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Technical Paper

Improvement of Hydraulic system tests in Aircraft Manufacturing by applying Lean techniques

2019-09-16
2019-01-1901
Lean Manufacturing is generally a challenge across all manufacturing companies. Especially in the aerospace industry where production costs have a significant impact on the overall business success. Additionally, the aircraft Takt time is gradually being reduced to accomplish ramp up requirements. The hydraulic system tests are considered as a production waste (Muda Type I) since it is mandatory but does not add any value to the end customer. Furthermore, due to health and safety aspects, no other production task can be done while the test is being performed. This research project aimed at performing a Kaizen analysis of the hydraulic system test stations to reduce or eliminate idle time while it is taking place. To do so, an extensive literature review has be conducted to provide its research framework. Then, all the project requirements and constraints were identified in order to generate a design specification.
Technical Paper

Low cost, fireproof, and light aircraft interior

2019-09-16
2019-01-1857
Low cost, fireproof, and light aircraft interior Fire is a dramatic issue in aircraft nowadays, especially with composite air crafts. An additional issue is the dangerous use of flammable Li-Ion batteries in a lot of appliances. we propose in order to avoid dramas to produce aircraft interiors, fire doors, cargo bay walls, as well than cargo container able to contain a fire inside them, with our ceramic composite called TOUGHCERAM ®. We have developed a low-cost, ceramic, damage tolerant, this ceramic is flexible between minus 100°C and plus 350°C. TOUGHCERAM ® poly-crystalize between 60°C and 110°C and can be reinforced with fibbers like carbon or basalt one. TOUGHCERAM ® survive 90 minutes to a propane 1900°C torches. TOUGHCERAM ® does not burn, nor smoke. In this paper we will explain how it is possible to develop a fully mineral ceramic offering such unique mechanical and fire properties.
Technical Paper

Smart cylinder deactivation strategies to improve fuel economy and pollutant emissions for Diesel-powered applications

2019-08-15
2019-24-0055
Further improvement of the trade-off between CO2- and pollutant emissions is the main motivating factor for the development of new diesel engine concepts, from light-duty car applications via medium-duty commercial vehicles up to large long-haul trucks. The deactivation of one or more cylinders of a light-duty diesel engine during low load operation can be a sophisticated method to improve fuel economy and reduce especially NOx emissions at the same time. Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) is and advanced cylinder deactivation technology, where the decision to fire or skip singular units of a multi-cylinder engine architecture is taken just prior to each firing opportunity, based on a balanced rankling of multiple input parameters.
Standard

Rotor Blade Electrothermal Ice Protection Design Considerations

2019-06-14
WIP
AIR1667B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection systems. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references listed in 2.1.
Standard

Oil, Reference, for "L" Stock Rubber Testing

2019-06-13
WIP
AMS3020B
This specification covers a petroleum-base reference oil. This fluid has been typically used as a reference oil to estimate the ability of elastomeric compounds to conform to specified requirements after immersion at a specified temperature for a specified time and temperature as required by the material.
Standard

Polyamide Type 6-6, Plastic Moldings and Extrusions

2019-06-13
CURRENT
AMS3617F
This specification covers one type of nylon thermoplastic resin in the form of moldings and extrusions. These products have been used typically for parts requiring high strength and resistance to aircraft fuels and lubricants up to 120 degrees C (248 degrees F), but usage is not limited to such applications.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty of the Ice Particles Median Mass Diameters Retrieved from the HAIC-HIWC Dataset: A Study of the Influence of the Mass Retrieval Method

2019-06-10
2019-01-1983
In response to the ice crystal icing hazard identified twenty years ago, aviation industry, regulation authorities, and research centers joined forces into the HAIC-HIWC international collaboration launched in 2012. Two flight campaigns were conducted in the high ice water content areas of tropical mesoscale convective systems in order to characterize this environment conducive to ice crystal icing. Statistics on cloud microphysical properties, such as Ice Water Content (IWC) or Mass Median Diameter (MMD), derived from the dataset of in situ measurements are now being used to support icing certification rulemaking and anti-icing systems design (engine and air data probe) activities. This technical paper focuses on methodological aspects of the derivation of MMD. MMD are estimated from PSD and IWC using a multistep process in which the mass retrieval method is a critical step.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Enhancement in Stagnation Region of Aero-Engine Inlet Vanes due to Ejection Slot and Anisotropic Heat Conduction

2019-06-10
2019-01-2040
Ice protection is important for aero-engine induction system, such as the inlet vanes. For the ice protection of such parts manufactured with low thermal conductivity polymer-based composite material, the combined heating method using interior jet impingement and exterior ejection film has certain advantages. The simulation model coupling CFD with solid heat conduction was developed and solved with the anisotropic thermal conductivities model to investigate the heat transfer enhancement in the stagnation region of aero-engine inlet vanes due to ejection slot and anisotropic heat conduction, which is related to the curved geometry, ejection slots and anisotropic heat conduction. The temperature distribution and heat flux ratio between the stagnation region on outside surface and the impingement region inside were calculated and analyzed for the configuration with different ejection angle and different materials.
Technical Paper

Aero-Engine Inlet Vane Structure Optimization for Anti-Icing with Hot Air Film Using Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm

2019-06-10
2019-01-2021
An improved anti-icing design with film heating ejection slot and cover for the inlet part of aero-engine was brought out, which combines the interior jet impingement with the exterior hot air film heating and shows promising application for those parts manufactured with composite materials. A hybrid method based on the combination of the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is developed to optimize the anti-icing design for a typical aero-engine inlet vane in two dimensions. The optimization aims to maximize the heating performance of the hot air film, which is assessed by the heating effectiveness. The film-heating ejection angle and the cover opening angle are the two geometric variables to be optimized. Numerical model was established and validated to generate training and testing samples for BPNN, which was used to predict the objective function and find the optimal design variables in conjunction with the GA.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Internal Helmholtz Resonators Created by Punching Small Holes on a Thin-Walled Tube

2019-06-05
2019-01-1486
Helmholtz resonators are normally an afterthought in the design of mufflers to target a very specific low frequency, usually the fundamental firing frequency of the engine. Due to space limitations in a complex muffler design, a resonator may have to be built by punching a few small holes on a thin-walled tube to create a neck passage into a small, enclosed volume outside the tube. The short neck passage created by punching a few small holes on a thin-walled tube can pose a great challenge in numerical modeling, especially when the boundary element method (BEM) is used. In this paper, a few different BEM modeling approaches are compared to one another and to the finite element method (FEM). These include the multi-domain BEM implemented in a substructure BEM framework, modeling both sides of the thin-walled tube and the details of each small hole using the Helmholtz integral equation and the hypersingular integral equation, and modeling just the mid surface of the thin-walled tube.
Technical Paper

Power Electronic Noise-Simulation Measurement Comparison

2019-06-05
2019-01-1451
A growing development of hybrid or fully electrical drives increases the demand for an accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristics of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emissions from power electronics, as one of the new important noise sources in electric vehicles. The noise emitted from the printed circuit board (PCB) equipped with multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) is measured and used for the calibration and validation of numerical model. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis, with special attention to the orthotropic characteristic of the PCB glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheet (FR-4). Electroacoustic excitation is pre-calculated using an extension of schematic-based EMC simulation and applied to the structural model. Structural vibrations are calculated with a commercial FEM solver with the modal frequency response analysis.
Technical Paper

Determining Vibro-Acoustic Characteristics and Structural Damping of an Elastic Monolithic Panel

2019-06-05
2019-01-1538
Evaluations of the dynamic and acoustic responses of panels, partitions, and walls are of concern across many industries, from building home appliances, planning meeting rooms, to designing airplanes and passenger cars. Over the past few decades, search efforts for developing new methodologies and technologies to enable NVH engineers to acquire and correlate dynamically the relationship between input excitations and vibro-acoustic responses of arbitrary-shaped panels has grown exponentially. The application of a particular methodology or technology to the evaluation of a specific structure depends intimately on the goals and objectives of the NVH engineers and industries.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction and Verification of Noise Radiation Characteristics of Diesel Engine Block

2019-06-05
2019-01-1591
To assess the contribution of structure-borne noise from an engine, it is critical to characterize the dynamic and vibro-acoustic properties of the engine components and assembly. In this paper, a component level study of a three-cylinder diesel engine block is presented. Virtual analysis was done to predict the natural frequencies and mode shapes of an engine block in the first step. Then, these results were used to decide the optimum test locations and an experimental modal test was conducted on the engine block. The initial virtual model results for the natural frequencies and mode shapes were correlated with the results from test. Then, the virtual model was updated with the damping derived from experimental modal test to match the vibration frequency response functions. Further, the virtual model was used for prediction of vibro-acoustic transfer functions. The vibro-acoustic transfer functions were also obtained from test.
Article

Boeing reports on its environmental efforts

2019-06-05
The strategy identifies 2025 as a target year to collaborate with communities around the globe and create products focused on environmental performance, emissions and waste reduction, and lower levels of water and energy consumption at work sites.
Standard

Flux, Aluminum Welding

2019-06-03
WIP
AMS3414F
This specification covers an aluminum welding flux in the form of powder.
Standard

Aviation Visual Distress Signals (AVDS)

2019-05-31
WIP
AS5134C

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides minimum performance and design standards for a handheld, high-intensity, flashing Aviation Visual Distress Signal (AVDS) based on light-emitting-diode (LED) technology operating simultaneously in visible (white) and near infrared (NIR) spectra designed to facilitate location and rescue of aviation accident/ditching survivors in open sea conditions.

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