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Training / Education

Effective Writing for Engineering and Technical Professionals

2019-09-09
The ability to write concise and unambiguous reports, proposals, manuals, or other technical documents is a key skill for any high-functioning engineer or technical staff person in the mobility industries. Through a combination of class discussions, interactive workshop activities, assignments, checker teams (review teams) and job aids, this course delivers real-life technical writing techniques and tools that can be immediately applied. Attendees discover the importance of knowing their audiences and how to communicate technical information in a "user-friendly" style.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Golf Car Powertrain NVH Sources and Mitigation Methods

2019-06-05
2019-01-1478
Throughout North America the golf market has remained nominally flat in recent history and has grown worldwide. With this growth a trend has been seen where the number of young adults as well as adults over the age of 65 years involved with the game has increased. The demographics in golf showing the most growth also have high standards for the operation of the golf car and have transcended their expectations to align with some of the qualities expected of automobiles. These shifts in consumer expectations along with market competition drive OEMs to deliver refined golf cars making noise and vibration a key aspect in development. This paper showcases a recent study to improve the powertrain N&V performance of an I.C. engine golf car. Primarily, a test-based approach was followed. Chassis rolls and on road testing were performed for vehicle benchmarking and target setting. System and component tests were completed to identify root cause and provide input to mitigation methods applied.
Technical Paper

Determining dynamic vibro-acoustic characteristics and structural damping of an elastic monolithic panel

2019-06-05
2019-01-1538
Antonio Figueroa Shiloh Industries 47632 Halyard Drive Plymouth, MI 48170 Lingguang Chen and Sean F. Wu Department of Mechanical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, MI 48202 Abstract Evaluations of the dynamic and acoustic responses of panels, partitions, and walls are of concern across many industries, from building home appliances, planning meeting rooms, to designing airplanes and passenger cars. Over the past few decades, search efforts for developing new methodologies and technologies to enable NVH engineers to acquire and correlate dynamically the relationship between input excitations and vibro-acoustic responses of arbitrary-shaped panels has grown exponentially. The application of a particular methodology or technology to the evaluation of a specific structure depends intimately on the goals and objectives of the NVH engineers and industries.
Technical Paper

The History of Laminated Steel

2019-06-05
2019-01-1578
This paper will discuss the background and history of "laminated steel" (commonly called "noiseless steel" or "MPM". It will provide the early development, where it came from and how it was introduced to North America as a new tool for engineering acoustical solutions. A progressive timeline will show laminated steel from its earliest inception and application in Europe to its current role in today's global market. Case histories along with examples of successful applications will detail its important contribution in advancing the technology for component damping. Many manufacturing sources as well as end-users have been impacted over the the decades since it was introduced. Many of these companies will be highlighted.The background information for this paper is provided by many of the individuates who were involved in the very early stages of its introduction as well as those who are currently working to utilize the technology of "laminated steel".
Technical Paper

Developing a Custom Data Acquisition Software Package for a Self-contained Acoustic Testing Facility

2019-06-05
2019-01-1501
This paper provides an overview of custom software developed for the sound generation, control and data acquisition of a self-contained acoustic testing facility system used for conducting random incidence sound absorption tests and sound transmission loss tests on small samples in accordance with SAE J2883 and J1400 standards, respectively. The paper discusses the thoughts behind developing user friendly algorithms and graphical user interfaces (GUI) for sound generation, control, data acquisition, and signal processing to obtain good data and precautions should there be any anomalies in the data.
Technical Paper

Determination of Climatic Boundary Conditions for Vehicular Real Driving Emission Tests

2019-04-02
2019-01-0758
Vehicular Emission testing is gaining importance over the past years in the wake of requirements for real driving emissions with implementation of RDE packages across Europe / USA and various developing countries. Extending the same concept for other countries poses slight challenges in terms of geographical and climatical conditions prevailing in the country, where the climatical conditions are differing from Europe / USA. It is a challenge to accept the same boundary conditions as in Europe, at the same time the challenge is to find a threshold number in a more scientific manner. This study concentrates on determination and recommendation of thresholds for ambient temperature and altitude. The basis for temperature threshold would be to determine the percentage of time the temperature exceeded beyond the threshold over year in the country. The basis for Altitude is considered based on the percentage of total length of roads beyond the threshold altitude limit.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Urban Collision Risk Scenarios in China Based upon FOT on AEBs

2019-04-02
2019-01-0131
Compared with the scenarios on expressway or in closed area (such as a park or a port), urban driving scenarios is more complex and diverse, and challenges automated driving (AD) function more. Meanwhile the lack of urban scenario analysis, especially urban collision risk scenario analysis, leads to slow development of vehicles with AD functions in city, in order to boost evolution of automated vehicles (AVs) in city, field operational test (FOT) need to be carried out in cities. In this paper, urban collision risk scenarios (UCRS) in China, based upon a small scale of FOT on Autonomous Emergency Braking System (AEBs), were analyzed. Despite of road types, weather conditions and light conditions, the UCRS collected in Tianjin, Chongqing and Hefei, China were classified into six categories.
Technical Paper

Vehicle E/E Architecture and Its Adaptation to New Technical Trends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0862
With the ever-increasing requirements on vehicle performance, as well as the trend of vehicle becoming an integral part of a much bigger ecosystem involving autonomous driving, intelligent transportation and smart city, more and more electrical/electronic (E/E) systems are integrated in vehicles. Vehicle E/E architecture being the fundamental organization of vehicle E/E components, the relationship among the components and with the environment, as well as the principals guiding the design and evolution, has the most basic and significant influences on vehicle E/E system functions and performance. This paper gives the definition of vehicle E/E architecture and provides different views. The contents, process of design, and how E/E architecture influences vehicle function and performance are discussed. New technical trends in automotive industry and how vehicle E/E architecture evolves to adapt to the trends are studied.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control-Oriented Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Models for Non-Standard Ambient Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0196
Complying to both the increasingly stringent pollutant emissions as well as (future) GHG emission legislation - with increased focus on in-use real-world emissions - puts a great challenge to the engine/aftertreatment control development process. Control system complexity, calibration and validation effort has increased dramatically over the past decade. A trend that is likely to continue considering the next steps in emission and GHG emission legislation. Control-oriented engine models are valuable tools for efficient development of engine monitoring and control systems. Furthermore, these (predictive) engine models are more and more used as part of control algorithms to ensure legislation compliant and optimized performance over the system lifetime. For these engine models, it is essential that simulation and prediction of system variables during non-nominal engine operation, such as non-standard ambient conditions, is well captured.
Technical Paper

DC/DC Modeling and Current Harmonic Analysis in Fuel Cell Hybrid Power System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0375
Fuel cells directly convert the energy stored in hydrogen into electrical energy through an electrochemical reaction, and the only reaction product is water, which can improve the energy efficiency and reduce the pollution caused by fossil fuels. The fuel cell hybrid power system used in vehicles usually consists of a fuel cell stack and a power battery module, and the DC/DC converter is the key component to connect them together. The current ripples caused by the system have been confirmed to have detrimental effects on the fuel cell’s reliability and lifespan. In addition, it is one of the key factors that reduce the system efficiency. So, it is necessary to analyze the current ripple in the system and maintain it at a low level. In this paper, a brief review on the different kinds of converters used in vehicles has been made. Then, with the help of MATLAB/SIMULINK, a simulation model of the hybrid power system based on 4-phase interleaved parallel topology is established.
Technical Paper

On Developing Advanced Catalysts Systems to Meet China New Regulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-0978
Over the past few years, China has made major legislative advancements on vehicle emissions, having set forth Stage 6 regulations for both LD and HD vehicles. To meet stricter standards, OEMs and associated suppliers of the exhaust aftertreatment value chain have went through a period of unprecedented development. This paper selectively describes key challenges and highlights corresponding solutions of those development for all segments. In so doing, the authors wish to provide an overview of the catalyst systems used in upcoming Chinese automobile market. Stage 6 LDG aftertreatment system layout is first reviewed. A key challenge is the introduction of gas particulate filters (GPF). In fact, LDG vehicles in China often do not meet PM and PN targets over the whole engine map tested. This paper shares debugging process and analyses of PM and PN measurement as well as soot regeneration studies with such systems.
Technical Paper

Influence of DISH, Ankylosis, Spondylosis and Osteophytes on Serious-to-Fatal Spinal Fractures and Cord Injuries in Rear Impacts

2019-04-02
2019-01-1028
Objective: Seats have become stronger over the past two decades and remain more upright in rear impacts. While head restraints are higher and more forward providing support for the head and neck, serious-to-fatal injuries to the thoracic and cervical spine have been seen in occupants with spinal disorders, such as DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), ankylosis, spondylosis and/or osteophytes that ossify the joints in the spine. This study addresses the influence of spinal disorders on fracture-dislocations and spinal cord injury in rear impacts with relatively upright seats. Methods: Twenty-two field accidents have been investigated in-depth where serious-to-fatal injuries of the thoracic and cervical spine have occurred in rear impacts with the seat remaining upright or slightly reclined and having a high and forward head restraint. The occupants are lap-shoulder belted, some with belt pretensioning and cinching latch plates.
Technical Paper

A Systems Approach in Developing a Ultralightweight Outside Mounted Rearview Mirror Using Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics

2019-04-02
2019-01-1124
Fuel efficiency improvement of automobiles has been a topic of great interest in the past years, especially with the introduction of new CAFE standards. Although there are multiple ways of improving the fuel efficiency of an automobile, light weighting is one of the most common approaches taken by many automotive manufacturers. Importance of lightweighting is more significant in electric vehicles as it directly effects the range. The use of composite materials in place of metals has proven to achieve substantial weight reductions in the past. The focus of using these composite materials for weight reduction was generally limited to major structural components such as BiW and closures, due to the high material cost. Secondary structural components which contribute approximately 30% of the vehicle weight are usually neglected by these weight reduction studies.
Technical Paper

Surface Mapping in 3D Coordinate Metrology for Automotive Industry

2019-04-02
2019-01-1270
Surface mapping for freeform using CNC-CMM plays an important role in advanced coordinate industries. CNC-CMM machine can assess the parts specification, which has a significant impact on design, manufacturing, inspection and quality control processes. This article, presented four important issues to give a comprehensive view of the progress in this area. Eventually, the aim of this work is to give an overview of 3D plot mapping using freeform artifact utilizing computer aided inspection technique in the area of industrial dimensional metrology. This work happens as a new guide to cover and develop the lack of standard artifact for evaluation geometrical surface features in 3D coordinate metrology to optimize the precision, accuracy and verification time especially for automotive industry.
Technical Paper

An Interactive Vehicle Recommender System Based on Decision Trees and Multi-Armed Bandits

2019-04-02
2019-01-1079
Recommender systems guide a user to useful objects in a large space of possible options in a personalized way. In this paper, we study how to make recommendations for vehicle purchases. This can effectively reduce the human labor in the traditional setting, where customers get recommended vehicles through conversations with the salesmen in dealerships. Comparing a vehicle recommender system to one in other application domains (movies, music, etc.), we identify two major challenges. First, customers usually only purchase a limited number of vehicles, compared to the number of movies or songs. Thus, it is difficult to obtain rich information about a user's purchase history. Second, the content information obtained about the users (demographic, vehicle preference, etc.) is also very limited during their short stay in the dealership.
Technical Paper

A generalized component efficiency and input-data generation model for creating fleet-representative vehicle simulation cases in VECTO

2019-04-02
2019-01-1280
The Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool (VECTO) is used for the official calculation and reporting of CO2 emissions of HDVs in Europe. It uses certified input data in the form of energy or torque loss maps of driveline components and engine fuel consumption maps. Such data are proprietary and are not disclosed. Any further analysis of the fleet performance and CO2 emissions evolution using VECTO would require generic inputs or reconstructing realistic component input data. The current study attempts to address this issue by developing a process that would create VECTO input files based as much as possible on publicly available data. The core of the process is a series of models that calculate the vehicle component efficiency maps and produce the necessary VECTO input data. The process was applied to generate vehicle input files for rigid trucks and tractor-trailers of HDV Classes 4, 5, 9 and 10.
Technical Paper

Low Pressure-Driven Injection Characterization for SCR Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0994
Aqueous Urea is a non-toxic and stable ammonia carrier and its injection and mixing represent the basis for the most common de-NOx technology for mobile applications. The reactant feed preparation process is defined by evaporation, thermolysis and hydrolysis of the liquid mixture upstream the Selective Catalytic Reduction reactor, and it is strongly dependent on the interaction between spray and gaseous flow. Low-pressure driven injectors are the common industrial standard for these applications, and their behavior in almost-ambient pressure cross flows is significantly different from any in-cylinder application. For this reason, two substantially different injectors in terms of geometry and design are experimentally studied, characterizing drop sizes and velocities through Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and liquid mass spatial distribution through Shadow Imaging (SI).
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-1217
Crash safety researchers have increased concerns regarding thoracic injury causation and the contributing factors among the elderly population. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify the sternum morphomics as a function of age and (2) document sternum fracture trends using CT scans and crash data as a function of age. The morphomics analysis was extracted from 786 thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans from the University of Michigan Hospital to measure thoracic depth, sternum joint angle, thickness, and bone density. The sternum fractures were extracted from 62 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans. The University of Michigan Internal Review Board (HUM00043599 and HUM00041441) approved the used of crash cases and CT scan data. Morphomic analysis showed the sternum thickness increased from youngest to oldest age groups. Thoracic depth increased, with the exception of the 60-74-year-old age group.
Technical Paper

Model-based software development: Functional safety compliance via built-in tool intelligence

2019-04-02
2019-01-1041
Today’s automobiles are among the most sophisticated machines on the planet. Much of the functionality of modern automobiles emanates from embedded software features that control electronic, mechanical or pneumatic devices. Over the past few decades the number of software features and the associated code has grown exponentially and the respective embedded software systems have reached a level of complexity that is increasingly difficult to manage. As a consequence, recalls due to software defects have become a major concern and today constitute about 50% of the overall warranty cost. Since the operation of automobiles has severe public safety implications the development of embedded automotive software has become subject to stringent functional safety standards (ISO 26262) and compliance with these standards has become a major hurdle in the development of automotive software.
Technical Paper

Numerical modelling of metal forming by SPH with multi-GPU acceleration

2019-04-02
2019-01-1085
Large material distortion, plastic deformation and forging make the numerical modelling of metal forming a difficult task. Grid-based methods such as the Finite Element Method (FEM) are incapable of simulating this process as these schemes suffer from mesh distortion, mesh entanglement and require mesh refinement. The mesh-based numerical frameworks with discontinuous enrichment can model finite deformation problems with limited success. Moreover, the presence of flaws, multiple crack surfaces and their interaction make the simulation even more numerically and computationally intensive. In this regard, the particle-based or meshfree methods are more relevant. There exist several mesh-free methods and among these Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a truly meshfree. In SPH the computational domain is discretised by a set of particles. A given particle interacts only with its neighbouring particles through a kernel function with a constant radius.
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