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Video

Ultraviolet and Titanium Dioxide Based Photocatalysis HVAC System to Eliminate COVID-19 for Occupant�s Safety & Health in Automobiles

2020-11-09
In a photocatalytic air purifier system, the catalyst that cleans the air is typically titanium dioxide and it is energized by ultraviolet (UV) light. UV is the short-wavelength light just beyond the blue/violet part of the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes can detect. This shortwave-length light has much more energy than ordinary, visible light�and exactly the right amount of energy to get titanium dioxide excited. Titanium dioxide is a semiconductor that covers the filter surface. Just a thin film of titanium dioxide is required at the filter surface with a substrate. When UV light shines on the titanium dioxide, electrons (negatively charged particles inside atoms) are released at its surface. The electrons interact with water molecules (H2O) in the air, breaking them up into hydroxyl radicals (OH�), which are highly reactive, short-lived, uncharged forms of hydroxide ions (OH−).
Standard

Performance Standard for Seats in Civil Rotorcraft, Transport Aircraft, and General Aviation Aircraft

2020-11-02
CURRENT
AS8049D
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum performance standards, qualification requirements, and minimum documentation requirements for passenger and crew seats in civil rotorcraft, transport aircraft, and general aviation aircraft. The goal is to achieve comfort, durability, and occupant protection under normal operational loads and to define test and evaluation criteria to demonstrate occupant protection when a seat/occupant/restraint system is subjected to statically applied ultimate loads and to dynamic impact test conditions set forth in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 23, 25, 27, or 29 (as applicable to the seat type, see Table 1). Guidance for test procedures, measurements, equipment, and interpretation of results is also presented to promote uniform techniques and to achieve acceptable data. While this document addresses system performance, responsibility for the seating system is divided between the seat supplier and the installation applicant.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Concerning the Opportunities and Challenges of eVTOL Applications during a Global Pandemic

2020-10-30
EPR2020022
Electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft technology has developed beyond the traditional aviation industry and now influences the creation of new and novel transportation applications. Some experts even suggest on-demand eVTOL logistics capabilities could be harnessed by crisis response teams to c ombat a future pandemic. The lessons of the COVID-19 crisis highlighted the challenges of managing a global pandemic response due to the difference in regional and local resources, culture, and political systems. Although there may not be a uniform crisis management strategy that the world can agree on, next-generation vertical flight vehicles could be used to distribute limited medical equipment, supplies, and personnel to hot spots faster than conventional aircraft or ground vehicles. However, creating this capability is not easy.
Standard

Driver Drowsiness and Fatigue in the Safe Operation of Vehicles - Definition of Terms and Concepts

2020-10-26
CURRENT
J3198_202010
This SAE Information Report provides definitions and discussions of key terms concerning driver drowsiness and fatigue, and basic information on measuring drowsiness and fatigue. It also includes information and concepts for driver drowsiness as they relate to the safe operation of a vehicle. The key driver drowsiness and fatigue causal factors include the following: (1) sleep quality and quantity, (2) time of day, (3) time awake, (4) time on task (modulated by characteristics of the driving task), (5) task-related fatigue (variations of arousal levels related to task underload and overload), and (6) combinations of these factors. Medical conditions, medication, alcohol, or drugs exacerbate drowsiness; however, the discussion in this report is limited to fatigue concepts.
Journal Article

From the Guantanamo Bay Crash to Objective Fatigue Hazard Identification in Air Transport

2020-10-19
Abstract Sleep quality and maintenance of the optimal cognitive functioning is of crucial importance for aviation safety. Fatigue Risk Management (FRM) enables the operator to achieve the objectives set in their safety and FRM policies. As in any other risk management cycle, the FRM value can be realized by deploying suitable tools that aid robust decision-making. For the purposes of our article, we focus on fatigue hazard identification to explore the possible developments forward through the enhancement of objective tools in air transport operators. To this end we compare subjective and objective tools that could be employed by an FRM system. Specifically, we focus on an exploratory survey on 120 pilots and the analysis of 250 fatigue reports that are compared with objective fatigue assessment based on the polysomnographic (PSG) and neurocognitive assessment of three experimental cases.
Journal Article

Sensitivity Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Air Brake System to Air Leakage

2020-10-12
Abstract Brake systems are one of the essential components of vehicles ensuring the safety of roads and passengers as well as accident prevention. Faulty brake systems, however, can cause inevitable accidents. Fatality analysis reporting system of NHTSA (National Highway Transport Safety Association) has reported that heavy and light trucks, which are obliged to be equipped with dual-circuit air brake system, were, respectively, involved in 8.8% and 38.0% of fatal crashes in the United States, during 2017. Number of heavy vehicle accidents due to complete failure of brake system is far less than accidents due to deficiencies such as worn out brake linings, out-of-adjustment push rod strokes, and leak in the circuits. Severe leakages due to ruptured air hoses or punctured reservoir are highly unlikely to be replenished by compressor and would be distinguished through pressure indicator.
Standard

Motor Vehicle Seat Comfort Performance Measures

2020-10-06
WIP
J2896
These test procedures apply to complete seat systems (production seats or prototypes built at the intended manufacturing quality); however, the procedures can be modified for subsystem or component level testing.
Standard

Multiposition Small Engine Exhaust System Fire Ignition Suppression

2020-10-06
CURRENT
J335_202010
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes equipment and test procedures for determining the performance of spark arrester exhaust systems of multiposition small engines (<19 kW) used in portable applications, including hand-held, hand-guided, and backpack mounted devices. It is not applicable to spark arresters used in vehicles or stationary equipment.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Biodynamic Response of the Hand-Arm System and Study of Its Influence on the Vibrational Response of the Steering Wheel

2020-09-30
2020-01-1548
Driver’s hands modify the vibrational response of the steering wheel, hence car manufacturers are used to measure vibrations of the free steering wheel to ensure reproducibility. However, levels measured in this condition do not represent those perceived by the driver. The aim of this study is to predict the vibrational response of the hand-wheel coupled system from measurements of the non-held steering wheel, and of the mechanical impedance of the arm. The measurement of the biodynamic response (BR) of the hand-arm system has been studied many times in the bibliography and tested according to the position of the arm, the coupling force, the excitation level or the measurement protocol used. These extensive measurements have resulted in the ISO 10 068 standard and mechanical representation such as mass-spring-damper models, also presented in the ISO standard. A wide review of the literature is carried out and the most suitable model for driving is chosen.
Technical Paper

Estimation of interior sound quality in BEVs regarding measurements on the NVH-Chassis- Dynamometer: focusing on tonal components

2020-09-30
2020-01-1542
The NVH character of any car is highly dependent on its operating condition. With BEVs, it depends strongly on the driving speed, total torque, temperature and state of charge of the battery. For these reasons, OEMs usually want to measure many run-ups with constant torque steps or constant driving speed. The supposed simplification of the powertrain by the transition to electrified drive components and the elimination of auxiliary units poses new challenges for acoustic engineers. Unlike traditional vehicles with internal combustion engines, noise components of electric drivetrains fall into a range of audibility where the human ear reacts particularly sensitively. During a 3-year cooperation with a big OEM most of the premium BEVs on the German market were measured and benchmarked to get a feedback about their NVH performance. In addition, the desire for objective characteristic values arose.
Technical Paper

Protective Facial Mask Filters Made from Timber Wood Wastes: An Useful Recycling Approach

2020-09-25
2020-28-0451
Anti-pollution masks have been experiencing a noteworthy importance in protecting people from hazardous health effects imparted by pollution gases. Incorporating elements with good adsorption properties in mask could enhance the filtration of air in a fine quality. Activated carbon has been well acknowledged in terms of evincing adequate adsorption properties. This peculiar property of activated carbon made it to be appraised where air filtration comes into light. This work deals with a novel methodology for measurement study on the pollutant gas adsorption effect of activated carbon particle pellets incorporated in the protective facial mask for better adsorption of main pollutant gases utilizing recycled wood wastes. The resulted mask is up to the par and adsorption capability is well appreciated enough to resist the passage of dust particles through nostrils. Easily available and scraped industrial wood waste materials were utilized to synthesize activated carbon.
Technical Paper

RA-Solar Herbal Decoction Extractor

2020-09-25
2020-28-0448
In this fast-paced world sustainability makes us to rush behind our jobs and spend little time to maintain our healthy life. As we enjoy the benefits of the technological developments, we are forced to combat against diseases which are also increasing day by day. To reduce the consumption of electricity with reduction in environmental impact for its generation is studied to find the solution. Though we have modern medicines to cure these diseases, the side effects created by the modern medicines pushes us towards our traditional system of medicines to get rid of these diseases and get prevented from them. In recent days, Nilavembu decoction (Nilavembukudineer), a siddha formulation played a major role in combating the dengue fever. Even though decoction (kudineer) is one of the best forms of medicine having more bio-availability, it needs more fuel for preparation.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Steering Gearbox Station to Improve Industrial Safety and Productivity through Ergonomics

2020-09-25
2020-28-0330
The economic growth of the company depends on the quality and delivery time of the components. The pursuit of new techniques is mandatory to maintain quick delivery time without compromising quality. Ergonomics is one such technique that helps to improve workstation productivity by reorganizing the workspace, changing the sequence in operations, up-gradation of machine tools, reducing operator fatigue, etc. The ergonomic study was performed in a tractor steering gearbox manufacturing unit. In the present work, an ergonomic assessment of the workstation is done. Ergonomics assessment includes RULA assessment and Work-place assessment helped to find out the factors influencing the work station to be in the alert zone. During the observation of base milling operation, the operator needs to clamp and de-clamp the steering box manually by using mechanical tools. Due to which operator feel more fatigue in the wrist and lower-arm position which reduces productivity.
Technical Paper

Design of Common Electronic Control Unit for Meeting Both 12 Volt and 24 Volt Vehicle Battery Requirements

2020-09-25
2020-28-0342
As electronics is increasingly penetrating automotive subsystems for both passenger and commercial vehicle, need for providing control solutions meeting stringent automotive requirements on one hand and delivering first time right solution based on frugal implementation on another hand is increasingly being felt. Reuse of proven building blocks is one of the key design techniques automotive engineers have been adopting over the years, and automotive embedded systems are no exception. To meet such expectations, vehicle OEMs desire a common Electronic Control Unit (ECU) architecture wherever possible. However as on date, most of the tier-1 suppliers provide different ECU architectures for both 12 Volt and 24 Volt applications. Key challenges are use of common interfaces for output and input devices as well as a common power-supply design which meets 8 to 36 volt requirements. This paper describes the hurdles and solutions for meeting this requirement.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Tractor CG by Considering the Safety Devices at Concept Level

2020-09-25
2020-28-0476
Tractor weight transfer is the most common farm-related cause of fatalities nowadays. As in India it is getting mandatory for all safety devices across all HP ranges. Considering any changes in the weight from an attachment such as Rops, PTO device, tow hook and draw bar etc. can shift the center of gravity towards the weight. center of gravity is higher on a tractor because the tractor needs to be higher in order to complete operations over crops and rough terrain. Terrains, attachments, weights, and speeds can change the tractor’s resistance to turning over. This center of gravity placement disperses the weight so that 30 percent of the tractor’s weight is on the front axle and 70 percent is on the rear axle for two-wheel drive propelled tractors and it must remain within the tractor’s stability baseline for the tractor to remain in an upright position.
Technical Paper

Customized ROPS Application for Configurable Design at Concept Level

2020-09-25
2020-28-0474
Tractor roll over is the most common farm-related cause of fatalities nowadays. ROPS (Roll-Overprotective Structures) are needed to prevent serious injury and death. It creates a protective zone around the operator when a rollover occurs. In India the ROPS is getting mandatory across all HP ranges except narrow track. In the present study states the customized ROPS application for configurable design such as Automated safety zone for all homologation standards, ROPS A0-D excel calculator for selection of material at concept stage and bolt calculator for selection of size. For the above applications below aspects need to consider such as Tractor weight, Rear housing mounting, Operator seat index position (SIP), Seat reference points (SRP) and all ROPS homologation standards. This ROPS application is to reduce the timeline, manual error and ensure the reliability of the modular optimal design for various platforms and variants.
Technical Paper

Metamodel Generation for Frontal Crash Scenario of a Passenger Car

2020-09-25
2020-28-0504
A frontal impact scenario was simulated using a Finite Element Model of a Hybrid III 50th percentile male (LSTC, Livermore CA) along with seatbelt, steering system and driver airbags. The boundary conditions included acceleration pulse to the seat and the outputs including injury measures in terms of Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Normalized Neck Injury Criterion (NIJ) and Chest Severity Index (CSI) were extracted from the simulations. The kinematics of the Hybrid III were validated against the kinematics of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) available in the literature. Using the validated setup, metamodels were generated by creating a design of varying different parameters and recording the responses for each design. First, the X and Z translation of dummy along the seat is provided as input for which there was no variation in the head injury criterion (HIC). Next, the input pulse to the seat is parameterized along with the seatbelt loading and the results are obtained respectively.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Design and Analysis of Passenger Car Body Crash-Worthiness in Frontal Impact Using Radioss

2020-09-25
2020-28-0498
Increasing advancement in automotive technologies ensures that many more lightweight metals become added to the automotive components for the purpose of light weighting and passenger safety. The accidents are unexpected incidents most drivers cannot be avoided that trouble situation. Crash studies are among the most essential methods for enhancing automobile safety features. Crash simulations are attempting to replicate the circumstances of the initial crash. Frontal crashes are responsible for occupant injuries and fatalities 42% of accidents occur on frontal crash. This paper aims at studying the frontal collision of a passenger car frame for frontal crashes based on numerical simulation of a 35 MPH. The structure has been designed to replicate a frontal collision into some kind of inflexible shield at a speed of 15.6 m/s (56 km/h). The vehicle’s exterior body is designed by CATIA V5 R20 along with two material properties to our design.
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