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Training / Education

Photogrammetry and Analysis of Digital Media

2021-09-01
Photographs and video recordings of vehicle crashes and accident sites are more prevalent than ever, with dash mounted cameras, surveillance footage, and personal cell phones now ubiquitous. The information contained in these pictures and video provide critical information to understanding how crashes occurred, and in analyzing physical evidence. This course teaches the theory and techniques for getting the most out of digital media, including correctly processing raw video and photographs, correcting for lens distortion, and using photogrammetric techniques to convert the information in digital media to usable scaled three-dimensional data.
Training / Education

Advanced Applications of Heavy Vehicle EDR Data

2021-05-24
This class will provide the student with the skills, knowledge, and abilities to interpret, analyze and apply Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorder (HVEDR) data in real world applications. This course has been designed to build on the concepts presented in the SAE course Accessing and Interpreting Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders (ID# C1022).
Training / Education

Applying Automotive EDR Data to Traffic Crash Reconstruction

2021-01-04
EDR's were first installed in 1994 and are now installed in 99% of new light vehicles sold in the US. In the US EDR’s are not required, but vehicles with EDR’s made after 9/1/2012 must meet minimum standardized content requirements of 49 CFR, Part 563 including speed, throttle, brake on/off and Delta V. Data must be retrievable with a publicly available tool. Only a few manufacturers install EDR’s worldwide currently, but the EU and China are adopting regulations to require them in the next few years.
Training / Education

Accident Reconstruction, the Autonomous Vehicle and ADAS

2020-11-18
After the crash, you need to know if an autonomous or driver assistance system was installed in the vehicle, if it functioned properly, and if it affected the outcome of the accident. Get a detailed look at the rapidly growing field of self-driving vehicles and driver assistance systems. What is available, how does it work, and what will happen in a crash scenario? How does it affect product liability and accident reconstruction? Some auto manufacturers are equipping the majority of their new vehicles with such technology, and it’s important for the forensic engineer to “stay ahead of the curve”.
Training / Education

Reconstruction and Analysis of Rollover Crashes of Light Vehicles

2020-11-02
For automotive engineers involved in crash reconstruction and analysis, a knowledge of basic accident reconstruction principles and techniques is essential, but often insufficient to answer all of the questions posed by design engineers, regulators, and lawyers. This seminar takes participants beyond the basics of accident reconstruction to physical models and analysis techniques that are unique to the reconstruction of single-vehicle rollover crashes.
Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Technical Paper

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

2020-09-30
2020-01-1549
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

An Active Safety System Able to Counter Aquaplaning, Integrated With Sensorized Tires, ADAS and 5G Technology for Both Human-Driven and Autonomous Vehicles

2020-09-27
2020-24-0019
Autonomous vehicles must guarantee safety in all road conditions, including driving on wet roads. Aquaplaning (or hydroplaning) is a phenomenon known since the beginning of automotive history, never solved by an active safety system. Currently, no countermeasure system on the market is able to effectively counteract aquaplaning: ABS, ESP or TCS are still inefficient in overcoming this situation. Latest statistical data confirm that the higher percentage of accidents, injuries and deaths are caused by wet road conditions. The aquaplaning happens when the water on the road is too much and the tires start to float causing the instantaneous loss of control. Such phenomenon occurs in human-driven vehicles, with the responsibility of the driver, but in autonomous vehicles (e.g. Level 5), the responsibility for the safety depends on the car and the reduction of the speed is not a solution.
Technical Paper

Combining GPS-tracks and accident data to improve safety of cycling paths

2020-09-27
2020-24-0020
The modal share in favour of private vehicles which characterized most of big cities all around the world in recent decades generated serious issues in urban areas in terms of pollution, accident and road congestion, constituting a well-known urban risk. Cycle mobility proves to be a valid solution to these problems, since the bicycle is an environmentally sustainable mean of transport as it contributes to the reduction of the space occupancy of road, traffic congestion and pollutant emissions. Bicycle ensures maximum energy efficiency in terms of trips made and physical resources used. It is also a healthy solution since it concurs to improve the quality of life of users and makes the cities more liveability. In order to encourage cycling, it is necessary not only to provide adequate dedicated infrastructures, but also to intervene on the management of other type of traffic, for example by introducing measures aimed at the reduction of traffic volumes and speed.
Technical Paper

Designing and Static Analysis of the Roll Cage of an All-Terrain Vehicle (SAE e-Baja)

2020-09-25
2020-28-0378
An All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) as defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a vehicle that travels on low pressure tires and with a seat that is straddled by the operator, along with the handlebars for steering control. A roll cage can be defined as a skeleton of an ATV. It forms a structural base and 3-D shell around the driver. In case of impacts and roll over incidents, the roll cage is responsible for the protection of driver. The objective is to design, analyze and optimize the roll cage under a set of particular rules given by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The static analysis is carried out using CATIA V5 software for different collisions like front, side, rear and roll over. The main objective of the analysis is to obtain a roll cage enough strong to bear such adverse conditions as well as light in weight for better performance. The safety of roll cage can be ensured by obtaining optimum factor of safety.
Technical Paper

Metamodel Generation for Frontal Crash Scenario of a Passenger Car

2020-09-25
2020-28-0504
A frontal impact scenario was simulated using a Finite Element Model of a Hybrid III 50th percentile male (LSTC, Livermore CA) along with seatbelt, steering system and driver airbags. The boundary conditions included acceleration pulse to the seat and the outputs including injury measures in terms of Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Normalized Neck Injury Criterion (NIJ) and Chest Severity Index (CSI) were extracted from the simulations. The kinematics of the Hybrid III were validated against the kinematics of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) available in the literature. Using the validated setup, metamodels were generated by creating a design of varying different parameters and recording the responses for each design. First, the X and Z translation of dummy along the seat is provided as input for which there was no variation in the head injury criterion (HIC). Next, the input pulse to the seat is parameterized along with the seatbelt loading and the results are obtained respectively.
Technical Paper

Tadpole Configuration for Three Wheeled Vehicles

2020-09-25
2020-28-0359
With the increasing adoption of electric vehicles in India, autos are also getting in the electrification race with lighter lithium-ion batteries and motor replacing the bulkier engine and transmission. This trend has led to a lighter vehicle which in-turn gives better mileage figures but at the loss of dynamic stability of the vehicle making them very unsafe. The current auto-rickshaws are using delta configuration that is more prone to the rollover while cornering. The three-wheeled configuration vehicle is less dynamically stable than the normal four-wheeled configurations. While working on prototype vehicle for Shell Eco-Marathon Asia [7] pro and cons for both configurations for a three-wheeled vehicle were considered and tadpole configuration was found to be more stable and better than current delta configuration.
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