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Technical Paper

Virtual Simulation of Sprayer Composite Boom Using 1D Approach

Harnessing the benefits of light weight composite materials is increasing in Agriculture industry too. Sprayers are machines that are used to spray fertilizers/chemicals in fields over the crop, through nozzles that get attached to long slender truss like structures called ‘Booms’. These booms are traditionally made of metals and could vary from 60ft to 120ft in length from one end to another end. In order to spray on more acreage in same time, customers demand for increased lengths of booms and the metal booms add lot of weight into the structures which in turn will affect the fuel consumption, soil compaction, power/weight ratio, etc. Hence, several boom manufacturers are looking into light weight composite materials as an alternative to metal booms, to make the booms longer. Majority of the futuristic Sprayer machines are getting equipped with Composite material Booms for more productivity and for other benefits.
Technical Paper

Design and Aerodynamic Analysis of Pesticide Spraying Drone

In the present era Adding Technology and Innovations in Agriculture will help in increasing crop productivity. The motive to use development in Agriculture is not only to increase productivity but also to take care of our Farmers and Future Generations and one such way to achieve it is by using Agricultural Drones. The production rate of crops in agriculture is based on various parameters like temperature, humidity, rain, etc. which are natural factors and are not in farmer’s control. The field of agriculture also depends on some other factors like pests, disease, fertilizers, etc. which can be controlled by giving proper treatment to crops. Pesticides may increase the productivity of crops but they also affect human health. The WHO (World Health Organization) estimated as one million cases of ill effected when spraying the pesticides in the crop filed manually. Agriculture drone can be used as a form of Precision Agriculture by managing to spray the fertilizer as per requirement.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management Concept for the Exhaust Aftertreatment of Commercial Vehicle Diesel Engines Using Variable Mixtures of Diesel Fuel and Rapeseed Oil

The use of vegetable oil as a fuel for agricultural and forestry vehicles allows a CO2 reduction of up to 60%. On the other hand, the availability of vegetable oil is limited, and price competitiveness depends heavily on the respective oil price. In order to reduce the dependence on the availability of specific fuels, the joint research project “MuSt5-Trak” (Multi-Fuel EU Stage 5 Tractor) aims at developing a prototype tractor capable of running on arbitrary mixtures of diesel and rapeseed oil. Depending on the fuel mixture used, the engine parameters need to be adapted to the respective operating conditions. For this purpose, it is necessary to detect the composition of the fuel mixture and the fuel quality. Regardless of the fuel mixture available, all functions for regular engine operation must be maintained.
Technical Paper

Climate Modeling and Extremes of Climate – An Evaluation

For two centuries, scientists have explored and written about why our climate changed over time. This included factors like changes of solar radiation, earth-‐sun orbital changes, changes in ocean circulations, volcanism, continental drift and atmospheric changes (increased water vapor, carbon dioxide and aerosols). Dr. James R. Fleming, historian of science and technology and Professor of Science, Technology and Society at Colby College, Maine wrote: “In the first half of the twentieth century, most scientists did not believe that increased CO2 levels would result in global warming. It was thought that at (the then) current atmospheric concentrations, the gas already absorbed all the available long-‐wave radiation; thus any increases in CO2 would not change the radiative heat balance of the planet but might augment plant growth.

Mobile Working Machines

Mobile Working Machines are defined by three characteristics. These machines have a cer-tain task of doing a working process, they are mobile, and they have a signifi cant energy share in their working functions. The machines should be as productive, efficient and of high quality as possible. All these machines in the fi eld of agriculture, forestry, construction, logistics, municipal sector, and in other special applications work in different applications. But, many technologies placed in the machines are the same, similar or comparable; therefore, different branches can learn from each other. Mobile Working Machines provides a wide and deep view into the technologies used in these machines. Appropriate for new engineers as well as those who wish to increase their knowledge in this field, this book brings together all the latest research and development into one place.

CAN FD Physical Layer, 500 kbps/2 Mbps

This document defines a physical layer having a high bandwidth capacity utilizing the Flexible Data Rate Frame Format as defined in ISO 11898-1:2015. CAN controllers which support this format and compatible high speed transceivers are required for use on SAE J1939-17 networks. This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for light- and heavy-duty vehicles on- or off-road as well as appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g., generator sets). Vehicles of interest include but are not limited to: on- and off-highway trucks and their trailers; construction equipment; and agricultural equipment and implements.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Behavior of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain Fueled by an Ammonia-Gasoline-Ethanol Tertiary Fuel Blend

With the depletion of petroleum resources around the world, the need to have fuel-efficient mobility solutions and sustainable alternative fuels for automobiles has become prominent. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) and Battery Electric Vehicles have recently gained attention in terms of fuel-efficient mobility solutions. Recent research work by the authors of these articles and many other research groups have demonstrated the suitability of ammonia as a sustainable alternative power for automobiles [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 18]. Ammonia has been used for a long period of time mainly as an agricultural chemical and as a sustainable and carbon-free fuel and has substantial potential as a liquid fuel for mobile applications [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Ammonia-rich fuels can be used to run HEVs equipped with an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) as the primary power source and a battery as the secondary energy source.

ITIS Phrase Lists (International Traveler Information Systems)

This standard provides a table of textual messages meeting the requirements for expressing International Traveler Information Systems (ITIS) phrases commonly used in the ITS industry. The tables provided herein follow the rules of SAE J2540 and therefore allow a local representation in various different languages, media expressions, etc., to allow true international use of these phrases. The phrases are predominantly intended for use in the description of traffic-related events of interest to travelers and other traffic practitioners. Other phrases exist for other specific specialty areas of ITS, and all such phrases follow a set of encoding and decoding rules outlined in SAE J2540 to ensure that the use of these phrases in messages remain interoperable between disparate types of user equipment.

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2020

Battery of issues surrounds large-vehicle electrification Converting heavy-duty vehicles to battery power will require advances in weight reduction and thermal management. Autonomy kicks up some dust Machines that move, haul and plow earth can capitalize on autonomous systems today via increased safety and productivity in the field and significant cost savings. Digitalizing to deliver actionable data Mobile hydraulics expert details key trends in controls and IoT connectivity to improve machine design and end-user operations.

Chassis Committee Panel: Chassis Component Design and Multi-Discipline System Integration

Moderator - Mehdi Ahmadian, Virginia Tech. Panelists - Yang Chen, Virginia Tech. Erik Ellifson, Oshkosh Corporation Jason Shiffler, Hendrickson Truck CV Systems This session will focus on chassis component design and multi-discipline system integration for commercial vehicles, addressing issues such as ride, handling, or directional stability evaluation, traction, braking, or steering control, semi-active and active suspensions design, tire and wheel technologies, chassis component or subsystem design. Additional topics may include vehicle dynamic analysis and motion control, braking system design and performance evaluation, NVH control of components, testing and simulation studies on commercial, agricultural, construction, and military vehicles, and new research and testing related to commercial vehicle chassis.

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: November 2020

Editorial Fool Self-Driving The Navigator The end of vehicle ownership Sanitary Solutions for AVs Gentex engineers are bridging mobility and medical technologies to tackle vital public-health issues of vehicle cabin cleanliness. 'Software, Start Your Engines' The 2021 Indy Autonomous Challenge is a high-speed laboratory for advancing automated driving. Getting to the 'Core' of AV Thermal Management Data-gobbling processors require new cooling solutions - and the AV industry needs standards, says a veteran engineer. Autonomy Takes Off-highway Integrating automation systems in mining, agricultural and construction machines can increase safety and productivity in the field and bring significant economic benefits. Boaring in on Vehicle-to-Animal Road Safety Researchers are using micro-Doppler radar, neural nets and machine learning to protect drivers from the wild critters that enter the road.

Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines Operator Enclosure Environment, Part 1: Terms and Definitions

SAE J3078 provides test methods and criteria for the evaluation of the operator enclosure environment in earth-moving machinery as defined in ISO 6165. SAE J3078/1 gives the terms and definitions which are used in other parts of SAE J3078. It is applicable to Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines as defined in SAE J1116 and Agricultural Tractors as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390.

Nomenclature - Industrial and Agricultural Mowers

Illustrations used here are not intended to include all existing industrial or agricultural machines, or to be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. They have been picked to describe the principles to be used in applying this standard.

Total Vehicle Mechatronics and Integration Committee: Vehicle Off-Highway Autonomy Panel

Moderator - Benjamin Jefferson, DISTek Integration Inc. Panelists - Brendan Chan, Oshkosh Corp. Brett McClelland, CNH Industrial Prachi J. Vakharia, SafeAI Automation offers the potential of fueling growth in the off-highway industry due to the vitality of industrial and agricultural industries. The necessity of the automation systems to be safe, viable and robust will change how we design and validate such systems tomorrow. The discussion in this panel will reveal the challenges and opportunities in this area as the off-highway industry undertakes the task of integration of automation in their industry.

Fuel Consumption Test Procedure - Type II

This document describes a rigorous-engineering fuel-consumption test procedure that utilizes industry accepted data collection and statistical analysis methods to determine the change in fuel consumption for individual trucks and buses with GVWR of more than 10000 pounds. The test procedure may be conducted on a test track or on a public road under controlled conditions and supported by extensive data collection and data analysis constraints. The on-road test procedure is offered as a lower cost alternative to on-track testing, but the user is cautioned that on-road test may result in lower resolution (or precision) data due to a lack of control over the test environment. Test results that do not rigorously follow the method described herein are not intended for public use and dissemination and shall not be represented as an SAE J1321-Type II test result.