engine as feedback to the SAE standards. The engine was tested across 2000 RPM - 5000 RPM with settings that maximized torque output and compared to the manufacturer's performance results. The difference in these results further demonstrate the need for an accepted testing standard between both manufacturers and third party engine testing groups.
Technical Paper

Investigations on NOx and Smoke Emissions Reduction Potential through Diesel-Water Emulsion and Water Fumigation in a Small Bore Diesel Engine

In the present work, a relative comparison of addition of water to diesel through emulsion and fumigation methods is explored for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions in a production small bore diesel engine. The water to diesel ratio was kept the same in both the methods at a lower concentration of 3% by mass to avoid any adverse effects on the engine system components. The experiments were conducted at a rated engine speed of 1500 rpm under varying load conditions. A stable water-diesel emulsion was prepared using a combination of equal proportions (1:1 by volume) of Span 80 and Tween 80. The mixture of Span 80 in diesel and Tween 80 in water was homogenized using an IKA Ultra Turrax homogenizer with tip stator diameter 18mm at 5000 rpm for 2 minutes. The water-in-diesel emulsions thus formulated were kinetically stable and appeared translucent. No phase separation was observed on storage for approximately 105 days.
Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Enclosure-In-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing

Measuring brake emission is still a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing. Updates of work in progress are presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emit in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguished from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. However, reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm³ appeared to be quite challenging.