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Training / Education

Aviation Parts to Medical Devices Bridging the Gap

2021-06-15
This one-day program is designed to provide introductory information for those organizations who are considering transitioning from the Aeronautic, Space and Defense industry to the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), Medical Device Manufacturing market. Reviewing essential information necessary to understand and successfully begin the journey to FDA Medical Device approval, this course will examine many of the controls between the AS9100 Standard and FDA Regulations and identify the similarities.
Technical Paper

Low-Speed Autonomous Shuttles – Lessons Learned from Real-World Implementation

2021-04-15
2021-01-1010
Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAV) are being deployed in various scenarios to enhance mobility for a wide variety of transportation users. Current applications include providing last-mile connectivity between rider origins/destinations and fixed transit stops, and as circulating shuttles in areas such as business districts, military bases, parking lots, and theme parks. Their low access height, integration of self-deploying wheelchair ramps, and high levels of automation also provide opportunities for improved mobility for those with physical or cognitive challenges. LSAVs are typically highly automated battery-electric vehicles that transport up to eight passengers at speeds below 15 MPH on predefined and previously mapped routes. An attendant/operator may also be present during operation depending upon manufacturer and service provider policies, state and federal regulations, operational conditions and route complexity, and the specific assistive needs of prospective riders.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Automation Emergency Scenario: Using a Driving Simulator to Assess the Impact of Hand and Foot Placement on Reaction Time

2021-04-06
2021-01-0861
As vehicles with SAE level 2 of autonomy become more widely deployed, they still rely on the human driver to monitor the driving task and take control during emergencies. It is therefore necessary to examine the Human Factors affecting a driver’s ability to recognize and execute a steering or pedal action in response to a dangerous situation when the autonomous system abruptly requests human intervention. This research used a driving simulator to introduce the concept of level 2 autonomy to a cohort of 60 drivers (male: 48%, female: 52%) of different age groups (teens 16 to 19: 32%, adults: 35 to 54: 37%, seniors 65+: 32%). Participants were surveyed for their perspectives on self-driving vehicles. They were then assessed on a driving simulator that mimicked SAE level 2 of autonomy. Participants’ interaction with the HMI was studied.
Technical Paper

A Method of Filter Implementation Using Heterogeneous Computing System for Driver Health Monitoring

2021-04-06
2021-01-0103
Research in any field of study requires analysis and comparisons or real-time predictions to extract useful information. To prove that the results have practical potential, various filtering techniques and methodologies should be designed and implemented. Filters being a class of signal processing helps innovate new technologies with various kinds of outcomes, using filters there are always various methods to solve a problem. Considering the current COVID-19 situation, researchers are working on sequencing the novel coronavirus and the genomes of people afflicted with COVID-19 using CPUs and GPUs along with various filtering techniques. In this paper we are using a method of filter implementation to collect raw heart rate data samples from fingertip and ear lobe and process those results on CPUs and GPUs. Our method of implementation to collect raw heart rate data is using a photoplethysmography method.
Technical Paper

Infrastructure Camera Video Data Processing of Traffic at Roundabouts

2021-04-06
2021-01-0165
Roundabout is a unique approach of managing traffic at intersections because it relies on driver’s instincts of safety. Roundabouts are considered safer than other ways of intersection traffic management due to low speed limits, smoother merging, and reduced fatal accidents. Despite their benefits and increasing usage, there is lack of clear understanding of the roundabouts, particularly due to scarcity of data and simulation models and the complexity of the structure. Real-time and offline traffic data recorded at a roundabout provides a basis for 1) identification of the safety issues, 2) understanding unexpected and risky driver behavior, 3) proposing potential mobility solutions, and 4) developing simulation models. The processed data may be used in controlling metered roundabouts, communicating with connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) etc. In this paper an approach to obtain useful traffic information from video feed data at a roundabout is presented.
Technical Paper

Tanker Truck Rollover Avoidance Using Learning Reference Governor

2021-04-06
2021-01-0256
Tanker trucks are commonly used for transporting liquid material including chemical and petroleum products. On the one hand, tanker trucks are susceptible to rollover accidents due to the high center of gravity when they are loaded and due to the liquid sloshing effects when the tank is partially filled. On the other hand, tanker truck rollover accidents are among the most dangerous vehicle crashes, frequently resulting in serious to fatal driver injuries and significant property damage, because the liquid cargo is often hazardous and flammable. Therefore, effective schemes for tanker truck rollover avoidance are highly desirable and can bring a considerable amount of societal benefit. Yet, the development of such schemes is challenging, as tanker trucks can operate in various environments and be affected by manufacturing variability, aging, degradation, etc. This paper considers the use of Learning Reference Governor (LRG) for tanker truck rollover avoidance.
Technical Paper

Protecting Passenger Vehicles from Side Underride with Heavy Trucks

2021-04-06
2021-01-0288
Impacts between passenger vehicles and heavy vehicles are uniquely severe due to the aggressivity of the heavy vehicles; this is a function of the difference in their geometry and mass. Side crashes with heavy vehicles are a particularly severe crash type due to the mismatch in bumper/structure height that often results in underride and extensive intrusion of the passenger compartment. Underride occurs when a portion of one vehicle, usually the smaller vehicle, moves under another, rendering many of the passenger vehicle safety systems ineffective. Heavy vehicles in the US, including single-unit trucks, truck tractors, semi-trailers, and full trailers, are currently not required to have side underride protection devices. The NTSB, among other groups, has recommended that side underride performance standards be developed and that heavy vehicles be equipped with side underride protection systems that meet those standards.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Voice Biometrics for Identification and Authentication

2021-04-06
2021-01-0262
The work presented here is part of the research done in the field of voice biometrics. This paper helps to understand the state-of-the-art in speaker recognition technology potentially capable of solving challenges related to speaker identification (to identify a speaker among multiple speakers) and speaker verification/authentication (to recognize the current speaking person at a pre-defined access level and authenticate accordingly). The research was focused on performing an unbiased evaluation of two individual voice biometric services. The level of accuracy in identifying and authenticating individuals using these services provides an insight into the current state of technology and the state of what other dual authentication methods could be used to achieve a desired True Acceptance Rate (TAR) and False Acceptance Rates (FAR).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Alcohol-Impaired Driving on Vehicle Dynamic Control of Steering, Braking and Acceleration Behaviors in Female Drivers

2021-04-06
2021-01-0859
Road traffic accidents resulting from alcohol-impaired driving are increasing globally despite several measures, currently in place, to curb the trend. For this reason, recent research aims at integrating alcohol early-detection systems and driving simulator experiments to identify intoxicated drivers. However, driving simulator experiments on drunk driving have focused mostly on male participants than female drivers whose characteristics have scarcely been explored. Hence in this paper, vehicle dynamic control inputs on steering, braking, and acceleration performance of 75 licensed female drivers with an upshot of alcohol at four different blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels (0%, 0.03%, 0.05%, and 0.08%) were investigated. The participants completed simulated driving in a fixed-based simulator experiment coupled with real-time ecological scenarios to extract discrete responses.
Technical Paper

Bicycle GPS Positional Accuracy

2021-04-06
2021-01-0878
Bicycle riders increasingly utilize bicycle computers or cell phones equipped with GPS positioning to track and share their rides. These bicycle computers and online platforms typically contain a wealth of ride-specific information, such as speed, location, heart rate, pedaling cadence, and more. This information can be essential to forensic experts attempting to analyze bicycle movements in order to reconstruct bicycle crashes. However, there has been little research specifically discussing the positional accuracy of GPS systems for bicycles to date. The purpose of this study is to examine the positional accuracy of several GPS units in real-world environments, including rural landscape and dense urban settings. The location data from portable GPS devices were compared to reference data recorded by a Racelogic VBox 3i with Real Time Kinematic (RTK).
Technical Paper

Study of the Measurement of Generation 2 Toyota Event Data Recorders in Low-Speed Side Impacts

2021-04-06
2021-01-0904
Automotive Event Data Recorders (EDRs) are often utilized to determine or validate the severity of vehicle collisions. Several studies have been conducted to determine the accuracy of the longitudinal change in velocity (ΔV) reported by vehicle EDRs. However, little has been published regarding the measurement of EDRs that are capable of reporting lateral ΔVs in low-speed collisions. In this study, two 2007 Toyota Camrys with 04EDR ECU Generation modules (GEN2) were each subjected to several vehicle-to-vehicle lateral impacts. The impact angles ranged from approximately 45 to 135 degrees and the stationary target vehicles were impacted at the frontal, central, and rear aspects of both the driver and passenger sides. The impact locations on the bullet vehicles were the front and rear bumpers and the impact speeds ranged from approximately 7.9 to 16.1 km/h.
Technical Paper

Incidence and Mechanisms of Head, Cervical Spine, Lumbar Spine, and Lower Extremity Injuries for Occupants in Low- to Moderate-Speed Rear-End Collisions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0900
Automotive accidents and subsequent personal injury claims incur substantial costs annually. While seat and head restraint design continue to evolve and improve, occupant safety and injury risk assessment in rear-end collisions remain at the forefront of automotive innovation. In this study, we combined statistical analyses of nine years (2007-2015) of data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database and one year (2017) of data from the Crash Investigation Sampling System (CISS) database with data acquired from vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests conducted with instrumented anthropomorphic test device (ATD) occupants. Together, these analyses were used to compare and relate field injury rates with potential mechanisms underlying head, cervical spine, lumbar spine, and lower extremity injuries in low-to moderate-speed rear-end collisions.
Technical Paper

Incidence and Mechanism of Head, Cervical Spine, Lumbar Spine, and Lower Extremity Injuries for Occupants in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal Collisions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0902
Automotive accidents and subsequent personal injury claims incur substantial costs annually. While three-point restraint usage, dual-stage airbags, and knee bolster and side curtain airbags have become more ubiquitous and, in some cases, governmentally mandated for front seat occupants, occupant safety and injury risk assessment continue to be at the forefront of automotive innovation. In this study, we combined analyses of the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS; 2007-2015) and the Crash Investigation Sampling System (CISS; 2017) with data acquired from vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests conducted with instrumented anthropomorphic test device (ATD) occupants. Together, these analyses were used to compare and relate field injury rates with potential injury mechanisms in low- to moderate-speed frontal collisions.
Technical Paper

Development and Calibration of the Large Omnidirectional Child ATD Head Finite Element Model

2021-04-06
2021-01-0922
To improve the biofidelity of the currently available Hybrid III 10-year-old (HIII-10C) Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has developed the Large Omnidirectional Child (LODC) ATD. The LODC head is a redesigned HIII-10C head with mass properties and modified skin material required to match pediatric biomechanical impact response targets from the literature. A dynamic, nonlinear finite element (FE) model of the LODC head has been developed using the mesh generating tool Hypermesh based on the three-dimensional CAD model. The material data, contact definitions, and initial conditions are defined in LS-PrePost and converted to LS-Dyna solver input format. The aluminum head skull is stiff relative to head flesh material and was thus modeled as a rigid material. For the actual LODC, the head flesh is form fit onto the skull and held in place through contact friction.
Technical Paper

Effect of Seat Back Restriction on Head, Neck and Torso Responses of Front Seat Occupants When Subjected to a Moderate Speed Rear-Impact

2021-04-06
2021-01-0920
During high-speed rear impacts with delta-V > 25 km/h, the front seats may rotate rearward due to occupant and seat momentum change leading to possibly large seat deflection. One possible way of limiting this may be by introducing a structure that would restrict large rotations or deformations, however, such a structure would change the front seat occupant kinematics and kinetics. The goal of this study was to understand the influence of seat back restriction on head, neck and torso responses of front seat occupants when subjected to a moderate speed rear-impact. This was done by simulating a rear impact scenario with a delta-V of 37.4 km/h using LS-Dyna, with the GHBMC M50 occupant model and a manufacturer provided seat model. The study included two parts, the first part was to identify worst case scenarios using the simplified GHBMC M50-OS, and the second part was to further investigate the identified scenarios using the detailed GHBMC M50-O.
Technical Paper

Effect of ATD Size, Vehicle Interior and Restraint Misuse on Second-Row Occupant Kinematics in Frontal Sled Tests

2021-04-06
2021-01-0914
Interest in rear-seat occupant safety has increased in recent years. Information relevant to rear-seat occupant interior space and kinematics are needed to evaluate injury risks in real-world accidents. This study was conducted to first assess the effect of size and restraint conditions, including belt misuse, on second-row occupant kinematics and to then document key clearance measurements for an Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) seated in the second row in modern vehicles from model years 2015-2020. Twenty-two tests were performed with non-instrumented ATDs; three with a 5th percentile female Hybrid III, 10 tests with a 10-year-old Hybrid III, and 9 tests with a 6-year-old Hybrid III. Test conditions included two sled bucks (mid-size car and sport utility vehicle (SUV)), two test speeds (56 and 64 km/h), and various restraint configurations (properly restrained and improperly restrained configurations). Head and knee trajectories were assessed.
Technical Paper

Field Data Study of the Effect of Knee Airbags on Lower Extremity Injury in Frontal Crashes

2021-04-06
2021-01-0913
Knee airbags (KABs) are one countermeasure in newer vehicles that could influence lower extremity (LEX) injury, the most frequently injured body region in frontal crashes. To determine the effect of KABs on LEX injury for drivers in frontal crashes, the analysis examined moderate or greater LEX injury (AIS 2+) in two datasets. Logistic regression considered six main effect factors (KAB deployment, BMI, age, sex, belt status, driver compartment intrusion). Eighty-five cases with KAB deployment from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database were supplemented with 8 cases from the International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database and compared to 289 CIREN non-KAB cases. All cases evaluated drivers in frontal impacts (11 to 1 o’clock Principal Direction of Force) with known belt use in 2004 and newer model year vehicles. Results of the CIREN/ICAM dataset were compared to analysis of a similar dataset from NASS-CDS (5441 total cases, 418 KAB-deployed).
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