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Training / Education

Aviation Parts to Medical Devices Bridging the Gap

2021-06-15
This one-day program is designed to provide introductory information for those organizations who are considering transitioning from the Aeronautic, Space and Defense industry to the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), Medical Device Manufacturing market. Reviewing essential information necessary to understand and successfully begin the journey to FDA Medical Device approval, this course will examine many of the controls between the AS9100 Standard and FDA Regulations and identify the similarities.
Technical Paper

Incidence and Mechanism of Head, Cervical Spine, Lumbar Spine, and Lower Extremity Injuries for Occupants in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal Collisions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0902
Automotive accidents and subsequent personal injury claims incur significant costs annually. While three-point restraint usage has become more ubiquitous and governmentally mandated for front seat occupants, occupant safety and injury risk assessment in frontal collisions continue to be at the forefront of automotive innovation. In this study, we combined statistical analyses of nine years (2007-2015) of data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database and one year (2017) of data from the Crash Investigation Sampling System (CISS) database with data acquired from vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests conducted with instrumented anthropomorphic test device (ATD) occupants in order to compare and relate field injury rates with potential mechanisms underlying head, cervical spine, lumbar spine, and lower extremity injuries in low-to moderate-speed frontal collisions.
Technical Paper

Design and Aerodynamic Analysis of Pesticide Spraying Drone

2021-04-06
2021-01-0809
In the present era Adding Technology and Innovations in Agriculture will help in increasing crop productivity. The motive to use development in Agriculture is not only to increase productivity but also to take care of our Farmers and Future Generations and one such way to achieve it is by using Agricultural Drones. The production rate of crops in agriculture is based on various parameters like temperature, humidity, rain, etc. which are natural factors and are not in farmer’s control. The field of agriculture also depends on some other factors like pests, disease, fertilizers, etc. which can be controlled by giving proper treatment to crops. Pesticides may increase the productivity of crops but they also affect human health. The WHO (World Health Organization) estimated as one million cases of ill effected when spraying the pesticides in the crop filed manually. Agriculture drone can be used as a form of Precision Agriculture by managing to spray the fertilizer as per requirement.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Alcohol-Impaired Driving on Vehicle Dynamic Control of Steering, Braking and Acceleration Behaviours in Female Drivers

2021-04-06
2021-01-0859
Road traffic accidents resulting from alcohol-impaired driving are increasing globally despite several measures, currently in place, to curb the trend. Current prevention measures only detect intoxication after the accident has occurred. For this reason, recent research aims at integrating alcohol early-detection systems which will identify intoxicated drivers and prevent them from moving the vehicle. However, driving simulator experiments on drunk driving have focused mostly on male participants than female drivers whose characteristics have scarcely been explored. Hence in this paper, vehicle dynamic control inputs on steering, braking, and acceleration performance of 75 licensed female drivers with an upshot of alcohol at four different blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels (0%, 0.03%, 0.05%, and 0.08%) were investigated. The participants completed simulated driving in a fixed-based simulator experiment coupled with real-time ecological scenarios to extract discrete responses.
Technical Paper

Human Body Orientation from 2D Images

2021-04-06
2021-01-0082
This work presents a method to estimate the human body orientation using 2D images from a person view; the challenge comes from the variety of human body poses and appearances. The method utilizes OpenPose neural network as a human pose detector module and depth sensing module. The modules work together to extract the body orientation from 2D stereo images. OpenPose is proven to be efficient in detecting human body joints, defined by COCO dataset, OpenPose can detect the visible body joints without being affected by backgrounds or other challenging factors. Adding the depth data for each point can produce rich information to the process of 3D construction for the detected humans. This 3D point’s setup can tell more about the body orientation and walking direction for example. The depth module used in this work is the ZED camera stereo system which uses CUDA for high performance depth computation.
Technical Paper

Evaluate the effect of seat back restriction on head, neck and torso responses of front seat occupants when subjected to a moderate speed rear-impact

2021-04-06
2021-01-0920
During rear impacts, the front seats may rotate rearward due to occupant and seat momentum change leading to possibly large deformation of the seatback or even loss of occupant retention relative to the seat. One possible way of limiting this may be by introducing a structure that would restrict large rotations or deformations, however, such a structure would change the front seat occupant kinematics and kinetics. The goal of this study was to understand the influence of seat back restriction on head, neck and torso responses of front seat occupants when subjected to a moderate speed rear-impact. This was done by simulating a rear impact scenario with a delta-V of 37 km/h using LS-Dyna, with the GHBMC M50 occupant model and a manufacturer provided seat model. The study included two parts, the first part was to identify worst case scenarios using the simplified GHBMC M50-OS, and the second part was to further investigate the identified scenarios using the detailed GHBMC M50-O.
Technical Paper

Research on Photobiological Safety of Automotive Active Infrared Detection System

2021-04-06
2021-01-0072
The automotive active infrared detection system is usually applied to the night driver assistance system or the diver attention monitoring system. However, the infrared light emitted by the active infrared detection system can cause damage to retina, cornea and eye crystals. This paper has studied the photobiological safety of the infrared light source used in the automotive active infrared detection system. Although it has been already have the general requirements of photobiological safety in international standards, there is not any requirements for active infrared detection system. The range of the active infrared detection system depends on the radiation intensity of the infrared light source, but too much radiation intensity will cause harm to retina, cornea and eye lens when the infrared light source is too close to eyes.
Technical Paper

A visual-vestibular model to predict motion sickness response in passengers of autonomous vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0104
In this paper, we present a model to predict motion sickness in passengers of autonomous vehicles (AV), the associated model parameters, and the mathematical and physiological justification for selecting these parameters. This model integrates models of vestibular sensory dynamics, visually perceived motion, and visual-vestibular interactions to determine the corresponding conflict between the sensed and true vertical orientation of the passenger, which is used to estimate motion sickness (MS) response. In addition to perceived motion, the model can simulate the influence of multiple factors on motion sickness, such as passenger gaze and field of view, and task performance. Multiple models to estimate motion sickness have been proposed in the literature, however, few if any, provide the capability mentioned above and have shown limited ability to predict MS that closely matches experimental motion sickness data especially at low frequencies.
Technical Paper

A Method of Filter Implementation Using Heterogeneous Computing System for Driver Health Monitoring

2021-04-06
2021-01-0103
Research in any field of study requires analysis and comparisons or real-time prediction to extract useful information. To prove that the results have practical potential, outstanding filtering techniques and methodologies should be designed and implemented. Filters being a class of signal processing helps innovate new technologies with various kinds of outcomes, using filters there are always various ways to solve a problem. Considering the current COVID-19 situation, researchers are working on sequencing the novel coronavirus and the genomes of people afflicted with COVID-19 using CPU’s and GPU’s along with various filtering techniques. In this paper we are using a method of filter implementation to collect raw heart rate data samples from fingertip and ear lobe and process those results on CPU’s and GPU’s. Our method of implementation to collect raw heart rate data is using a photoplethysmography method.
Technical Paper

Development converting position seat for reduction fatigue of rear seat passenger

2021-04-06
2021-01-0863
The purpose of this study is to apply optimal posture for reduction of body fatigue of automobile rear seat passenger. The focus was on the fact that if only the back angle was changed in the seated state, the lower back would push out the waist, causing back pain. If the passenger changes the seatback angle, the cushion angle changes simultaneously. SUV’s Rear Seat has many variant functions because of the Customers Requirement for utility of seat variations. In the optimal posture, rear seat passenger gets positive effects of improvement blood flow in part of back and hip through dispersed body pressure distribution more widely and alleviate pains and tingling. In addition, it could also be a direction of passenger posture as autonomous technology advances. Finally this study suggest many mechanisms for making suitable posture by SUV’s seat.
Technical Paper

Bicycle GPS Systems Positional Accuracy

2021-04-06
2021-01-0878
Increasingly, bicycle riders are utilizing bicycle computers or cell phones equipped with GPS positioning to track and share their rides. These bicycle computers and online platforms can contain a lot of ride specific information such as speed, location, heart rate, pedaling cadence and more. This information can be essential to forensic experts attempting to analyze bicycle movements and reconstruct accidents involving bicycles. Currently, there has not been any research specifically discussing the positional accuracy of GPS systems for bicycles. The purpose of this study is to examine the lateral positional accuracy of several GPS units in real world environments, including rural landscape, residential neighborhoods as well as dense urban settings.
Technical Paper

Effect of ATD Size, Vehicle Interior and Restraint Misuse on Second-Row Occupant Kinematics in Frontal Sled Tests

2021-04-06
2021-01-0914
Interest in rear-seat occupant safety has increased in recent years. Information relevant to rear-seat occupant interior space and kinematics are needed to evaluate injury risks in real-world accidents. This study was conducted to first assess the effect of size and restraint conditions, including belt misuse, on second-row occupant kinematics and to then document key clearance measurements for an Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) seated in the second row in modern vehicles from model years 2015-2020. Twenty-two tests were performed with non-instrumented ATDs; three with a 5th percentile female Hybrid III, 10 tests with a 10-year-old Hybrid III, and 9 tests with a 6-year-old Hybrid III. Test conditions included two sled bucks (mid-size car and sport utility vehicle (SUV)), two test speeds (56 and 64 km/h), and various restraint configurations (properly restrained and improperly restrained configurations). Head and knee trajectories were assessed.
Technical Paper

Field Data Study of the Effect of Knee Airbags on Lower Extremity Injury in Frontal Crashes

2021-04-06
2021-01-0913
The lower extremity (LEX) is the most frequently injured body region in frontal crashes, and moderate to severe injuries to this region can lead to a reduction in quality of life. Knee airbags (KABs) are one countermeasure in newer vehicles that could influence LEX injury. To determine the effect of KABs on LEX injury for drivers in frontal crashes, the analysis examined moderate to severe LEX injury (AIS 2+) using field data from two sources. Logistic regression included six main effect factors (KAB deployment, BMI, age, sex, belt status, and intrusion to the driver-side instrument panel/toe pan/floor pan). Eighty-five cases with KAB deployment from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database were supplemented with 8 cases from the International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database and compared to 289 CIREN non-KAB cases. All cases evaluated drivers in frontal impacts (11 to 1 o’clock PDOF) with known belt use in 2004 and newer model year vehicles.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the 50th Hybrid III Responses in Blunt Rear Impacts to the Torso

2021-04-06
2021-01-0919
Blunt impacts to the back of the torso can occur in vehicle crashes, due to cargo loading in frontal crashes or intrusion in rear crashes for example. Six pendulum tests were conducted on the back of an instrumented 50th Hybrid III ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device) to determine kinematic and biomechanical responses. The impact locations were centered at the top (T1) and mid-portion (T6) of the thoracic spine. The impact speed varied from 16 to 24 km/h. Two 24 km/h tests were conducted at T1 and showed repeatability of setup and ATD responses. The 16 and 24 km/h tests at T1 and T6 were compared. The results indicated greater head rotation, neck extension moments and neck shear forces at T1 impacts. For example, lower neck extension was 2.6 times and 3.8 times greater at T1 than T6 impacts at 16 and 24 km/h, respectively. A 24 km/h test at T1 was also conducted with a seatback attached to the ATD torso to assess the effect of padding.
Technical Paper

Vehicle automation emergency scenario: using a driving simulator to assess the impact of hand and foot placement on reaction time

2021-04-06
2021-01-0861
As vehicles with SAE level 2 of autonomy get further deployed, they still rely on the human driver to monitor the driving task and take control in case of an emergency. It is therefore necessary to examine the Human Factors at play on a driver’s ability to recognize and react to a dangerous situation when the autonomous system abruptly requests human intervention. This research used a driving simulator to introduce the concept of level 2 autonomy to a cohort of 60 drivers (male: 48%, female: 52%) of different age groups (teens 16 to 19: 32%, adults: 35 to 54: 37%, seniors 65+: 32%). Participants were surveyed for their perspectives on self-driving vehicles. They were then assessed on a driving simulator that mimicked SAE level 2 of autonomy. Participants’ interaction with the HMI was studied. A real life scenario was programmed so that a request to intervene was issued when automation reached its boundaries while navigating a 2 way curve road (TTC = 2.2 seconds).
Technical Paper

Formaldehydes measurement by using laser gas analyzer

2021-04-06
2021-01-0604
From now on, use of alternative fuels is expected to increase for prevent GHG emissions and because the fuel economy regulation value is given preferential treatment by using alternative fuels in US regulation. As alternative fuels are ethanol blended fuel (E10, E85, etc.) and methanol blended fuel (M100, etc.). In the case of those fuels using, it is expected that many aldehydes be contained in the emission gas. Aldehydes are air pollutant material and should be regulated. Among them, formaldehyde (HCHO) has already been regulated in the US and Brazil. In China, not only HCHO but also Methanol have been announced specific regulation values for M100 fuel. In new regulation of EU and China, it is expected that HCHO is one of regulated substances. (Others substances are Ethanol, Methanol and Acetaldehyde).
Technical Paper

Particle Number Emissions Evaluation for Conventional SI, Low-pressure Loop EGR, and D-EGR Combustion Strategies

2021-04-06
2021-01-0485
The size and distribution of engine-out particulate emissions from an engine can have a strong impact on human health. Especially if the particle size is small enough to enter the human respiratory system. Injection of gasoline fuel directly in the SI engine combustion chamber can create harmful particulate emissions. This study aimed to compare the particulate emissions of three combustion strategies in a SI engine; conventional SI, conventional EGR, and dedicated – EGR (D-EGR). In this study, it was shown that the engine-out particle number for both the EGR strategies was lower than the conventional SI combustion, a significant result. Four test conditions were investigated. The conditions were chosen to represent the most frequently operated regimes on the engine speed-load map per a drive-cycle analysis. It was also observed that the particle number measurements were not repeatable due to their high sensitivity to engine inlet conditions.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Energy - Cognitive AI to Augment the Human Knowledge

2021-03-08
2021-28-0016
Andrew Grove (founder CEO Intel) defines strategic inflection points as what happens to a business when a major event alters its fundamentals. The Covid-19 pandemic is one such historic event that is changing fundamental business assumptions in the Oil industry. Companies with a hunter-gatherer mindset will ride this wave with the help of technologies that make their operations lean and efficient. Current developments in AI, specifically around Cognitive Sciences is one such area that will empower the early adopters to a many-fold improvement in engineering and research productivity. This paper explores 'how to augment the human intelligence with insights from engineering literature, leveraging Cognitive AI techniques?'.
Technical Paper

Localization of Hydrogen Fuel Generation from Urine

2021-03-08
2021-28-0002
Abstract Energy demand in almost all sectors has been increasing and the consumption has not matched the ever-increasing requirement hence the need to explore the alternative source of energy to implement in our stratum has become the topmost urgency. Hydrogen production, storage, distribution, and utilization ca be proposed as a long-term solution for a secure energy future. Currently, there are around 1.4 billion vehicles on the road and the numbers are increasing day by day. This has mainly led to severe air pollution and other associated problems. Hydrogen is a clean alternative fuel that can reduce the air pollution, noise pollution, etc. in automotive sector. But as of now Hydrogen is mostly used in oil refining and production of fertilizers. For it to make a contribution to clean energy, it also needs to be adopted in other sectors.
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