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Engineering Project Management

2021-11-02
Project Management and Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) are two critical techniques used in product development in the mobility industry today. This seminar will bring these techniques together in an easy to understand format that goes beyond the typical concept of constructing timelines and project planning, by exploring not only the Automotive APQP process, but also key aspects of PM processes. Students will gain a solid foundation in the principles and application of Project Management and APQP.  
Technical Paper

The Behavior of Fuel Droplets on a Heated Substrate

2021-10-15
2021-01-5099
The processes of surface wetting and film evaporation play a major role in any application using liquid fuels. Since the behavior of entire multi-liquid films is influenced by many simultaneously occurring physical processes, exact modeling is not yet possible. In order to reduce the complexity and to determine the basic effects in the spreading and evaporation of multi-component films, this study was carried out by placing single 5 μl droplets on a heated metal surface. Various alkanes, ethanol, and mixtures, as well as real gasoline, were studied at surface temperatures between 69°C and 140°C. To describe the processes qualitatively and determine the time-dependent wetted surface area, the droplets were visualized using cameras. With the results, it was possible to determine the course of the wetted surface over time and to compare different liquids under varying surface temperatures.
Technical Paper

Research on High-efficiency Test Method of Vehicle AEB based on High-precision Detection of Radar Turntable Encoder

2021-10-11
2021-01-1273
With the increasingly complex traffic environment, the vehicle AEB system needs to go through a large number of testing processes, in order to drive more safely on the road. For speeding up the development process of AEB and solve the problems of long cycle, high cost and low efficiency in AEB testing, in this paper, a millimeter wave radar turntable is built, and a high-precision detection algorithm of turntable encoder is designed, at the same time, a test method of vehicle AEB based on the detection data of radar turntable encoder is designed. The verification results show that methods described in this paper can be used to develop the vehicle AEB test algorithm efficiently.
Technical Paper

Effect of Material Anisotropy on Thermal-Mechanical Instabilities in Metal-Free Friction Materials

2021-10-11
2021-01-1289
An anisotropic ceramic matrix composite (CMC), which consists of a silicon carbide (SiC) based ceramic matrix reinforced with carbon (C) fibers, is considered as a metal-free friction material replacement in brake and clutch applications. The fibers are assumed to have a circular cross-section, arranged unidirectionally and packed in a rectangular array without the presence of voids. The rule of mixture showed the C-SiC composite to be transversely isotropic with the circumferential plane as the plane of isotropy. A set of parametric studies have been performed to computationally investigate the dominant parameters that affect thermal-mechanical instabilities. It is found that the chance of thermal buckling in the friction disc can be minimized by reducing the elastic moduli in the radial and circumferential directions, or by reducing the coefficient of thermal expansion in the same directions.
Technical Paper

A Molecular Dynamics Study of Tribological Properties of Silicon Carbide as a Metal-Free Friction Material

2021-10-11
2021-01-1284
Friction materials containing metal ingredients used in the automotive industry can cause unfavorable environmental impacts. Existing laws and regulations require heavy metals in brake pads to be phased out of production. Substitutions for metals in friction materials, however, may introduce operational safety issue and other unforeseen problems. In the current study, a molecular dynamics model based on LAMMPS has been developed to study the effect of material composition, density, and geometric configurations on the tribological, mechanical, and thermal properties of silicon carbide under various contact conditions at the atomic level. Simulations which incorporate interfacial contact between surface asperities were performed to predict the elastic modulus, thermal conductivity, wear rate, and coefficient of friction. The resulting predicted properties may help enhance the performance of engineered metal-free friction materials against thermal-mechanical failures.
Technical Paper

Potential and Challenges for Application-Specific Friction Characteristics of Race Brake Pads

2021-10-11
2021-01-1282
As a race driver hits the pedal to trigger the braking event, a dynamic load transfer takes place in the car. This is a similar kind of weight transfer experienced on the road while stopping any vehicle abruptly. Modern race cars such as FIA-regulated Grand Touring Car classes GT3 and LMGTE produce a significant aerodynamic downforce at a reasonably high efficiency level. In this type of high downforce race cars, load variations originated by aerodynamics are added onto the mass transfer. The combination of these effects provide a braking effect with this type of cars a highly transient character. At the same time, our customers are facing the challenge of strict technical regulations, usually forbidding brake control systems. In motorsport competition, car performance is of primary priority to help our customers win championships.
Technical Paper

Divergence of Thickness Losses and Weight Losses of Disc Pads for Passenger Cars: High-Copper NAOs and Copper-Free Low Mets

2021-10-11
2021-01-1290
The current investigation was undertaken to find out if lighter-weight passenger car disc pads would exhibit wear behaviors similar to pickup truck pads and commercial heavy truck drum linings in terms of the permanent volume expansion of the friction material contact surface region. 2 high-copper NonAsbestos Organic formulations and 3 copper-free LowMet formulations were tested according to the SAE J2522 test procedure. In all cases, the measured pad thickness loss was found to be less than the thickness loss calculated from the weight loss, indicating pad volume expansion in the pad surface region, in full agreement with the results from the pickup truck and heavy trucks. The heataffected swollen/expanded layer ranges from 0.27 to 0.61 mm in thickness depending on the formula and test conditions. Due to the expansion, pad durability projections made from test results based on high temperature city traffic tests can result in underestimating the actual durability.
Technical Paper

Empowering the Brake Systems

2021-10-11
2021-01-1261
Some research shows that the transport system is one of the main responsible for the emission of pollutants in the atmosphere. The growing demand for automobiles contrasts directly with the scarcity of inputs, planet temperature increasing and air quality degradation in large cities. This counterpoint is explored and discussed a lot, demanding that studies would be conducted to find out sustainable solutions in the production to end-customers. Instead of use fossil resources, one of the options to reduce gas emissions is the use of vehicles powered by electricity. When converting part of the vehicle's kinetic energy into electrical one its reduces emissions in the production electricity - power plants - as well burning gases in transport. Technological advances allow us to use Electronic Stability Control to generate environmental and safety results in mobility for next years.
Technical Paper

SCV Chassis Performance Optimization Through Parametric Beam Modelling & Simulation

2021-10-01
2021-28-0183
In automotive product development, design and development of the chassis plays an important role since all the internal and external loads pass through the vehicle chassis. Durability, NVH, Dynamics as well as overall vehicle performance is dependent on the chassis structure. Even though passenger vehicle chassis has a ladder frame or a monocoque construction, small commercial vehicle chassis is a hybrid chassis with the cabin welded to the ladder frame. As mileage is critical for sale of SCVs, making a light-weight chassis is also important. This creates a trade-off between the performance and weight which needs to be optimized. In this study, a parametric beam model of the ladder frame & the cabin of the vehicle is created in COMSOL Multiphysics. The structure has been parameterized into the long member & crossmember geometry & sections. The model calculates the first 12 natural frequencies, global stiffness, and weight.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Approach of IP Duct Vane Articulation Study for Enhanced Cabin Cool Down Performance

2021-10-01
2021-28-0200
The cabin cool down performance is influenced by heat load, AC system components and Air handling components. The air handling components are AC duct, vane and vent. Design of AC duct vane plays a crucial role in the airflow directivity in cabin which enhances the cabin cool down performance. Simulations are carried out by rotating the vanes manually and requires post process for every iteration. It leads to more time consuming and more number of simulations to achieve the target value. Research articles focusing on automation and optimization of vane articulation studies are scanty. Thus, the objective of this work is to execute the vane articulation study with less manual intervention. A parametric approach is developed by integrating ANSA and ANSYS FLUENT tools. With Direct Fit Morphing and DoE study approach from ANSA delivers the surface mesh model for the different vane angle configurations.
Technical Paper

Multibody Dynamics Analysis of Tandem Axle Rubber Suspension Using MSC ADAMS

2021-10-01
2021-28-0201
Tipper application has always been associated with rough roads and very high payload. This makes suspension design the most complex job as it has to cater for needs ranging from good ride at no load condition to stability of vehicle at fully loaded condition. Bogie suspension being most commonly used brings in maintenance and breakdown issues which is not desirable by the fleet owners, due to the cost and downtime associated with it. Rubber suspension has been looked upon as options due to its ability to not only provide good ride and stability but also to be almost maintenance free. Tandem axle walking beam rubber suspension is thus suitable for tipper application and has started to make its space in Indian market. Suspension design and development includes costly processes in terms of testing. FEA being the most common tool used for component design, requires inputs like forces acting on each component in various directions which is quite complex to predict.
Technical Paper

Vibrational Analysis of Partially Perforated Rectangular Plates with Circular Perforations

2021-10-01
2021-28-0199
Starting from aerospace to agriculture, partially perforated plates are being used in almost all major spheres of technology. Though a substantial amount of work has been done in this area, the effect of the diameter of circular perforations on the vibrational characteristics of rectangular sheets made of SS 416L has not been reported. The present work aims to bridge this gap through the modal analysis of the said system using respective computational software. In addition to the diameter of circular perforations, the effect of the thickness of the partially perforated rectangular sheets on the free vibrations of the system is also investigated. Through circular and parallel orientations of perforations, this work aims at establishing an understanding of the changes in vibrations depending on the pattern of perforations.
Technical Paper

Front Suspension Joint Integrity Analysis for Addressing Noise Issue Due to Torque Loss at Lower Control Arm Joint

2021-10-01
2021-28-0246
The lower control arm (LCA) is a part of the front suspension system which is mounted on chassis with flexible rubber bushing through-bolted joint which allows the control arm to swing up and down, absorb road bumps and reduce noise and vibrations as front wheels roll over bump or potholes. In bolted joints, torque is applied so as the joint develops a certain preload that is higher than the external loads and losses acting on the joint. But the loss of preload is evident over time which causes quality problems, reworks, or even joint failures. While moving over speed breakers/obstacles abnormal squeak noise is observed in the vehicle due to torque loss in the LCA joint. The intent of this study is to determine preload requirements in LCA joint and various factors contributing to preload loss by performing joint integrity analysis in CAE. Road load data acquisition (RLDA) with Wheel Force Transducer (WFT) is performed for different testing tracks.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study with J48 and Random Tree Classifier for Predicting the State of Hydraulic Braking System through Vibration Signals

2021-10-01
2021-28-0254
Even though hydraulic brakes are valuable safety elements for riders, they are necessary for braking in a good condition. Vibration signatures may be used to assess the condition of the brake components. In this research, the monitor and make status tracking and the dynamic data acquisition method with a piezo-electric transducer is suggested as a promising approach to these challenges by machine-learning. The Ford EcoSport rig was used to get the vibration signal for good and bad braking conditions. The vibration signals had analytical mathematical predictive characteristics, and the decision tree model, J48 was used in the selection of the signals. In order to define a certain concern, a structural decision does not state the number of features required. Therefore, to find the right number of features a rigorous analysis is required.
Technical Paper

The design process for a formula student car brake disc

2021-10-01
2021-28-0252
In today's world with fast-growing mobility, everything is becoming more compact day by day with ever-increasing technological advances. This paper deals with the design of a disc brake rotor considering the requirement of the student formula team. In this paper, different design iterations shall be realized to have maximum heat flux distribution and at the same time maintain the structural rigidity of the rotor so that it can withstand the torque requirement of an SAE vehicle especially the acceleration test. Solidworks was used for design modeling while Optistruct and Hypermesh were used to perform the CAE Analysis for the brake rotor. In this paper, we will explain various design iterations and how design can be optimized with extensive use of CAE tools by performing structural and thermal analysis, etc. The analytical results from the CAE simulation will help us to determine the slots and hole pattern on the rotor face as well as material selection for the rotor.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on SS 304 Sheet Metal for Bending Process Optimization using Response Surface Method

2021-10-01
2021-28-0268
Productivity plays a vital role in manufacturing processes as well as in service. Sheet metal bending process is a type of forming process that has been used by the wide range in industries. There are several tangible and intangible factors affecting the production rate during the bending process. Spring back is one of the severe factors which affects the production rate, especially in stainless steel material. The spring back is mostly affected by material properties, sheet thickness, bending radius, die sizes and component geometry. In this paper, the spring back is studied by the effect of various parameters such as rectangle/oblong slots with varying pitch distance and without slots and bending time in the stainless-steel material 304 grade in V-air bending machine. The experimental data are evaluated by means of the Response Surface Method (RSM). Finally, it was observed that explored results have the betterment of the production rate with connection to spring back.
Technical Paper

Experimental Estimates on Performances of Hybrid-Bio Fiber / Powder Strengthened Composite Structure

2021-10-01
2021-28-0276
This research paper affords the practical investigation of the fabrication of eco based composites. The banana fiber is used as primary and powdered coconut shell is utilized as secondary reinforcements with epoxy resin to structure hybrid composite samples. The fiber weight proportion was kept as constant and the powder weight proportion was varied with five different proportions. Composite laminates were made-up by hand lay-up technique and tailed by compression moulding process. The manufactured composites had been examined as per the standards of ASTM to estimate the mechanical behaviors such as flexural, tensile and impact strengths. The results of the tests show that under mechanical loads, the hybrid composite with coconut shell powder outperforms the unfilled fiber reinforced composite
Standard

Inspection and Test Quality Systems, Requirements for Aviation, Space, and Defense Organizations

2021-09-30
WIP
AS9003B
Price increases in effect for this document as of January 2017 reflect a new copyright agreement for use of ISO 9001:2009. This standard includes selected quality system requirements from ISO 9001:2008[1] and AS9100:2009 applicable to noncomplex products and associated manufacturing processes. ISO 9001 text incorporated into this standard appears in standard font; while aviation, space, and defense industry additional requirements, definitions, and notes are presented in bold, italic text. The requirements of this standard are intended to be applied in whole, without any exclusions. Compliance with all corresponding AS9100 requirements is considered to meet/exceed compliance with the requirements of this standard. The requirements specified in this standard are complementary (not alternative) to contractual and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.
Standard

Issues in Stairway Design Aboard Transport Category Airplanes

2021-09-28
WIP
AIR5670A
This document contains information that can be used by the air transportation industry to evaluate the design of airplane interior stairways with respect to the safety of passengers and crew in normal operating conditions and emergency evacuations. This document addresses only design issues related to interior stairways meant for use by passengers and not stairways meant to be used exclusively by crewmembers or maintenance workers.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study between Abrasion Techniques to Improve the Adhesion of Rubber and Metal Bond for Commercial Vehicle Applications

2021-09-22
2021-26-0253
Engine mounts are an integral part of the vehicle that helps in reducing the vibrations generated from the engine. Engine mounts require a simple yet complicated amalgamation of two very different materials, steel and rubber. Proper adhesion between the two is required to prevent any part failure. Therefore, it becomes important that a comprehensive study is done to understand the mating phenomenon of both. A good linking between rubber and metal substrate is governed by surface pretreatment. Various methodologies such as mechanical and chemical are adopted for the same. This paper aims to present a comparative study as to which surface pretreatment has an edge over other techniques in terms of separation force required to break the bonding between the two parts. The study also presents a cost comparison between the techniques so that the best possible technique can be put to use in the commercial vehicle industry.
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