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Training / Education

Effective Writing for Engineering and Technical Professionals

2019-09-09
The ability to write concise and unambiguous reports, proposals, manuals, or other technical documents is a key skill for any high-functioning engineer or technical staff person in the mobility industries. Through a combination of class discussions, interactive workshop activities, assignments, checker teams (review teams) and job aids, this course delivers real-life technical writing techniques and tools that can be immediately applied. Attendees discover the importance of knowing their audiences and how to communicate technical information in a "user-friendly" style.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Golf Car Powertrain NVH Sources and Mitigation Methods

2019-06-05
2019-01-1478
Throughout North America the golf market has remained nominally flat in recent history and has grown worldwide. With this growth a trend has been seen where the number of young adults as well as adults over the age of 65 years involved with the game has increased. The demographics in golf showing the most growth also have high standards for the operation of the golf car and have transcended their expectations to align with some of the qualities expected of automobiles. These shifts in consumer expectations along with market competition drive OEMs to deliver refined golf cars making noise and vibration a key aspect in development. This paper showcases a recent study to improve the powertrain N&V performance of an I.C. engine golf car. Primarily, a test-based approach was followed. Chassis rolls and on road testing were performed for vehicle benchmarking and target setting. System and component tests were completed to identify root cause and provide input to mitigation methods applied.
Technical Paper

Extensive Correlation Study of Acoustic Trim Packages in Trimmed Body Modeling of an Automotive Vehicle

2019-06-05
2019-01-1511
In the automotive sector, the structure borne noise generated by the engine and road-tire interactions is a major source of noise inside the passenger cavity. In order to increase the global acoustic comfort, predictive simulation models must be available in the design phase. The acoustic trims have a major impact on the noise level inside the car cavity. Although several publications for this kind of simulations can be found, an extensive correlation study with measurement is needed, in order to validate the modeling approaches. In this article, a detailed correlation study for a complete car is performed. The acoustic trim package of the measured car includes all acoustic trims, such as carpet, headliner, seats and firewall covers. The simulation methodology relies on the influence of the acoustic trim package on the car structure and acoustic cavities. The challenge lies in the definition of an efficient and accurate framework for acoustic trimmed bodies.
Technical Paper

A comparison of two source characterisation techniques proposed for standardisation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1540
Automotive industry shows an increased tendency towards characterisation of vibration sources by independent quantities such as blocked forces and free velocities. Currently two independent ISO working groups propose standards for this source characterisation process. Both standards are still under development. During this presentation it is shown how the different approaches of both standards can be derived from a general Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) framework and a qualitative comparison will be made. Next, a practical study involving source characterisation and a response simulation using component TPA methodology is shown to illustrate the practical differences between the approaches and their effects when used in response synthesis. In conclusion some best practice approaches and software are discussed.
Technical Paper

Determining dynamic vibro-acoustic characteristics and structural damping of an elastic monolithic panel

2019-06-05
2019-01-1538
Antonio Figueroa Shiloh Industries 47632 Halyard Drive Plymouth, MI 48170 Lingguang Chen and Sean F. Wu Department of Mechanical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, MI 48202 Abstract Evaluations of the dynamic and acoustic responses of panels, partitions, and walls are of concern across many industries, from building home appliances, planning meeting rooms, to designing airplanes and passenger cars. Over the past few decades, search efforts for developing new methodologies and technologies to enable NVH engineers to acquire and correlate dynamically the relationship between input excitations and vibro-acoustic responses of arbitrary-shaped panels has grown exponentially. The application of a particular methodology or technology to the evaluation of a specific structure depends intimately on the goals and objectives of the NVH engineers and industries.
Technical Paper

Driveline NVH integration of A NA truck program

2019-06-05
2019-01-1559
In current automotive industry, it is well known that the driveline subsystem and components are normally from different automotive suppliers for OEMs. In order to ensure proper system integration and successful development of driveline system NVH performances, collaboration efforts between OEMs and suppliers are very demanding and important. In this paper, a process is presented to achieve successfulness in developing and optimizing vehicle integration through effective teamwork between a driveline supplier and a major OEM. The development process includes multiple critical steps. They include target development and roll down, targets being specific and measurable, comprehension of interactions of driveline and vehicle dynamics, accurate definition of sensitivity, proper deployment of modal mapping strategy, which requires open data sharing; and system dynamics and optimization.
Technical Paper

The History of Laminated Steel

2019-06-05
2019-01-1578
This paper will discuss the background and history of "laminated steel" (commonly called "noiseless steel" or "MPM". It will provide the early development, where it came from and how it was introduced to North America as a new tool for engineering acoustical solutions. A progressive timeline will show laminated steel from its earliest inception and application in Europe to its current role in today's global market. Case histories along with examples of successful applications will detail its important contribution in advancing the technology for component damping. Many manufacturing sources as well as end-users have been impacted over the the decades since it was introduced. Many of these companies will be highlighted.The background information for this paper is provided by many of the individuates who were involved in the very early stages of its introduction as well as those who are currently working to utilize the technology of "laminated steel".
Technical Paper

Developing a Custom Data Acquisition Software Package for a Self-contained Acoustic Testing Facility

2019-06-05
2019-01-1501
This paper provides an overview of custom software developed for the sound generation, control and data acquisition of a self-contained acoustic testing facility system used for conducting random incidence sound absorption tests and sound transmission loss tests on small samples in accordance with SAE J2883 and J1400 standards, respectively. The paper discusses the thoughts behind developing user friendly algorithms and graphical user interfaces (GUI) for sound generation, control, data acquisition, and signal processing to obtain good data and precautions should there be any anomalies in the data.
Training / Education

AS9100D Internal Auditor Training

2019-05-08
Internal audits (a requirement of the AS9100 Rev D Standard) are intended to verify the compliance and effectiveness of the organization's quality management system. Internal auditors must be knowledgeable of these requirements and the expectations as identified in the standard. In addition, the audit requirements outlined in the AS9101 Standard have significantly changed the way auditors are expected to conduct audits in the aviation, space and defense industries.
Training / Education

Patent Litigation Risk Management Toolkit

2019-04-30
In recent years, total annual United States patent grants have increased to over 300,000, while patent infringement lawsuit filings have exceeded 6,000 per year. Only a small fraction of granted patents ever end up in litigation. Of the many causes for the disparity is the growing awareness and sensitivity of companies to patent infringement risk management practices. This course addresses a number of those practices (and tools for implementing the practices), placing them into context, and providing a practical overview for how to implement them to help reduce the prospect of patent infringement litigation.
Training / Education

Design Considerations for Secure Embedded Systems

2019-04-22
Embedded hardware is everywhere you look today from your vehicle’s infotainment system to refrigerator to medical devices and everything else in-between. With so much exposure one would think that such devices are secure against attack; however, sadly for many devices this is not the case. For proof, just look no further than your local news reports. They are full of reports on devices being hacked. So, as engineers, how do we go about first identifying and mitigating (or capitalizing) the potential security vulnerabilities within these devices?
Training / Education

Vehicle Crash Reconstruction Principles and Technology

2019-04-22
Crash reconstruction is a scientific process that utilizes principles of physics and empirical data to analyze the physical, electronic, video, audio, and testimonial evidence from a crash to determine how and why the crash occurred. This course will introduce this reconstruction process as it gets applied to various crash types - in-line and intersection collisions, pedestrian collisions, motorcycle crashes, rollover crashes, and heavy truck crashes. Methods of evidence documentation will be covered. Analysis methods will also be presented for electronic data from event data recorders and for video.
Technical Paper

Determination of Climatic Boundary Conditions for Vehicular Real Driving Emission Tests

2019-04-02
2019-01-0758
Vehicular Emission testing is gaining importance over the past years in the wake of requirements for real driving emissions with implementation of RDE packages across Europe / USA and various developing countries. Extending the same concept for other countries poses slight challenges in terms of geographical and climatical conditions prevailing in the country, where the climatical conditions are differing from Europe / USA. It is a challenge to accept the same boundary conditions as in Europe, at the same time the challenge is to find a threshold number in a more scientific manner. This study concentrates on determination and recommendation of thresholds for ambient temperature and altitude. The basis for temperature threshold would be to determine the percentage of time the temperature exceeded beyond the threshold over year in the country. The basis for Altitude is considered based on the percentage of total length of roads beyond the threshold altitude limit.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Evaluation of 12V/48V Architectures based on EDS Simulation and real Drive Cycles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0482
Both the rising number of electrical systems and the electrical part of the powertrain is considerably increasing the electrical power requirements of vehicles. As a consequence, multiple voltage supply levels have been introduced. However, even if only the 12V/48V configuration is considered, as in this paper, the number of possible electrical distribution system (EDS) architectures is strongly enlarged. Additional degrees of freedom are the allocation of the loads to the voltage levels, the dimensioning of new components, and the control strategy. Hence, the optimization of such architectures must be based on simulation, which allows the evaluation of a multitude of variants and test scenarios within an acceptable time frame. While strict cost, weight, and quality constraints must be upheld, the stability of the voltage supply is a major focus because a significant part of future electrical systems is highly safety-critical.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Urban Collision Risk Scenarios in China Based upon FOT on AEBs

2019-04-02
2019-01-0131
Compared with the scenarios on expressway or in closed area (such as a park or a port), urban driving scenarios is more complex and diverse, and challenges automated driving (AD) function more. Meanwhile the lack of urban scenario analysis, especially urban collision risk scenario analysis, leads to slow development of vehicles with AD functions in city, in order to boost evolution of automated vehicles (AVs) in city, field operational test (FOT) need to be carried out in cities. In this paper, urban collision risk scenarios (UCRS) in China, based upon a small scale of FOT on Autonomous Emergency Braking System (AEBs), were analyzed. Despite of road types, weather conditions and light conditions, the UCRS collected in Tianjin, Chongqing and Hefei, China were classified into six categories.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control-Oriented Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Models for Non-Standard Ambient Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0196
Complying to both the increasingly stringent pollutant emissions as well as (future) GHG emission legislation - with increased focus on in-use real-world emissions - puts a great challenge to the engine/aftertreatment control development process. Control system complexity, calibration and validation effort has increased dramatically over the past decade. A trend that is likely to continue considering the next steps in emission and GHG emission legislation. Control-oriented engine models are valuable tools for efficient development of engine monitoring and control systems. Furthermore, these (predictive) engine models are more and more used as part of control algorithms to ensure legislation compliant and optimized performance over the system lifetime. For these engine models, it is essential that simulation and prediction of system variables during non-nominal engine operation, such as non-standard ambient conditions, is well captured.
Technical Paper

DC/DC Modeling and Current Harmonic Analysis in Fuel Cell Hybrid Power System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0375
Fuel cells directly convert the energy stored in hydrogen into electrical energy through an electrochemical reaction, and the only reaction product is water, which can improve the energy efficiency and reduce the pollution caused by fossil fuels. The fuel cell hybrid power system used in vehicles usually consists of a fuel cell stack and a power battery module, and the DC/DC converter is the key component to connect them together. The current ripples caused by the system have been confirmed to have detrimental effects on the fuel cell’s reliability and lifespan. In addition, it is one of the key factors that reduce the system efficiency. So, it is necessary to analyze the current ripple in the system and maintain it at a low level. In this paper, a brief review on the different kinds of converters used in vehicles has been made. Then, with the help of MATLAB/SIMULINK, a simulation model of the hybrid power system based on 4-phase interleaved parallel topology is established.
Technical Paper

Nighttime Visibility in Moonlight Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1005
This paper presents research on the effect that moonlight has on the visibility of objects in the roadway from a driver’s perspective. Two nighttime moonlight conditions are tested. The first condition involves no moon, and hence no moon light contribution. The second testing condition is during a full moon, and specifically when the moon is closest to the Earth, known as a super moon. Baseline ambient light measurements of illumination arriving at the roadway test area are measured in both lighting scenarios. Additionally, the change in illumination on the roadway is recorded at thirty minute intervals as the moon rises to its highest position in the sky. Luminance readings of the roadway objects are recorded during the same time intervals to record the change in reflected light that is attributable to the moon light.
Technical Paper

Surface Mapping in 3D Coordinate Metrology for Automotive Industry

2019-04-02
2019-01-1270
Surface mapping for freeform using CNC-CMM plays an important role in advanced coordinate industries. CNC-CMM machine can assess the parts specification, which has a significant impact on design, manufacturing, inspection and quality control processes. This article, presented four important issues to give a comprehensive view of the progress in this area. Eventually, the aim of this work is to give an overview of 3D plot mapping using freeform artifact utilizing computer aided inspection technique in the area of industrial dimensional metrology. This work happens as a new guide to cover and develop the lack of standard artifact for evaluation geometrical surface features in 3D coordinate metrology to optimize the precision, accuracy and verification time especially for automotive industry.
Technical Paper

Speed Analysis of Yawing Passenger Vehicles Following Tire Tread Detachment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0418
This paper presents yaw testing of vehicles with tread removed from tires at various locations on the vehicle. A 2004 Chevrolet Malibu and a 2003 Ford Expedition were included in the test series. Speeds up to 60 mph were achieved. The vehicles were instrumented to record speed, steering angle, yaw angle, wheel speeds, and other parameters. The tire marks on the roadway were surveyed and photographed. Critical speed analysis has long been used by Accident Reconstructionists for calculating speed at the beginning of a yaw. Traditionally, the method has been used to calculate the speed a vehicle with four intact tires. The critical speed model is extended to include the analysis of speed of vehicles following a tread detachment event. It was found that the critical speed formula produces results of acceptable and known accuracy provided the appropriate inputs are used for the given situation and several guidelines are observed.
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