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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on Evaporation Characteristics of Fuels for Low Temperature Combustion Engine Application

2020-10-30
2020-32-2317
The combustion and emission formation in the advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) engine strategies are highly sensitive to fuel molecular composition and properties. Ignition timing in LTC is primarily controlled by fuel chemical kinetics and thus, tailoring of fuel properties is required to address its limitations in-terms of lack of control on ignition timing and narrow operating load range. Utilizing fuel blends and additives such as nanoparticles are one of the promising approaches to achieve targeted fuel property. An improved understanding of fundamental processes including fuel evaporation is required owing to its role in fuel-air mixing and thereby emission formation in LTC. In the present work, evaporation characteristics of blends of commercial fuels, viz. gasoline, diesel and alternative fuels, viz. ethanol and butanol are investigated. Further, graphene based nanoadditives at 0.05 wt % in gasoline, diesel and butanol are also investigated.
Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Influences on Brake Pad Wear

2020-10-05
2020-01-1614
To date, no generally valid statements can be made about the service life of brake pads, which may be due to factors such as driving style, the friction material used or the varying vehicle weight. While dynamic friction models including friction history are already established [1], the investigation of wear and wear dust behavior is currently in the focus of many research projects. One example is the inves-tigation of calculation models for brake pad wear while neglecting the temperature development in the brake [2]. In cars, temperatures of up to 800°C occur in the brake under high loads, which leads to a significant increase in wear. Accordingly, the question arises how an estimation of brake pad wear can be applied to highly dynamic load cases. To do this, however, the processes taking place in the boundary layer between pad and disc must first be comprehensively understood and described.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Low-Metals, Non-Petrochemical Coke for Use in Automotive Friction Materials

2020-10-05
2020-01-1603
A study was performed to compare the performance of automotive friction elements, each manufactured with one of two different coke fillers. Coke #1 is a conventional calcined petroleum coke, and coke #2 a proprietary, calcined coke manufactured from a non-petrochemical feedstock. Subject coke materials were fully characterized, physically and chemically. Both coke materials are similar in their respective physical properties, including morphology, hardness, and crush strength. However, there is a significant difference in the trace metal content of the two materials, with coke #1 containing a higher content of sulfur, calcium, iron, nickel, and vanadium than coke #2. Nickel and vanadium are considered potential environmental hazards. Initial friction element evaluation was performed using the J661 Brake Lining Quality Test Procedure (Chase Test). Ultimately each coke material was formulated into two different automotive brake elements.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

2020-09-30
2020-01-1549
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches.
Technical Paper

An Active Safety System Able to Counter Aquaplaning, Integrated With Sensorized Tires, ADAS and 5G Technology for Both Human-Driven and Autonomous Vehicles

2020-09-27
2020-24-0019
Autonomous vehicles must guarantee safety in all road conditions, including driving on wet roads. Aquaplaning (or hydroplaning) is a phenomenon known since the beginning of automotive history, never solved by an active safety system. Currently, no countermeasure system on the market is able to effectively counteract aquaplaning: ABS, ESP or TCS are still inefficient in overcoming this situation. Latest statistical data confirm that the higher percentage of accidents, injuries and deaths are caused by wet road conditions. The aquaplaning happens when the water on the road is too much and the tires start to float causing the instantaneous loss of control. Such phenomenon occurs in human-driven vehicles, with the responsibility of the driver, but in autonomous vehicles (e.g. Level 5), the responsibility for the safety depends on the car and the reduction of the speed is not a solution.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on Biogas Production from Waste Press Mud and Cow Dung under Anaerobic Condition

2020-09-25
2020-28-0467
Anaerobic digestion of textile wastes under mesophilic conditions were conducted in batch mode with aim of investigating the bio-methane evolution with an initial solid mass of cow dung – 2 kg, cotton and water in 3:1 ratio and press mud is use in the ratio 3:1 with water were evaluated subsequently for 7 weeks (42 days).The highest production of biogas is noted as 3 m3 in fourth week and the higher production of biogas due to press mud is noted as 0.49 in the fifth week.Carbon dioxide is produced as bi product in this bio digestion process. Highest production rate of methane,biogas and carbon dioxide are in their fourth week. Through this experiment 65%-75% of bio gas is collected by the fourth week.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hybrid Polyamide Composites for Replacement of Metallic Parts

2020-09-25
2020-28-0423
Over the past few decades, the world is looking for a better replacement option for metals. Polymers with reinforcements are finding their way deep inside in most of the engineering applications because of its lightweight and superior properties. The aim of this study is to investigate hybrid polymer composite polyphthalamide (PPA) reinforced with glass fiber and Poly tetra fluro ethylene. The reinforcement was varied as 10, 20, 30wt. % of Glass Fibre, while the fixed quantity of Poly Tetra Fluro Ethylene (PTFE) as 5wt. % was taken for hybrid composites preparation. The virgin and hybrid composite specimen were prepared under optimal process parametric conditions through the use of injection moulding techniques and test samples were produced as per ASTM standards. The response of physical properties such as density and various Mechanical testing like Hardness, Tensile Strength, and impact strength were carried out and noted.
Standard

Wheels - Lateral Impact Test Procedure - Road Vehicles

2020-09-23
WIP
J175
The SAE Recommended Practice establishes minimum performance requirements and related uniform laboratory test procedures for evaluating lateral (curb) impact collision resistance of all wheels intended for use on passenger cars and light trucks.
Standard

Aftermarket Wheels - Passenger Cars and Light Truck - Performance Requirements and Test Procedures

2020-09-23
WIP
J2530
This SAE Recommended Practice provides performance, sampling, and certifying requirements, test procedures, and marking requirements for aftermarket wheels intended for normal highway use on passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose passenger vehicles. For aftermarket wheels on trailers drawn by passenger cars, light trucks or multipurpose vehicles, see SAE J1204. These performance requirements apply only to wheels made of materials included in Table 1 and Table 2. New nomenclature and terms are added to clarify wheel constructions typically not used in OEM applications. The testing procedures and requirements are based on SAE standards listed in the references.
Standard

Wheels - Passenger Car and Light Truck Performance Requirements and Test Procedures

2020-09-23
WIP
J328
This SAE Recommended Practice provides minimum performance requirements and uniform procedures for fatigue testing of wheels intended for normal highway use and temporary use on passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles. For heavy truck wheels and wheels intended to be used as duals, see SAE J267. For wheels used on trailers drawn by passenger cars, light trucks, or multipurpose vehicles, see SAE J1204. These minimum performance requirements apply only to wheels made of materials included in Tables 1 to 4. The minimum cycles noted in Tables 1 through 4 are to be used on individual test and a sample of tests conducted, with Weibull Statistics using 2 parameter, median ranks, 50% confidence level and 90% reliability, typically noted as B10C50.
Standard

Packing, Preformed - O-Ring Seal, Standard Sizes and Size Codes, Metric

2020-09-22
WIP
MA2010A

This standard provides the standard sizes and side identification codes for preformed packings, elastomeric o-ring seals, for use in metric aerospace fluid systems.

The aerospace o-ring sizes and size identification codes in this standard are in agreement with ISO 3601/1, Series A.

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