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Technical Paper

Mixture Model Approach for the Study of the Inner Flow Dynamics of an AdBlue Dosing System and the Characterization of the Near-Field Spray

Selective Catalytic Reduction stands for an effective methodology for the reduction of NOx emissions from Diesel engines and meeting current and future EURO standards. For it, the injection of Urea Water Solution (UWS) plays a major role in the process of reducing the NOx emissions. A LES approach for turbulence modelling allows to have a description of the physics which is a very useful tool in situations where experiments cannot be performed. The main objective of this study is to predict characteristics of the flow of interest inside the injector as well as spray morphology in the near field of the spray. For it, the nozzle geometry has been reconstructed from X-Ray tomography data, and an Eulerian-Eulerian approach commonly known as Mixture Model has been applied to study the liquid phase of the UWS with a LES approach for turbulence modeling. The injector unit is subjected to typical low-pressure working conditions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Soot Concentration in a Prototype Multi-Hole Diesel Injector by High-Speed Color Diffused Back Illumination Technique

A prototype multi-hole diesel injector operating with n-heptane fuel from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bar under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution in the fuel jet from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used as a result of the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. The experiments performed in this work used one wavelength provide information about physical of the soot properties, experimental results variating the operational conditions show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in ambient temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in ambient density.
Technical Paper

Assessment on Internal Nozzle Flow Initialization in Diesel Spray Simulations

Proper initial conditions are essential to successfully perform a simulation, especially for highly transient problems such as Diesel spray injection. Until now, no much attention has been paid to the internal nozzle flow initialization because spray simulations are usually decoupled from the nozzle. However, new homogeneous models like Eulerian Spray Atomization (ESA) model allow to simulate the internal nozzle flow and the spray seamlessly. Therefore, the behavior of the spray for the first microseconds is highly influenced by the initial conditions inside the nozzle. Furthermore, last experiments confirm the presence of gas inside the nozzle between successive injections. This work deals with the initialization procedure in a way that mass flow rate and spray penetration curves are well predicted by the model.
Technical Paper

Transient Rate of Injection Effects on Spray Development

Transients in the rate of injection (ROI) with respect to time are ever-present in direct-injection engines, even with common-rail fueling. The shape of the injection ramp-up and ramp-down affects spray penetration and mixing, particularly with multiple-injection schedules currently in practice. Ultimately, the accuracy of CFD model predictions used to optimize the combustion process depends upon the accuracy of the ROI utilized as fuel input boundary conditions. But experimental difficulties in the measurement of ROI, as well as real-world affects that change the ROI from the bench to the engine, add uncertainty that may be mistaken for weaknesses in spray modeling instead of errors in boundary conditions. In this work we use detailed, time-resolved measurements of penetration at the Spray A conditions of the Engine Combustion Network to rigorously guide the necessary ROI shape required to match penetration in jet models that allow variable rate of injection.