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Technical Paper

Evaluation and simulation of wheel steering functionality on a Road to Rig test bench

2024-07-02
2024-01-3000
The automotive industry is continuously evolving, demanding innovative approaches to enhance testing methodologies and preventive identify potential issues. This paper proposes an advancement test approach in the area of the overall vehicle system included steering system and power train on a “Road to Rig” test bench. The research aims to revolutionize the conventional testing process by identifying faults at an early stage and eliminating the need to rely solely on field tests. The motivation behind this research is to optimize the test bench setup and bring it even closer to real field tests. Key highlights of the publication include the introduction of an expanded load spectrum, incorporating both steering angle and speed parameters along the test track. The load includes different route and driving profiles like on a freeway, overland and city drive in combination with the steering angles.
Technical Paper

Transmission of sound under the influence of various environmental conditions

2024-06-12
2024-01-2933
Electrified vehicles are particularly quiet, especially at low speeds due to the absence of combustion noises. This is why there are laws worldwide for artificial driving sounds to warn pedestrians. These sounds are generated using a so-called Acoustic Vehicle Alerting System (AVAS) which must maintain certain minimum sound pressure levels in specific frequency ranges at low speeds. The creation of the sound currently involves an iterative and sometimes time-consuming process that combines composing the sound on a computer with measuring the levels with a car on an outside noise test track. This continues until both the legal requirements and the subjective demands of vehicle manufacturers are met. To optimize this process and reduce the measurement effort on the outside noise test track, the goal is to replace the measurement with a simulation for a significant portion of the development.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Force Recovery and Response Time using Strain Measurement Sensors in Stress Wave Force Balance

2024-06-01
2024-26-0451
Severe problem of aerodynamic heating and drag force are inherent with any hypersonic space vehicle like space shuttle, missiles etc. For proper design of vehicle, the drag force measurement become very crucial. Ground based test facilities are employed for these estimates along with any suitable force balance as well as sensors. There are many sensors (Accelerometer, Strain gauge and Piezofilm) reported in the literature that is used for evaluating the actual aerodynamic forces over test model in high speed flow. As per previous study, the piezofilm also become an alternative sensor over the strain gauges due to its simple instrumentation. For current investigation, the piezofilm and strain gauge sensors have mounted on same stress force balance to evaluate the response time as well as accuracy of predicted force at the same instant. However, these force balance need to be calibrated for inverse prediction of the force from recorded responses.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Vehicle Response Through Non-Traditional Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking Scenarios

2024-04-09
2024-01-1975
Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (P-AEB) is a technology designed to avoid or reduce the severity of vehicle to pedestrian collisions. This technology is currently assessed and evaluated via EuroNCAP and similar procedures in which a pedestrian test target is crossing the road, walking alongside the road, or stationary in the forward vehicle travel path. While these assessment methods serve the purpose of providing cross-comparison of technology performance in a standardized set of scenarios, there are many scenarios which could occur which are not considered or studied. By identifying and performing non-EuroNCAP, non-standardized scenarios using similar methodology, the robustness of P-AEB systems can be analyzed. These scenarios help identify areas of further development and consideration for future testing programs. Three scenarios were considered as a part of this work: straight line approach, curved path approach, and parking lot testing.
Technical Paper

Closed Track Testing To Assess Prototype Level-3 Autonomous Vehicle Readiness for Public Road Deployment

2024-04-09
2024-01-1976
Most of the Automated Driving Systems (ADS) technology development is targeting urban areas; there is still much to learn about how ADS will impact rural transportation. The DriveOhio team deployed level-3 ADS-equipped prototype vehicles in rural Ohio with the goal of discovering technical challenges for ADS deployment in such environments. However, before the deployment on public roads, it was essential to test the ADS-equipped vehicle for their safety limitations. At Transportation Research Center Inc. (TRC Inc.) proving grounds, we tested one such prototype system on a closed test track with soft targets and robotic platforms as surrogates for other road users. This paper presents an approach to safely conduct testing for ADS prototype and assess its readiness for public road deployment. The main goal of this testing was to identify a safe Operational Design Domain (ODD) of this system by gaining better understanding of the limitations of the system.
Technical Paper

Efficient Fatigue Performance Dominated Optimization Method for Heavy-Duty Vehicle Suspension Brackets under Proving Ground Load

2024-04-09
2024-01-2256
Lightweight design is a key factor in general engineering design practice, however, it often conflicts with fatigue durability. This paper presents a way for improving the effectiveness of fatigue performance dominated optimization, demonstrated through a case study on suspension brackets for heavy-duty vehicles. This case study is based on random load data collected from fatigue durability tests in proving grounds, and fatigue failures of the heavy-duty vehicle suspension brackets were observed and recorded during the tests. Multi-objective fatigue optimization was introduced by employing multiaxial time-domain fatigue analysis under random loads combined with the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II with archives.
Technical Paper

Next Generations of Gasoline Particulate Filters for Catalyzed Applications

2024-04-09
2024-01-2384
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component in Europe, China, and since recently, India, where particulate emissions are based on a particle number (PN) standard. The anticipated evolution of regulations in these regions towards future EU7, CN7, and BS7 standards further enhances the needs with respect to the filtration capabilities of the GPFs used. Emission performance has to be met over a broader range in particle size, counting particles down to 10nm, and over a broader range of boundary conditions. The requirements with respect to pressure drop, aiming for as low as possible, and durability remain similar or are also enhanced further. To address these future needs new filter technologies have been developed. New technologies for uncatalyzed GPF applications have been introduced in our previous publications.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Uncoated Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance for US EPA MY27+ Particulate Mass Emissions Regulation

2024-04-09
2024-01-2383
The gasoline particulate filter (GPF) represents a practical solution for particulate emissions control in light-duty gasoline-fueled vehicles. It is also seen as an essential technology in North America to meet the upcoming US EPA tailpipe emission regulation, as proposed in the “Multi-pollutant Rule for Model Year 2027”. The goal of this study was to introduce advanced, uncoated GPF products and measure their particulate mass (PM) reduction performance within the existing US EPA FTP vehicle testing procedures, as detailed in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 1066. Various state-of-the-art GPF products were characterized for their microstructure properties with lab-bench checks for pressure drop and filtration efficiency, then pre-conditioned with an EPA-recommended 1500 mile on-road break-in, and finally were tested on an AWD vehicle chassis-dyno emissions test cell at both 25°C and -7°C ambient conditions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management System Test Bench for Electric Vehicle Technology

2024-04-09
2024-01-2407
The importance of designing and sizing a thermal management system for electric vehicle powertrains cannot be overstated. Traditional approaches often rely on model-based system design using supplier reference component data, which can inadvertently lead to undisclosed errors arising from the interactions between the components and the environment. This paper introduces a novel test facility for battery electric vehicle thermal management technology, which has been designed for neural network virtual sensor and non-linear multi-in multi-out control development. The paper demonstrates how a digital twin of the test bench can used to support the development of such technology. Additionally, this paper presents preliminary results from the test bench revealing insights into the performance and interactions of key components. For instance, there is an observed 30% reduction in the maximum flow rate of the pump integrated into the test bench compared to the specified value.
Technical Paper

NHTSA’s Evaluation of Glazing Performance Testing

2024-04-09
2024-01-2491
FMVSS No. 205, “Glazing Materials,” uses impact test methods specified in ANSI/SAE Z26.1-1996. NHTSA’s Vehicle Research and Test Center initiated research to evaluate a subset of test methods from ANSI Z26.1-1996 including the 227 gram ball and shot bag impact tests, and the fracture test. Additional research was completed to learn about potential changes to tempered glass strength due to the ceramic paint area (CPA), and to compare the performance of twelve by twelve inch flat samples and full-size production parts. Glass evaluated included tempered rear quarter, sunroof, and backlight glazing. Samples with a paint edge were compared to samples without paint, and to production parts with and without paint in equivalent impact tests. A modified shot bag with stiffened sidewalls was compared to the ANSI standard shot bag. The fracture test comparison included evaluating the ANSI Z26.1 impact location and ECE R43 impact location.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Damper Degradation by Loss of Oil on the Straight Braking Performance of Passenger Cars with ABS

2024-03-19
2024-01-5036
The aim of this study is to determine if the degradation of one or more dampers of a passenger car with ABS leads to a statistically significant reduction of vehicle safety. Therefore, a compact and a mid-size car are tested on a flat test track and on an uneven test track by straight braking maneuvers at different levels of damper degradation. Both test tracks are scanned using a 3D laser scanner. For every level of damper degradation (on each test track) a new set of tires is used, a preconditioning routine is applied and 30 successful measurements are conducted to allow using statistical methods to evaluate the results. The results show that any level of damper degradation with each type of car and test track leads to a significant increase in braking distance and, therefore, to a significant reduction of vehicle safety. The braking distance extension varies heavily with the level of damper degradation and the road properties.
Standard

Automated Driving System Test Facility Safety Practices

2024-03-12
CURRENT
J3247_202403
This SAE Recommended Practice provides guidance for test facilities in identifying potential hazards, and safety risks, along with requirements and recommendations related specifically to testing of automated driving systems (ADS) and ADS-operated vehicles. Herein after, for the purposes of this document, utilization of the term “test facilities” implies those conducting testing of ADS or ADS-operated vehicles, unless otherwise noted. References made to safety within this recommended practice apply only to test method safety and driving safety on and during testing at an ADS test facility and do not apply to vehicle design or safety performance. Safety practices for on-road testing, operation, and related deployment are not covered within this document.
Standard

Accelerated Exposure of Automotive Interior Trim Components Using a Controlled Irradiance Xenon-Arc Apparatus

2024-02-23
CURRENT
J2412_202402
This test method specifies the operating procedures for a controlled-irradiance, xenon-arc apparatus used for the accelerated exposure of various automotive interior trim components. Test duration, as well as any exceptions to the specimen preparation and performance evaluation procedures contained in this document, are covered in material specifications of the different automotive manufacturers. Any deviation to this test method, such as the use of optical filter combinations, is to be agreed upon by contractual parties.
Technical Paper

Cab RLDA Using VI & MI Approach: A Co-Simulation of ADAMS/Acar & FEMFAT Lab VI/MI

2024-01-16
2024-26-0051
The current approach of hybrid RLDA is typically incapable of providing accurate dynamic loads coming on cab at chassis-to-cab load transfer locations, primarily due to the following two reasons. Firstly, all of the model parameters of the vehicle, which is put on the 4-post, are not known. Secondly, MBS (Multi-body System) Cab model is multi degree of freedom with rigid bodies, flex bodies, contacts and non-linear force elements. Therefore, if the system identification is to be performed manually it becomes an arduous and humanly impossible task. Towards generating accurate dynamic loads on cab, an approach using FEMFAT LAB - VI & MI has been developed which involves a two-step process: a) Generating MBS excitation by back calculating from measured frame response – VI (Virtual iterations). b) Fine tuning modelling parameters to match measured cab response – MI (Model Improvement).
Technical Paper

Framework for the Verification & Validation (V&V) of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

2024-01-16
2024-26-0022
Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems play a critical role in ensuring vehicle safety by detecting potential rear-end collisions and automatically applying brakes to mitigate or prevent accidents. This paper focuses on establishing a framework for the Verification & Validation (V&V) of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) by testing & verifying the functionality of a RADAR-based AEB ECU. A comprehensive V&V approach was adopted, incorporating both virtual and physical testing. For virtual testing, closed-loop Hardware-in-Loop (HIL) simulation technique was employed. The AEB ECU was interfaced with the real-time hardware via CAN. Data for the relevant target such as the target position, velocity etc. was calculated using an ideal RADAR sensor model running on the real-time hardware. The methodology involved conducting a series of test scenarios, including various driving speeds, obstacle types, and braking distances.
Technical Paper

Study and Analysis of Dynamic Seat Pressure Distribution by Human Subjects during Vehicle Running State on Test Tracks

2024-01-16
2024-26-0354
The purpose of this study is to conduct dynamic seat pressure mapping on vehicle seats during its operation on different test tracks under ambient environmental conditions for a defined speed. The test track comprises of pave roads, high frequency track, low frequency track and twist track. The variations in pressure distribution on seat during diverse road load inputs help to understand the seat cushion and back comfort for unique percentiles of human subjects ranging from 50th to 95th percentile population. For conducting the study, a sport utility vehicle (SUV) loaded with leatherette seats has chosen. Totally six participants (human subjects), five male and one female selected for the study based on their BMI (Body mass index) and body morphology. Pressure mats suitable for taking dynamic load inputs and able to log the data at a defined sampling rate mounted on seats and secured properly. The pressure mats should cover the seat cushion, bolster areas and back seat completely.
Technical Paper

Engine Modelling with Smart Online DoE

2024-01-16
2024-26-0338
The implementation of TREM/CEV 5 emission norms on farm equipment will bring in cost pressure due to the need for exhaust after treatment systems. This cost increase needs to be reduced by bringing in more efficient and effective processes to shorten the development phase and to provide better fuel efficiencies. In this work ETAS ASCMO Online DoE with Constraint Modelling (ODCM) was applied to execute smart online DoE on a new common rail diesel engine with EGR, whose exact bounds of operation was not available. A Global test plan with ASCMO Static was created without much focus on detailed constraints of engine operation, other than the full load curve. The parameters which were selected were Speed, Torque, Rail Pressure, Main Timing, EGR Valve Position, Pilot Separation and Quantity and Post Quantity and Separation. For these parameters, the safe operating bounds were not available. This ASCMO Static test plan is automated and executed on engine test cell with ETAS INCAFlow.
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