Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Investigation on Design and Analysis of Passenger Car Body Crash-Worthiness in Frontal Impact Using Radioss

2020-09-25
2020-28-0498
Increasing advancement in automotive technologies ensures that many more lightweight metals become added to the automotive components for the purpose of light weighting and passenger safety. The accidents are unexpected incidents most drivers cannot be avoided that trouble situation. Crash studies are among the most essential methods for enhancing automobile safety features. Crash simulations are attempting to replicate the circumstances of the initial crash. Frontal crashes are responsible for occupant injuries and fatalities 42% of accidents occur on frontal crash. This paper aims at studying the frontal collision of a passenger car frame for frontal crashes based on numerical simulation of a 35 MPH. The structure has been designed to replicate a frontal collision into some kind of inflexible shield at a speed of 15.6 m/s (56 km/h). The vehicle’s exterior body is designed by CATIA V5 R20 along with two material properties to our design.
Technical Paper

Metamodel Generation for Frontal Crash Scenario of a Passenger Car

2020-09-25
2020-28-0504
A frontal impact scenario was simulated using a Finite Element Model of a Hybrid III 50th percentile male (LSTC, Livermore CA) along with seatbelt, steering system and driver airbags. The boundary conditions included acceleration pulse to the seat and the outputs including injury measures in terms of Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Normalized Neck Injury Criterion (NIJ) and Chest Severity Index (CSI) were extracted from the simulations. The kinematics of the Hybrid III were validated against the kinematics of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) available in the literature. Using the validated setup, metamodels were generated by creating a design of varying different parameters and recording the responses for each design. First, the X and Z translation of dummy along the seat is provided as input for which there was no variation in the head injury criterion (HIC). Next, the input pulse to the seat is parameterized along with the seatbelt loading and the results are obtained respectively.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Tractor CG by Considering the Safety Devices at Concept Level

2020-09-25
2020-28-0476
Tractor weight transfer is the most common farm-related cause of fatalities nowadays. As in India it is getting mandatory for all safety devices across all HP ranges. Considering any changes in the weight from an attachment such as Rops, PTO device, tow hook and draw bar etc. can shift the center of gravity towards the weight. center of gravity is higher on a tractor because the tractor needs to be higher in order to complete operations over crops and rough terrain. Terrains, attachments, weights, and speeds can change the tractor’s resistance to turning over. This center of gravity placement disperses the weight so that 30 percent of the tractor’s weight is on the front axle and 70 percent is on the rear axle for two-wheel drive propelled tractors and it must remain within the tractor’s stability baseline for the tractor to remain in an upright position.
Technical Paper

Customized ROPS Application for Configurable Design at Concept Level

2020-09-25
2020-28-0474
Tractor roll over is the most common farm-related cause of fatalities nowadays. ROPS (Roll-Overprotective Structures) are needed to prevent serious injury and death. It creates a protective zone around the operator when a rollover occurs. In India the ROPS is getting mandatory across all HP ranges except narrow track. In the present study states the customized ROPS application for configurable design such as Automated safety zone for all homologation standards, ROPS A0-D excel calculator for selection of material at concept stage and bolt calculator for selection of size. For the above applications below aspects need to consider such as Tractor weight, Rear housing mounting, Operator seat index position (SIP), Seat reference points (SRP) and all ROPS homologation standards. This ROPS application is to reduce the timeline, manual error and ensure the reliability of the modular optimal design for various platforms and variants.
Journal Article

The Effect of Change in Assembly Sequence on Permanent Strain of Cab Suspension Console

2020-08-20
Abstract Heavy commercial vehicles play an important role in creating the trade and economic balance of countries. Also, the durability and safety of heavy commercial vehicles come to the fore. Heavy commercial vehicles consist of two parts. These are the chassis area with the equipment that allows the vehicle to move and the cabin section where the driver is located. The cabin area is the most important area that ensures the highest level of driver safety. Considering that the production of trucks is increasing day by day, it is inevitable for companies to increase their R&D activities in the field of cabin and cabin suspension systems for much safer, durable, and comfortable trucks. This study aims to determine the safe torque value of the fasteners and their assembly sequence of the Cab Suspension Console, which is one of the most important connection parts in a truck and which can cause a fatal accident by breaking.
Standard

Wheelchair Tiedown and Occupant Restraint Systems for Use in Motor Vehicles

2020-08-12
WIP
J2249
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to WTORS comprised of a system or device for wheelchair tiedown and a system or device for restraining the wheelchair-seated occupant. It specifies design requirements, test methods, and performance requirements for WTORS, requirements for manufacturer's instructions to installers and users, and requirements for product marking and labeling. This document places particular emphasis on design requirements, test procedures, and performance requirements for the dynamic performance of WTORS in a 48-km/h, 20-g frontal impact. It also specifies test procedures and performance requirements for webbing slippage at adjustment devices of strap-type wheelchair tiedowns, and for partial but ineffective engagement of wheelchair tiedowns, and tiedown components that could be perceived to be effectively engaged.
Book

Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol. 63, 2019

2020-06-01
This title includes the technical papers developed for the 2019 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion about the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes.
Technical Paper

Runtime Active Safety Risk-Assessment of Highly Autonomous Vehicles for Safe Nominal Behavior

2020-04-14
2020-01-0107
Fatal crashes involving automated driving systems, has been raising the concern of minimum standard requirement for safety, reliability and performance required for Autonomous Driving System (ADS)/Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) before this cutting-edge technology takes on public roads. Hence, in order to ensure necessary safety requirements of ADS/ADAS systems we propose a runtime active safety assurance module known as SConSert. SConSert performs dynamic risk assessment of “Sensing, Planning and Action module of ADS/ADAS”; to provide minimal risk maneuver in any given driving scenario. The dynamic risk assessment of ADS/ADAS system is based on the operational design domain (ODD) knowledge of the driving scenario plus the sensor capability, ADS/ADAS algorithm requirement and capability, and finally smooth and collision free maneuver requirement.
Technical Paper

Crash Response of a Repaired Vehicle - Influence of Welding UHSS Members

2020-04-14
2020-01-0197
Automakers generally recommend not to weld structural parts after a vehicle crash, and these should be replaced as a whole part in case of a crash event. Sectioning of these members is also not recommended and use of the repair manual is mandatory in case of fracture of such parts. However, repair shops may not adhere to these instructions and use incorrect repair procedures on these members which would modify their strength properties. This study analyses the impact of welding structural members in a vehicle like the A-pillar which use Ultra-High Strength Steels (UHSS) for reducing the weight of the vehicle and improving the crashworthiness of the structure. The research conducted in this paper highlights the differences in the crash performance of a repaired vehicle as opposed to baseline injury values for the vehicle.
Journal Article

A Novel Prediction Algorithm for Heavy Vehicles System Rollover Risk Based on Failure Probability Analysis and SVM Empirical Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-0701
The study of heavy vehicles rollover prediction, especially in algorithm-based heavy vehicles active safety control for improving road handling, is a challenging task for the heavy vehicle industry. Due to the high fatality rate caused by vehicle rollover, how to precisely and effectively predict the rollover of heavy vehicles became a hot topic in both academia and industry. Because of the strong non-linear characteristics of Human-Vehicle-Road interaction and the uncertainty of modeling, the traditional deterministic method cannot predict the rollover hazard of heavy vehicles accurately. To deal with the above issues, this paper applies a probability method of uncertainty to the design of a dynamic rollover prediction algorithm for heavy vehicles and proposes a novel algorithm for predicting the rollover hazard based on the combined empirical model of reliability index and failure probability.
Technical Paper

Biofidelity of THOR 5th Percentile Female ATD in Ankle Eversion and Inversion

2020-04-14
2020-01-0528
Females have higher frequency and risk of foot and ankle injuries in motor vehicle collisions than similar-sized males. Therefore, lower extremity biofidelity and accurate injury prediction of female ATDs is critical. This paper aims to compare the THOR 5th percentile female (THOR-05F) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) response with male and female PMHS data of various sizes under ankle inversion and eversion. The THOR-05F lower extremity was subjected to dynamic inversion and eversion ankle loading with a constant 2000N axial force applied through the tibia. Twelve THOR-05F tests (3 inversion and 3 eversion on both, left and right legs) were performed with boundary conditions consistent with previous post-mortem human subject (PMHS) lower extremity tests.
Journal Article

Driver Response to Left Incurring Path Intrusions at Sign-Controlled Intersections

2020-04-14
2020-01-0886
Straight intersecting path or “side” collisions account for 12% of all motor vehicle crashes and 24% of fatalities. While previous research has examined driver responses to hazards striking from the right (near side), no research has quantified driver responses to hazards striking from the left (far side) of an intersection. The purpose of this study was to measure driver response time (DRT) and response choice for two versions of this scenario. In one condition, the hazard vehicle was initially stopped at the intersection before accelerating into the path of the participant driver. In the other condition, the hazard vehicle approached and entered the intersection while moving at a constant speed of 50 km/h.
Journal Article

The Roles of Vehicle Seat Cushion Stiffness and Length in Child Restraint System (CRS) Performance

2020-04-14
2020-01-0977
The objective is to determine whether responses and injury risks for pediatric occupants in child restraint systems (CRS) are affected by vehicle seat cushion stiffness and fore/aft cushion length. Eighteen sled tests were conducted using the Federal Motor Vehicles Safety Standard (FMVSS) 213 frontal pulse (48 km/h). Seats from a recent model year vehicle were customized by the manufacturer with three different levels of cushion stiffness: compliant, mid-range, and stiff. Each stiffness level was quantified using ASTM D 3574-08 and all were within the realistic range of modern production seats. The usable length of each seat cushion was manipulated using foam spacers provided by the manufacturer. Two different seat lengths were examined: short (34.0 cm) and long (43.5 cm).
Technical Paper

Patient Demographics and Injury Characteristics of ER Visits Related to Powered-Scooters

2020-04-14
2020-01-0933
With growing environmental concerns associated with gas-powered vehicles and busier city streets, micro-mobility modes, including traditional bicycles and new technologies, such as electric scooters (e-scooters), are becoming solutions. In 2018, e-scooter usage overtook other shared micro-mobility modes with over 38 million e-scooter trips taken. Concurrently, the societal concern regarding the safety of these devices is also increasing. To examine the types of injuries associated with e-scooters and bicycles, the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), a probability sample of US hospitals that collects information from emergency room (ER) visits related to consumer products, was utilized. Records from September 2017 to December 2018 were extracted, and those associated with powered scooters were identified. Injury distributions by age, sex, race, treatment, diagnosis, and location on the body were explored.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Head Impact, Automated Post Simulation Results Aggregation, Visualization and Analysis Using d3VIEW

2020-04-14
2020-01-1330
Euro NCAP Pedestrian head impact protocol mandates the reduction of head injuries, measured using head injury criteria (HIC). Virtual tools driven design comprises of simulating the impact on the hood and post processing the results. Due to the high number of impact points, engineers spend a significant portion of their time in manual data management, processing, visualization and score calculation. Moreover, due to large volume of data transfer from these simulations, engineers face data bandwidth issues particularly when the data is in different geographical locations. This deters the focus of the engineer from engineering and also delays the product development process. This paper describes the development of an automated method using d3VIEW that significantly improves the efficiency and eliminates the data volume difficulties there by reducing the product development time while providing a higher level of simulation results visualization.
Technical Paper

Accident Statistical Distributions from NASS CDS - An Update

2020-04-14
2020-01-0518
The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) contains an abundance of field crash data. As technology advances and the database continues to grow over the years, the statistical significance of the data increases and trends can be observed. The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad-based, up-to-date, reference resource with respect to commonly sought-after crash statistics. Charts include up-to-date crash distributions by Delta-V and impact direction with corresponding injury severity rates. Rollover data is also analyzed, as well as historical trends for injury severity, belt usage, air bag availability, and the availability of vehicle safety technology.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Discrete Robust Optimization for Pedestrian Head Protection

2020-04-14
2020-01-0934
Optimization design for vehicle front-end structures has proven rather essential and been extensively used to improve the vehicle performance. Nevertheless, the front-end structure needs to meet the requirement of both pedestrian safety and structural stiffness which are somewhat contradicting to each other. Furthermore, an optimal design could become less meaningful or even unacceptable when some uncertainties present. In the paper, a multi-objective discrete robust optimization (MODRO) algorithm is used to minimize the injury of head and maximize the structural stiffness involving uncertainties. MODRO algorithm is achieved by coupling grey relational analysis (GRA) and principal component analysis (PCA) with Taguchi method. The optimized result shows that the MODRO algorithm improved performance of pedestrian head injury and robustness of the vehicle front-end structure.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Enhance the Directional Load Bearing Performance of Cowl Cover and Its Effect on Pedestrian Head Impact

2020-04-14
2020-01-0911
In the modern automobile scenario in developing countries, customers are getting more meticulous and market more competitive. Now even the budget vehicle customer expects desirable vehicle performance in specific use cases of the vehicle that were previously not focused by designers. Hence, the focus on perceived quality challenges automobile engineers to go the extra mile when it comes to the cost-effective design of parts that are tangible to the customer. A vehicle's cowl cover is one such exterior component. The primary functions of this part are to provide air intake opening for the HVAC system and cover the components like wiper motor. The aesthetic function is to cover the gaps between windshield, hood, and fender as seamlessly as possible. A specific role of cowl cover, which calls for a designer's attention, is its load-bearing capability.
Technical Paper

Driver Visual Focus of Attention Estimation in Autonomous Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1037
An existing challenge in current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicles is the process of safely transferring control from autonomous driving mode to manual mode because the driver may be distracted with secondary tasks. Such distractions may impair a driver’s situational awareness of the driving environment which will lead to fatal outcomes during a handover. Current state-of-the-art vehicles notify a user of an imminent handover via auditory, visual, and physical alerts but are unable to improve a driver’s situational awareness before a handover is executed. The overall goal of our research team is to address the challenge of providing a driver with relevant information to regain situational awareness of the driving task. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to estimating a driver’s visual focus of attention using a 2D RGB camera as input to a Multi-Input Convolutional Neural Network with shared weights. The system was validated in a realistic driving scenario.
X