Vehicle cybersecurity vulnerabilities could impact a vehicle's safe operation. Therefore, engineers should ensure that systems are designed free of unreasonable risks to motor vehicle safety, including those that may result due to existence of potential cybersecurity vulnerabilities. The automotive industry is making vehicle cybersecurity an organizational priority.
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles.
In recent times, there has been an enormous shift towards automation in Auto as well as Agriculture Industry. Farming is playing an important role in the survival of world. Currently, agricultural industry is facing several challenges. These challenges can be reduced or removed by using automation in the agricultural tools and techniques. Industry 4.0 is the industrial fourth revolution which focused on automations in manufacturing technologies such as cyber physical systems, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and cloud and cognitive computing. The development and improvement of the connectivity between agricultural tools is leading to significant progress in the agricultural practices. Advancement and automation of the technologies with Internet of Things (IoT), replacing traditional agricultural methodologies which causes wide range of improvements in the fields.
Ikshit Shrivastava1, Kiranpreet Singh2 1,2 International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Gurugram, India Introduction: Pass By Noise emitted by the vehicle is one of the most critical tests for certification is vehicle worldwide. There are a number of national and international regulations to define test procedure. Though the available tracks are constructed to meet the requirements of these test standards, but there are other external parameters viz. ambient temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and its direction, affecting the measurements. These parameters are beyond the control of human and this contamination of test data results in longer test time to monitor atmospheric/ambient conditions and perform the test. Indoor pass-by noise testing is a comparatively new method of testing, which is yet to be evaluated for repeatability/correlation with conventional exterior pass-by noise testing.
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings.
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas aftertreatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost-efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented or simulated vehicle concepts for light duty gasoline and diesel powertrains.
Rubber – a loosely cross-linked network of polymer chains that when strained to high levels will forcibly return to at or near it original dimensions. This course is designed to provide the participant with a thorough understanding of rubber’s engineering characteristics. This class will introduce the various sources of rubber, both natural and synthetic. The class will contrast the differences between rubber and plastics; including thermoplastic rubber. Detailed discussions on how to select the correct rubber polymer for the application, highlighting the pros and cons of each major rubber type.
Intermittence occurs randomly in time, place, amplitude and duration. The very nature of the failure mode suggests that the ability to detect and further isolate the intermittence root cause is based on detection SENSITIVITY and PROBABILITY rather than conventional methods concentrating on ohmic measurement accuracy. Simply put, you can’t detect an intermittent event until it occurs, and then you might have limited opportunities to catch it on the specific circuit when it does. Trying to measure fractions of a milliohm, scanning one circuit at a time, is ineffective for this particular failure mode. In this paper we will outline the problem of intermittence and its testing difficulties. More importantly, we will describe the unique equipment and process which has produced overwhelming success in Intermittence / NFF resolution and MTBF extension.
One Low-copper formulation and one Copper-free formulation were made into disc pad, and both of them were cured under 4 different conditions. These pads had no backing layer and no scorched layer. Pad thickness, dynamic modulus and natural frequencies were continuously monitored over a period of 12 months. After 12 months at room temperature, pad thickness, dynamic modulus and natural frequencies all increased to higher values. The Low-copper formulation increased rapidly during the first 60 days and the Copper-free formulation increased rapidly for the first 90 days, and then slowly thereafter. Two competing processes are found to be taking place; internal stress relief leading to expansion and cross-linking of the resin leading to shrinkage. As the pad properties are changing continuously, the timing of property measurement becomes an important issue for quality assurance.
Automotive brakes operate under varying conditions of speed and deceleration. In other words, the friction material is subjected to a wide range of normal loads and sliding speeds. One widely accepted test procedure to evaluate, compare and screen friction materials is the SAE J2522 Brake Effectiveness test, which requires full-size production brakes to be tested on an inertia brake dynamometer. For the current investigation, disc pads of two types of 10 different formulations (5 high-copper and 5 copper-free formulations) were prepared for testing on a front disc brake suitable for a pickup truck of GVW 3,200 kg. Each pad had 2 vertical slots, and one chamfer on the leading edge and also on the trailing edge of the pad. One segment of the test procedure looks at the coefficient of friction (Mu) under different brake line pressures and different sliding speeds to determine its stability or variability.
Graphite plays a crucial role in friction materials, since it has good thermal conductivity, lubricity and act as a friction modifier. The right type, amount, shape and size of the particles control the performance of the brake-pads. In this study, particles of synthetic graphite produced in a unique highly controlled graphitization process were selected to develop NAO- Cu-free brake-pads. The four types of pads had identical composition except variation in average particle size of the graphite (60 µm, 120 µm, 200 µm and 400 µm). Physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of the developed brake-pads was done. Tribological performance was studied using a full- scale inertia brake dynamometer following a Japanese automobile testing standard (JASO C406) and noise studies were done on reduced scale prototype following SAE J2521 standard.
Heavy truck brake blocks are found to swell (or expand) permanently during testing or usage, especially so at high temperatures, thus leading to longer durability as measured by thickness loss, similar to light vehicle disc pads. This swelling phenomenon occurs continuously in the layer adjacent to the friction surface during testing or usage; not a one time event. The thickness loss estimated from the weight loss is always greater than measured thickness loss. Brake block wear does not increase linearly with increasing normal load, and the load-sensitivity of block wear is very much dependent on the products. A new test procedure has been developed for generating friction-vs.-temperature and wear-vs.-temperature data at a constant temperature employing intermittent braking on the Chase Brake Lining Quality Tester (SAE J661) and friction material wear can be compared on equivalent-work basis.
Particulate Matter from Euro 6 Medium Duty diesel engine was analyzed from engine-out, downstream of particulate filter (DPF), and up to the exit of a selective catalytic reactor (SCR) to characterize its chemical and physical nature. Particular attention was devoted to the analysis of particles down to 23 nm. An array of chemical, physical and spectroscopic techniques (Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), mobility analyzer, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy) was applied for characterizing the organic particulate matter (PM, constituted of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), heavy aromatic compounds, soot) in the exhaust. The engine was operated at “full-load” (100% of the total power, representing the best performance of the engine operation) condition, and at different engine speeds. Results showed that the DPF efficiency was greater than 96% in the reduction of the sub 23 nm particles across the speeds range.
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Due to their rapid market introduction, extensive field experience with GPFs is not yet available. Especially for four-way catalytic converters, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. In the first part of the paper, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Since most of the ash accumulated in the filter results from the combustion of lubricating oil additives, a burner test bench with a purpose-designed oil injection system was chosen for the investigations. The analysis of the backpressure results show that, contrary to high soot loadings, the ash load has a relatively low impact on engine performance and fuel consumption.
The transient heat transfer behavior of a real size automotive catalytic reactor has been simulated with OpenFOAM in 1D. The model takes into consideration the gas-solid convective heat transfer, axial wall conduction and heat capacity effects in the solid phase, but also the chemical reactions of CO and C3H6 oxidations, based on simplified Arrhenius and Langmuir-Hinshelwood approaches. The associated parameters have been chosen based on the tuning of experimental data. The impact of different initial catalytic converter temperatures, inlet flow temperatures and inlet flow rates have been quantified, even in terms of overall cumulative emissions. . A dimensional analysis is proposed and dimensionless temperature difference and space-time coordinate are defined. Using this suitably modified coordinates, for the case of negligible axial solid conduction, computed solid temperature at the reactor outlet lay on the typical S-curve.
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
This specification covers a butyl rubber in the form of molded rings, compression seals, o-ring cord, and molded-in-place gaskets for aeronautical and aerospace applications. As AMS3238 is no longer valid for O-rings. For O-rings, the requirements of AMS7338 shall be met wherever AMS3238 is specified.