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Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Influences on Brake Pad Wear

2020-10-05
2020-01-1614
To date, no generally valid statements can be made about the service life of brake pads, which may be due to factors such as driving style, the friction material used or the varying vehicle weight. While dynamic friction models including friction history are already established [1], the investigation of wear and wear dust behavior is currently in the focus of many research projects. One example is the inves-tigation of calculation models for brake pad wear while neglecting the temperature development in the brake [2]. In cars, temperatures of up to 800°C occur in the brake under high loads, which leads to a significant increase in wear. Accordingly, the question arises how an estimation of brake pad wear can be applied to highly dynamic load cases. To do this, however, the processes taking place in the boundary layer between pad and disc must first be comprehensively understood and described.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Role of Wear and Friction Film Influencing the Friction Coefficient of Brakes: Mechanism of Brake Fade

2020-10-05
2020-01-1630
Commercial heavy truck drum linings of 4 different compositions were tested using the Chase tester under constant loads and temperatures at a constant speed in order to find out how lining wear might affect the friction coefficient. When the lining wear increases, the friction coefficient increases linearly under a condition of constant load, speed and temperature. However, when the lining wear approaches zero, the friction coefficient still remains relatively high, indicating other factors are also involved in controlling friction such as interface deformation and others. As the temperature increases or the load increases, the wear contribution to the friction becomes less and less effective. All these observations are discussed and explained in terms of wear particle formation and friction film behavior.
Technical Paper

Changing Properties of Brake Pads and Discs During Brake Testing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1628
Earlier publications show that brake pad physical properties such as hardness, modulus and natural frequencies continue to increase at room temperature over a period of 12 months and that the changes are faster during the first 3 – 6 months. The current investigation was undertaken to see how the properties might change during testing for the pads as well as for the discs. Low-copper and copper-free formulations were tested on pickup truck and passenger car brakes. In all cases, the dynamic modulus and natural frequencies are found to decrease (not increase) after the SAE J2522 performance testing, indicating that the stiffness of the pad and that of the disc decrease faster than the mass loss due to wear. Also the inboard pad and the outboard pad change at two different rates.
Technical Paper

Controlling Performance of Copper-Free Brake-Pads by Varying Size of Graphite Particles

2020-10-05
2020-01-1604
Graphite plays a crucial role in friction materials, since it has good thermal conductivity, lubricity and act as a friction modifier. The right type, amount, shape, and size of the particles control the performance of the brake-pads. The theme of the study was investigating the influence of size of graphite particles (having all other specifications identical) on performance properties of brake-pads containing graphite particles in the average size of 60 µm, 120 µm, 200 µm and 400 µm. Physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of the developed brake-pads was done. The tribological performance was studied using a full- scale inertia brake dynamometer following a Japanese automobile testing standard (JASO C406). Tribo-performance in terms of fade resistance, friction stability and wear resistance were observed best for smaller graphite particles. It was concluded that smaller size serves best for achieving best performance properties barring compressibility.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Wear Performances of Gray Cast Iron Brake Rotor with Plasma Electrolytic Aluminating Coating against Different Pads

2020-10-05
2020-01-1623
Gray cast iron brake rotor experiences substantial wear during the braking and contributes largely to the wear debris emissions. Surface coating on the gray cast iron rotor represents a trending approach dealing with the problems. In this research, a new plasma electrolytic aluminating (PEA) process was used for preparing an alumina-based ceramic coating with metallurgical bonding to the gray cast iron. Three different types of brake pads (ceramic, semi-metallic and non asbestos organic (NAO)) were used for tribotests. Performances of PEA coatings vs. different brake pad materials were comparatively investigated with respect to their coefficients of friction (COFs) and wear. The PEA-coated brake rotor has a dimple-like surface which promotes the formation of a thin transferred film to protect the rotor from wear. The transferred film materials come from the wear debris of the pads. The secondary plateaus are regenerated on the brake pads through compacting wear debris of the pads.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Setup for Investigations on the Boundary Layer Dynamics

2020-10-05
2020-01-1617
The frictional behavior of a tribological contact is influenced by the dynamics in the forming boundary layer. Recurring structures, built up through self-organizing effects, were found in various frictional systems. To investigate those phenomena on a macroscopic scale and to better understand dynamical processes such as the formation and decay of contact patches, the first revision of the Wear Debris Investigator (WDI) was introduced in 2017. A friction gap is formed between two coaxial horizontally arranged discs. To mimic the presence of particles, artificial wear dust is fed into the gap. With a camera the formation of the boundary layer is recorded in situ. An implemented normal force and torque sensor enables to recognize correlations between the formed boundary layer and the occurring frictional forces. Numerous measurements revealed an insufficient precision of the previous WDI.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Low-Metals, Non-Petrochemical Coke for Use in Automotive Friction Materials

2020-10-05
2020-01-1603
A study was performed to compare the performance of automotive friction elements, each manufactured with one of two different coke fillers. Coke #1 is a conventional calcined petroleum coke, and coke #2 a proprietary, calcined coke manufactured from a non-petrochemical feedstock. Subject coke materials were fully characterized, physically and chemically. Both coke materials are similar in their respective physical properties, including morphology, hardness, and crush strength. However, there is a significant difference in the trace metal content of the two materials, with coke #1 containing a higher content of sulfur, calcium, iron, nickel, and vanadium than coke #2. Nickel and vanadium are considered potential environmental hazards. Initial friction element evaluation was performed using the J661 Brake Lining Quality Test Procedure (Chase Test). Ultimately each coke material was formulated into two different automotive brake elements.
Technical Paper

Eco-Friendly Brake-Pads using Ferritic Stainless-Steel Particles of Varying Sizes: Influence on Performance Properties

2020-10-05
2020-01-1602
Abstract Metallic particles in brake-friction materials (FMs) play a vital role in improving mainly strength, friction level, thermal conductivity and hence resistance to fade and during braking operations. Although Copper was the most efficient and popular metallic ingredient in FMs, it is being phased out because of its proven threat to the aquatic life in the form of wear debris. Hardly any successful efforts are reported in open literature barring few on initial exploration of stainless steel swarf (SSS) and particles of stainless steel (SSP) in the authors’ laboratory. It is a well known fact that the size and shape of particles affect the performance of FMs apart from their type, concentration etc. In this research, Ferritic stainless steel (SS 434) particles were selected as a theme ingredient in two forms, first particulate (SSP) with two sizes, large (30-45 micron) and small (10-20 micron) and also in the form of swarf.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Wear on Frictionally Excited Thermoelastic Instability

2020-10-05
2020-01-1629
A finite element model for the effect of wear on frictionally excited Thermoelastic Instability (TEI) is developed by combining the equations of thermoelasticity, the classical Reye-Archard-Khrushchov wear law, along with the conforming contact conditions. The method is based on a two-dimensional, frictional sliding model with a bimaterial interface and a simplified geometry of finite thickness. An assumption of the solution in the perturbation form leads to a second-order eigenvalue problem, with the eigenvalue being the exponential growth rate of perturbation. The existing analytical solutions using two infinite half planes are used to validate the numerical solutions in several representative scenarios, including a limiting case in the absence of wear. In general, good agreements between the numerical and analytical approaches have been obtained.
Technical Paper

Role of Attapulgite on Altering the Performance Properties of Cu-Free Brake-Pads

2020-10-05
2020-01-1601
Abstract: Attapulgite, a unique clay mineral is a crystalloid hydrous magnesium-aluminium silicate, composed of silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, iron oxide etc. having formula Mg5Si8O20(HO)2(OH2)4•4H2O. Its structure is somewhat between laminated and chain structure having very high surface area and porosity. Its magnesium silicate structure resembles a brick wall with every second brick missing. This leaves elongated porous channels that are highly absorbent. Its fibers were proven to be excellent substitute for asbestos in brake-pads. Hardly anything in details is reported on its exact role in controlling tribo-properties of friction materials (FMs) especially Cu-free FMs. Hence, in this work a series of brake-pads with five types was formulated and developed with increasing amount of attapulgite (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt. %) by compensating with inert barite particles in Cu-free FMs.
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