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Training / Education

Aviation Parts to Medical Devices Bridging the Gap

2021-06-15
This one-day program is designed to provide introductory information for those organizations who are considering transitioning from the Aeronautic, Space and Defense industry to the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), Medical Device Manufacturing market. Reviewing essential information necessary to understand and successfully begin the journey to FDA Medical Device approval, this course will examine many of the controls between the AS9100 Standard and FDA Regulations and identify the similarities.
Technical Paper

Drivers’ Responses to Lead Vehicles: Thresholds for triggering an emergency response, Age Differences, Crash Risks, and Influence of Secondary Task Engagement

2021-04-06
2021-01-0898
Analyses of driver response time studies, fatal crash statistics, and data obtained from the Second Strategic Highway Research Program [SHRP2] naturalistic drivers were utilized determine, 1. Could all rear-end crash types be analyzed as one crash type, 2. What were the braking thresholds for drivers, and 3. What influence cell phone usage has on drivers’ response times? There are two distinct lead vehicle [LV] response time events: LV platoon (two vehicles traveling together in close proximity) and LV looming (a vehicle approaching a stopped or much slower LV). Platoon LV events were very common, but resulted in very few crashes per exposure. Young drivers were over-involved when they did occur. Onset was when the LV decelerated, and drivers began braking roughly 5 seconds before impact. These results were consistent with the braking thresholds by naturalistic drivers in congested traffic, as well as the CAMP test-track research.
Technical Paper

Incidence and Mechanism of Head, Cervical Spine, Lumbar Spine, and Lower Extremity Injuries for Occupants in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal Collisions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0902
Automotive accidents and subsequent personal injury claims incur significant costs annually. While three-point restraint usage has become more ubiquitous and governmentally mandated for front seat occupants, occupant safety and injury risk assessment in frontal collisions continue to be at the forefront of automotive innovation. In this study, we combined statistical analyses of nine years (2007-2015) of data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database and one year (2017) of data from the Crash Investigation Sampling System (CISS) database with data acquired from vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests conducted with instrumented anthropomorphic test device (ATD) occupants in order to compare and relate field injury rates with potential mechanisms underlying head, cervical spine, lumbar spine, and lower extremity injuries in low-to moderate-speed frontal collisions.
Technical Paper

Incidence and Mechanism of Head, Cervical Spine, and Lumbar Spine Injuries for Occupants in Low- to Moderate-Speed Rear-End Collisions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0900
Automotive accidents and subsequent personal injury claims incur significant costs annually. While seat and head restraint design continue to evolve and improve, occupant safety and injury risk assessment in rear-end collisions remain at the forefront of automotive innovation. In this study, we combined statistical analyses of nine years (2007-2015) of data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database and one year (2017) of data from the Crash Investigation Sampling System (CISS) database with data acquired from vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests conducted with instrumented anthropomorphic test device (ATD) occupants in order to compare and relate field injury rates with potential mechanisms underlying head, cervical spine, and lumbar spine injuries in low-to moderate-speed rear-end collisions.
Technical Paper

Design and Aerodynamic Analysis of Pesticide Spraying Drone

2021-04-06
2021-01-0809
In the present era Adding Technology and Innovations in Agriculture will help in increasing crop productivity. The motive to use development in Agriculture is not only to increase productivity but also to take care of our Farmers and Future Generations and one such way to achieve it is by using Agricultural Drones. The production rate of crops in agriculture is based on various parameters like temperature, humidity, rain, etc. which are natural factors and are not in farmer’s control. The field of agriculture also depends on some other factors like pests, disease, fertilizers, etc. which can be controlled by giving proper treatment to crops. Pesticides may increase the productivity of crops but they also affect human health. The WHO (World Health Organization) estimated as one million cases of ill effected when spraying the pesticides in the crop filed manually. Agriculture drone can be used as a form of Precision Agriculture by managing to spray the fertilizer as per requirement.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Alcohol-Impaired Driving on Vehicle Dynamic Control of Steering, Braking and Acceleration Behaviours in Female Drivers

2021-04-06
2021-01-0859
Road traffic accidents resulting from alcohol-impaired driving are increasing globally despite several measures, currently in place, to curb the trend. Current prevention measures only detect intoxication after the accident has occurred. For this reason, recent research aims at integrating alcohol early-detection systems which will identify intoxicated drivers and prevent them from moving the vehicle. However, driving simulator experiments on drunk driving have focused mostly on male participants than female drivers whose characteristics have scarcely been explored. Hence in this paper, vehicle dynamic control inputs on steering, braking, and acceleration performance of 75 licensed female drivers with an upshot of alcohol at four different blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels (0%, 0.03%, 0.05%, and 0.08%) were investigated. The participants completed simulated driving in a fixed-based simulator experiment coupled with real-time ecological scenarios to extract discrete responses.
Technical Paper

Optimizing of an Electric Bus Frame Orienting the Side-Impact Safety and Lightweight Based on a Surrogate Model

2021-04-06
2021-01-0846
The body strength, stiffness and impact strength are the key aspects for the lightweight design of the commercial bus frame. One of the critical issues by the Finite Element (FE) method to accomplish a high-efficient multi-objective optimizing design is the heavy computation cost. Starting from this point, in this paper, we use a surrogate model to optimize an electric bus body frame orienting the side-impact strength and lightweight. The optimizing objectives are the total mass and side-impact invasion displacement and the performance of static strength and stiffness in bending and twist conditions are the constraints during optimization. First, a FE model is developed for the analysis of static strength, modal performance and side impact.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Impact Analysis of Side Swipe and Minor Overlap Conditions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0881
This paper presents analyses of 21 real-world pedestrian versus vehicle collisions that were video recorded from vehicle dash mounted cameras or surveillance footage. These pedestrian collisions have in common an impact configuration where the pedestrian is at the side of the vehicle, or with a minimal overlap at the front corner of the vehicle (less than 1-foot overlap). These impacts would not be considered frontal impacts [Ravani, 1981], and as a result determining the speed of the vehicle by existing methods that incorporate the pedestrian travel distance post impact, or by assessing vehicle damage, would not be applicable. This research examines the specific interaction of non-frontal, side-impact, and minimal overlap pedestrian impact configurations to assess the relationship between the speed of the vehicle at impact, the motion of the pedestrian before and after impact and the associated post impact travel distances.
Technical Paper

Vehicle automation emergency scenario: using a driving simulator to assess the impact of hand and foot placement on reaction time

2021-04-06
2021-01-0861
As vehicles with SAE level 2 of autonomy get further deployed, they still rely on the human driver to monitor the driving task and take control in case of an emergency. It is therefore necessary to examine the Human Factors at play on a driver’s ability to recognize and react to a dangerous situation when the autonomous system abruptly requests human intervention. This research used a driving simulator to introduce the concept of level 2 autonomy to a cohort of 60 drivers (male: 48%, female: 52%) of different age groups (teens 16 to 19: 32%, adults: 35 to 54: 37%, seniors 65+: 32%). Participants were surveyed for their perspectives on self-driving vehicles. They were then assessed on a driving simulator that mimicked SAE level 2 of autonomy. Participants’ interaction with the HMI was studied. A real life scenario was programmed so that a request to intervene was issued when automation reached its boundaries while navigating a 2 way curve road (TTC = 2.2 seconds).
Technical Paper

Human Body Orientation from 2D Images

2021-04-06
2021-01-0082
This work presents a method to estimate the human body orientation using 2D images from a person view; the challenge comes from the variety of human body poses and appearances. The method utilizes OpenPose neural network as a human pose detector module and depth sensing module. The modules work together to extract the body orientation from 2D stereo images. OpenPose is proven to be efficient in detecting human body joints, defined by COCO dataset, OpenPose can detect the visible body joints without being affected by backgrounds or other challenging factors. Adding the depth data for each point can produce rich information to the process of 3D construction for the detected humans. This 3D point’s setup can tell more about the body orientation and walking direction for example. The depth module used in this work is the ZED camera stereo system which uses CUDA for high performance depth computation.
Technical Paper

Evaluate the effect of seat back restriction on head, neck and torso responses of front seat occupants when subjected to a moderate speed rear-impact

2021-04-06
2021-01-0920
During rear impacts, the front seats may rotate rearward due to occupant and seat momentum change leading to possibly large deformation of the seatback or even loss of occupant retention relative to the seat. One possible way of limiting this may be by introducing a structure that would restrict large rotations or deformations, however, such a structure would change the front seat occupant kinematics and kinetics. The goal of this study was to understand the influence of seat back restriction on head, neck and torso responses of front seat occupants when subjected to a moderate speed rear-impact. This was done by simulating a rear impact scenario with a delta-V of 37 km/h using LS-Dyna, with the GHBMC M50 occupant model and a manufacturer provided seat model. The study included two parts, the first part was to identify worst case scenarios using the simplified GHBMC M50-OS, and the second part was to further investigate the identified scenarios using the detailed GHBMC M50-O.
Technical Paper

Research on Photobiological Safety of Automotive Active Infrared Detection System

2021-04-06
2021-01-0072
The automotive active infrared detection system is usually applied to the night driver assistance system or the diver attention monitoring system. However, the infrared light emitted by the active infrared detection system can cause damage to retina, cornea and eye crystals. This paper has studied the photobiological safety of the infrared light source used in the automotive active infrared detection system. Although it has been already have the general requirements of photobiological safety in international standards, there is not any requirements for active infrared detection system. The range of the active infrared detection system depends on the radiation intensity of the infrared light source, but too much radiation intensity will cause harm to retina, cornea and eye lens when the infrared light source is too close to eyes.
Technical Paper

Child restraint systems (CRS) with minor installation incompatibilities in far side impacts

2021-04-06
2021-01-0915
Side impacts are disproportionately injurious for children compared to other crash types. Far side impacts allow for substantial translation and rotation of child restraint systems (CRS) because the CRS does not typically interact with any adjacent structures. The goal of this study is to determine whether minor installation incompatibilities between CRS and vehicle seats cause safety issues in far side crashes. Four non-ideal CRS installation conditions were compared against control conditions with good fit. Two repetitions of each condition were run. The conditions tested were: 1) rear-facing (RF) CRS installed with pool noodle to create proper recline angle, 2) RF CRS with narrow base, 3) forward-facing (FF) CRS with gap behind back near seat bight (i.e., vehicle seat angle too acute for CRS), 4) FF CRS with gap behind back near top of CRS (i.e., vehicle seat angle too obtuse for CRS). Second row captain’s chairs were set up at 10° anterior of lateral.
Technical Paper

A visual-vestibular model to predict motion sickness response in passengers of autonomous vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0104
In this paper, we present a model to predict motion sickness in passengers of autonomous vehicles (AV), the associated model parameters, and the mathematical and physiological justification for selecting these parameters. This model integrates models of vestibular sensory dynamics, visually perceived motion, and visual-vestibular interactions to determine the corresponding conflict between the sensed and true vertical orientation of the passenger, which is used to estimate motion sickness (MS) response. In addition to perceived motion, the model can simulate the influence of multiple factors on motion sickness, such as passenger gaze and field of view, and task performance. Multiple models to estimate motion sickness have been proposed in the literature, however, few if any, provide the capability mentioned above and have shown limited ability to predict MS that closely matches experimental motion sickness data especially at low frequencies.
Technical Paper

A Method of Filter Implementation Using Heterogeneous Computing System for Driver Health Monitoring

2021-04-06
2021-01-0103
Research in any field of study requires analysis and comparisons or real-time prediction to extract useful information. To prove that the results have practical potential, outstanding filtering techniques and methodologies should be designed and implemented. Filters being a class of signal processing helps innovate new technologies with various kinds of outcomes, using filters there are always various ways to solve a problem. Considering the current COVID-19 situation, researchers are working on sequencing the novel coronavirus and the genomes of people afflicted with COVID-19 using CPU’s and GPU’s along with various filtering techniques. In this paper we are using a method of filter implementation to collect raw heart rate data samples from fingertip and ear lobe and process those results on CPU’s and GPU’s. Our method of implementation to collect raw heart rate data is using a photoplethysmography method.
Technical Paper

Development converting position seat for reduction fatigue of rear seat passenger

2021-04-06
2021-01-0863
The purpose of this study is to apply optimal posture for reduction of body fatigue of automobile rear seat passenger. The focus was on the fact that if only the back angle was changed in the seated state, the lower back would push out the waist, causing back pain. If the passenger changes the seatback angle, the cushion angle changes simultaneously. SUV’s Rear Seat has many variant functions because of the Customers Requirement for utility of seat variations. In the optimal posture, rear seat passenger gets positive effects of improvement blood flow in part of back and hip through dispersed body pressure distribution more widely and alleviate pains and tingling. In addition, it could also be a direction of passenger posture as autonomous technology advances. Finally this study suggest many mechanisms for making suitable posture by SUV’s seat.
Technical Paper

A Study on Functional Safety, SOTIF and RSS from the Perspective of Human-Automation Interaction

2021-04-06
2021-01-0858
As perhaps the primary conduit of the physical expression of human freedom of movement, transportation in its various forms plays a critical role in human society. The availability of ready transport has shaped the fabric, infrastructure, and, to some degree, even the culture of whole human society. Now, automated driving technology is promising a safe, efficient, and productive life to humans by relieving human driver from active driving tasks in the context of road transportation system. However, recent high-profile crashes, e.g. fatalities involving automated driving system like Uber test autonomous vehicle or Tesla car, have undermined the automated-driving promise of enhanced safety. Still, safety standards like ISO 26262 and several others in-development are expected to mitigate the risk resulting from automated driving technology.
Technical Paper

The Role of Seat Belt Restraint System Components in Rear-End Collisions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0912
The role of seat back strength on occupant motion during rear-end collisions has been a focus of scientific investigation for decades. Despite being an integral component of the occupant restraint system, the role of seat belt restraints and the potential effect of various seat belt restraint system components, like pretensioners and latch plate design, on occupant motion and injury potential during rear-end collisions has received less attention. This study identifies and highlights what is currently understood about the role of seat belt restraints and components in rear-end collisions from the existing literature in detail for the first time. Previous studies that have investigated the role of pre-tensioning in occupant motion and loading did not provide detailed assessments of pre-tensioning effects on webbing loads and displacement, nor did they discuss the relationship between pre-tensioner deployment and latch plate design.
Technical Paper

Bicycle GPS Systems Positional Accuracy

2021-04-06
2021-01-0878
Increasingly, bicycle riders are utilizing bicycle computers or cell phones equipped with GPS positioning to track and share their rides. These bicycle computers and online platforms can contain a lot of ride specific information such as speed, location, heart rate, pedaling cadence and more. This information can be essential to forensic experts attempting to analyze bicycle movements and reconstruct accidents involving bicycles. Currently, there has not been any research specifically discussing the positional accuracy of GPS systems for bicycles. The purpose of this study is to examine the lateral positional accuracy of several GPS units in real world environments, including rural landscape, residential neighborhoods as well as dense urban settings.
Technical Paper

Particle Number Emissions Evaluation for Conventional SI, Low-pressure Loop EGR, and D-EGR Combustion Strategies

2021-04-06
2021-01-0485
The size and distribution of engine-out particulate emissions from an engine can have a strong impact on human health. Especially if the particle size is small enough to enter the human respiratory system. Injection of gasoline fuel directly in the SI engine combustion chamber can create harmful particulate emissions. This study aimed to compare the particulate emissions of three combustion strategies in a SI engine; conventional SI, conventional EGR, and dedicated – EGR (D-EGR). In this study, it was shown that the engine-out particle number for both the EGR strategies was lower than the conventional SI combustion, a significant result. Four test conditions were investigated. The conditions were chosen to represent the most frequently operated regimes on the engine speed-load map per a drive-cycle analysis. It was also observed that the particle number measurements were not repeatable due to their high sensitivity to engine inlet conditions.
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