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Training / Education

Engineering Project Management

2020-12-01
Project Management and Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) are two critical techniques used in product development in the mobility industry today. This seminar will bring these techniques together in an easy to understand format that goes beyond the typical concept of constructing timelines and project planning, by exploring not only the Automotive APQP process, but also key aspects of PM processes. Students will gain a solid foundation in the principles and application of Project Management and APQP.
Training / Education

Theories and Methods of Future HMI Design for Automobiles

2020-11-12
HMI design is an Interdisciplinary, which is based on human cognitive psychology and combines humanities, sociology, aesthetics, information science and other disciplines. While automotive technologies can be applied regardless of regions, HMI must be localized, as it is closely related to regional culture, people's living habits and characteristics. At the same time, HMI design has its own complete theoretical system, research and design methods and testing methods, instead of relying on experience. The purpose of this course is to equip people involved in the automotive industry with a basic sense of HMI design of vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Concept Investigation Simulation Model on Hybrid Powertrains for Handheld Tools

2020-10-30
2020-32-2316
Amid the increasing demand for higher efficiency in combustion driven handheld tools, the recent developments in electric machine technology together with the already existing benefits of small combustion engines for these applications favor the investigation of potential advantages in hybrid powertrain tools. This concept-design study aims to use a fully parametric, system-level simulation model with exchangeable blocks, created with a power-loss approach in Matlab and Simulink, in order to examine the potential of different hybrid configurations for different tool load cycles. After the model introduction, the results of numerous simulations for 36 to 100 cc engine displacement will be presented and compared in terms of overall system efficiency and overall powertrain size. The different optimum hybrid configurations can show a reduction of up to 30 % in system’s brake specific fuel consumption compared to the baseline combustion engine driven model.
Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Transient Heat Transfer Simulation and Buckling Analysis of Disc Brakes in In-Wheel Motor Driven Vehicles

2020-10-05
2020-01-1618
High temperature distribution in disc brake mounted within in-wheel motor driven vehicle has several negative effects on braking performance. This is mainly due to the enclosed nature of the braking system. This paper aims to determine the effect of contact geometry on temperature distribution and thermal buckling in such a brake. Numerical analysis is conducted to investigate the variation of temperature field on the brake disc at different cover angles of pads while maintaining the same moment of friction. The effect of different radial positions of the pads is a second consideration in the current work, using a transient modeling approach. To validate the simulation results, an approximate, analytical solution is derived according to energy conservation. The results show that, for the same work done by the pads, the maximum temperature on the disc increases with a decrease in the pad cover angle.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Resolution of Vehicle Brake Judder

2020-10-05
2020-01-1609
One of the major discomforts while driving any medium to heavy commercial vehicle is brake judder. Brake juddering can be defined as vibrations felt on steering wheel or brake pedal or cabin floor, when brakes are applied at certain speeds and pressures. The frequencies of this judder lie as high as 500 Hz to as low as 10Hz. The brake juddering can be caused by a number of factors because of which providing universal solution only from brakes point of view is difficult. Some of the causes are related to part fitment, part quality, material selection, manufacturing process, Design consideration, environmental factors, peripheral aggregates etc. This paper gives us a brief idea about resolution of juddering problem in intermediate commercial vehicle by DOE method, and this methodology can be applied in heavy commercial vehicles also.
Technical Paper

Potentials and Challenges of a Brake Particle Emission Collecting System

2020-10-05
2020-01-1635
Brake particle emissions as a part of non-exhaust emissions are becoming more and more relevant, various international research activities can be stated. Also from the legislation side, first hints are given in regards of possible regulations. One possible approach for the reduction of brake particle emissions deals with the collection of those particles close to the foundation brake. The presented paper will follow such an approach and give some insights. In a first step, the technical layout is described for bench and vehicle testing. While for bench testing a PMP-like style of the setup could be chosen, the vehicle test setup is oriented on conventional wheel dust measurements. Hence, presented results of laboratory testing are dealing with PN and PM measurements. Also the impact on particle size distribution is discussed. It can be stated, that the particle collecting system is able to improve PN and PM emissions. Additionally, ultra-fine particles are almost eliminated.
Technical Paper

A Study on Optimization of Brake Feeling and Method for Flexible Brake with Integrated Electronic Booster

2020-10-05
2020-01-1642
Throughout the automotive industry, the application of an integrated electronic booster (IEB) system has been actively applied following with diversify powertrain types and expand autonomous vehicles. Compared to the existing vacuum boosters, the performance advantages of IEB are 1) robustness against environmental changes, 2) rapid hydraulic reactivity, etc., and the advantages of cost / university are 1) flexibility for powertrain changes 2) weight saving 3) package simplification. Although IEB has a great advantage in performance and cost, it still needs a lot of research in various fields to realize the braking feeling, which is the performance of the emotional aspect, similar to the existing system. The braking feeling of the existing system was determined by the mechanical action of the hardware connected from the input device, the brake pedal to the hydraulic line. However, IEB system has a completely different structure from the existing system.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Interactions Between Phenolic Resin and Metal Sulphides and their Contribution to PAD Performance and Wear

2020-10-05
2020-01-1600
In order to keep the coefficient of friction stable, some additives such as metal sulphides, are included in the brake pads formulation. Previous work from RIMSA has shown that oxidation temperature range of the metal sulphides can be one of the key properties to explain their contribution to the performance and wear of a PAD. This new work is a step forward in the interpretation of the mechanism of sulphides as chemically active additives in the brake pads. Phenolic resin is the matrix of the brake pads and starts to decompose around 300 ºC in presence of oxygen and temperature. In order to establish a connection on between sulphide oxidation and phenolic resin degradation, several studies based on heat treatment of blends of different metal sulphides (Iron sulphide, Tin sulphide and Composite sulphide) with phenolic resin have been done. Then the material evolution was studied with techniques such as TGA - DSC, XRD, IR and SEM - EDS.
Technical Paper

Controlling Performance of Copper-Free Brake-Pads by Varying Size of Graphite Particles

2020-10-05
2020-01-1604
Graphite plays a crucial role in friction materials, since it has good thermal conductivity, lubricity and act as a friction modifier. The right type, amount, shape, and size of the particles control the performance of the brake-pads. The theme of the study was investigating the influence of size of graphite particles (having all other specifications identical) on performance properties of brake-pads containing graphite particles in the average size of 60 µm, 120 µm, 200 µm and 400 µm. Physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of the developed brake-pads was done. The tribological performance was studied using a full- scale inertia brake dynamometer following a Japanese automobile testing standard (JASO C406). Tribo-performance in terms of fade resistance, friction stability and wear resistance were observed best for smaller graphite particles. It was concluded that smaller size serves best for achieving best performance properties barring compressibility.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Setup for Investigations on the Boundary Layer Dynamics

2020-10-05
2020-01-1617
The frictional behavior of a tribological contact is influenced by the dynamics in the forming boundary layer. Recurring structures, built up through self-organizing effects, were found in various frictional systems. To investigate those phenomena on a macroscopic scale and to better understand dynamical processes such as the formation and decay of contact patches, the first revision of the Wear Debris Investigator (WDI) was introduced in 2017. A friction gap is formed between two coaxial horizontally arranged discs. To mimic the presence of particles, artificial wear dust is fed into the gap. With a camera the formation of the boundary layer is recorded in situ. An implemented normal force and torque sensor enables to recognize correlations between the formed boundary layer and the occurring frictional forces. Numerous measurements revealed an insufficient precision of the previous WDI.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

Appropriate Damping Loss Factor of Vehicle Interior Cavity for Valid Application of Statistical Energy Analysis

2020-09-30
2020-01-1524
It is known that SEA is a rapid and simple methodology for analyzing complex vibroacoustic systems. However, the SEA principle is not always valid and one has to be careful about the physical conditions at which the SEA principle is acceptable. In this study, the appropriate damping loss factor of the vehicle interior cavity is studied in the viewpoint of the modal overlap factor of the cavity and the decay per mean free path (DMFP) of the cavity. Virtual SEA tests are performed with an FE model combination, which is suggested by a previous study of Stelzer et al. for the simulation of the sound transmission loss (STL) of vehicle panel structure. The FE model combination is consisting of the body in white (BIW), an acoustical-excited hemisphere-shaped exterior cavity, and the interior cavity. It is found that the DMFP of the interior cavity is appropriate between 0.5 ~ 1 dB for applying SEA principle.
Technical Paper

Using Statistical Energy Analysis to Optimize Sound Package for Realistic Load Cases

2020-09-30
2020-01-1525
The statistical energy analysis (SEA) is widely used to support the development of the sound package of cars. This paper will present the preparation of a model designed to investigate the sound package of the new Audi A3 and associated correlation against measurements. Special care was given during the creation of the model on the representation of the structure to enable the analysis of structure borne energy flow on top of the classical airborne analysis usually done with SEA. The sound package was also detailed in the model to allow further optimization and analysis of its performance. Two real life load cases will be presented to validate the model with measurements. First, the dominating powertrain and a second load case with dominating rolling noise. An analysis of the contribution of the different source components and a way to diagnose the weak paths of the vehicle will be presented. The focus of this investigation is the application of optimally adjusted treatment.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound. Considering the generic test configuration of turbulent pipe flow, the present study investigates in particular the scope and the limits of incompressible Large-Eddy Simulation in predicting the evolution of turbulent sound sources to be supplied as source terms into the acoustic analogy of Lighthill.
Technical Paper

Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1535
The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. This paper illustrates a comparative conceptual study on windshield actuation for the active control of wind noise in a passenger car. Making use of an experimental modal analysis of the windshield installed in a medium-sized vehicle, a reduced order numerical simulation model is derived.
Technical Paper

Suggestive Sound Design Based on Virtual Gears

2020-09-30
2020-01-1543
With the electrification of vehicles, new questions and problems are rising in the field of NVH. The in-cabin noise was reduced significantly due to the new drive system. Additionally, the spectral composition of this noise changed dramatically. While the reduction of the in-cabin sound pressure levels is generally welcomed by customers and engineers alike, the predominantly high-pitched tonal sounds of the electrical drives are normally perceived with less enthusiasm. Active sound design can help both in masking those noises, or at the least embed them in new harmonic contexts so their annoyance can be reduced. A variety of research in the field of traffic psychology shows that acoustical feedback can alter the driving behavior. Based on this, our idea is, that if certain sounds induce specific reactions in drivers, a specifically designed active sound design could be used to influence said behavior.
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