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Technical Paper

Thoraco-Abdominal Deflection Responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates in Side Impacts

The objective of the present study was to determine the thorax and abdomen deflections sustained by post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) in oblique side impact sled tests and compare the responses and injuries with pure lateral tests. Oblique impact tests were conducted using modular and non-modular load-wall designs, with the former capable of accommodating varying anthropometry. Tests were conducted at 6.7 m/s velocity. Deflection responses from chestbands were analyzed from 15 PMHS tests: five each from modular load-wall oblique, non-modular load-wall oblique and non-modular load-wall pure lateral impacts. The thorax and abdomen peak deflections were greater in non-modular load-wall oblique than pure lateral tests. Peak abdomen deflections were statistically significantly different while the upper thorax deflections demonstrated a trend towards significance.
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Restrained PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests: Skeletal Deformation Patterns Under Seat Belt Loading

This study evaluated the response of restrained post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in 40 km/h frontal sled tests. Eight male PMHS were restrained on a rigid planar seat by a custom 3-point shoulder and lap belt. A video motion tracking system measured three-dimensional trajectories of multiple skeletal sites on the torso allowing quantification of ribcage deformation. Anterior and superior displacement of the lower ribcage may have contributed to sternal fractures occurring early in the event, at displacement levels below those typically considered injurious, suggesting that fracture risk is not fully described by traditional definitions of chest deformation. The methodology presented here produced novel kinematic data that will be useful in developing biofidelic human models.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Traumatic Brain Injuries Using the Next Generation of Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) Finite Element Head Model

The objective of this study was to investigate potential for traumatic brain injuries (TBI) using a newly developed, geometrically detailed, finite element head model (FEHM) within the concept of a simulated injury monitor (SIMon). The new FEHM is comprised of several parts: cerebrum, cerebellum, falx, tentorium, combined pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) with cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), ventricles, brainstem, and parasagittal blood vessels. The model's topology was derived from human computer tomography (CT) scans and then uniformly scaled such that the mass of the brain represents the mass of a 50th percentile male's brain (1.5 kg) with the total head mass of 4.5 kg. The topology of the model was then compared to the preliminary data on the average topology derived from Procrustes shape analysis of 59 individuals. Material properties of the various parts were assigned based on the latest experimental data.
Technical Paper

Assessment of 3 and 6-Year-Old Neck Injury Criteria Based on Field Investigation, Modeling, and Sled Testing

The intent of this study was to compare the neck responses measured from the Hybrid III 3 and 6-year-old ATDs in laboratory testing to injuries sustained by three children in a field crash and investigate the appropriateness of recommended in-position neck injury assessment reference values (IARVs), and the regulated out-of-position (OOP) IARVs specified in FMVSS 208 for the Hybrid III 3 and 6-year-old ATDs. This paper principally reports on apparent artifacts associated with the Hybrid III 3 and 6-year-old ATDs, which complicated investigating the appropriateness of the in-position and out-of-position neck IARVs. In tests using 3-point belt restraints, these apparent artifacts included: 1) High neck extension moments, which produced the peak Nij values, without significant observed relative head-to-neck motion, 2) Neck tension forces well in excess of the IARVs that occurred when the ATD's chin contacted the chest.
Technical Paper


Concern about crash conditions other than frontal and side crashes has accelerated restraint development with respect to rollover events. Previous analysis of rollover field data indicates the high probability of ejection and consequent serious injury or death to unbelted occupants. Partial ejection of belted occupants may also occur. Restraint development has focused on belt technologies and more recently, airbag systems as a method to reduce ejection and injury risk. Effective restraint development for these emerging technologies should consider a combined approach of field injury data analysis, computer simulation of rollover, corresponding validated test data and hardware development techniques. First, crash data was analyzed for identified rollover modes (crash sequences) and injured body regions. This helped to determine possible restraint interventions.