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Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

2020-10-30
2020-32-2313
The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Numerical Characterization of Brake System Cooling, Aerodynamic, and Particle Soiling Performances under Driving Conditions

2020-10-05
2020-01-1622
Effective cooling of a heated brake system is critical for vehicle safety and reliability. While some flow devices can redirect airflow more favorably for convective cooling, such a change typically accompanies side effects, such as increased aerodynamic drag and inferior control of brake dust particles. The former is critical for fuel efficiency while the latter for vehicle’s soiling and corrosion as well as non-exhaust emissions. These competing objectives are assessed in this study based on the numerical simulations of an installed brake system under driving conditions. The thermal behavior of the brake system as well as aerodynamic impact and brake dust particle deposition on areas of interest are solved using a coupled 3D transient flow solver, PowerFLOW. Typical design considerations related to enhanced brake cooling, such as cooling duct, wheel deflector, and brake air deflector, are characterized to evaluate the thermal, aerodynamic and soiling performance targets.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment for Heavy Commercial Vehicle Safety

2020-10-05
2020-01-1646
This report summarizes initial results and findings of a model developed to determine the braking performance of commercial motor vehicles in motion regardless of brake type or gross weight. Real-world data collected by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for a U.S. Department of Energy study was used to validate the model. Expanding on previous proof-of-concept research showing the linear relationship of brake application pressure and deceleration additional parameters such as elevation were added to the model. Outputs from the model consist of coefficients calculated for every constant pressure braking event from a vehicle that can be used to calculate a deceleration and thus compute a stopping distance for a given scenario. Using brake application pressure profiles derived from the dataset, stopping distances for light and heavy loads of the same vehicle were compared for various speed and road grades.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Technical Paper

NVH Comfort of Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles

2020-09-30
2020-01-1551
The most appreciated driving characteristics of electric vehicles are the quietness and spontaneous torque rise of the powertrain. The application of range extenders (REX) with internal combustion engines (ICEs) to increase the driving range is a favourable solution regarding costs and weight, especially in comparison with larger battery capacities. However, the NVH integration of a REX is challenging, if the generally silent driving characteristics of electric vehicles shall remain preserved. This paper analyses key NVH aspects for a REX design and integration to fulfil the high expectations regarding noise and vibration comfort in an electric vehicle environment. The ICE for a REX is typically dimensioned for lower power outputs, incorporating a low number of cylinder units, which is even more challenging concerning the NVH integration. The basic REX concept is evaluated by considering power and fuel efficiency demands in combination with an interior noise forecast.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

Optimization Of Vehicle Damping Sheets Position Based On Energy Calculation

2020-09-30
2020-01-1528
As a common means for reducing vibration and noise for automobiles, damping material is usually employed in the vehicle body, typically on the floor, the dashboard, and the top roof. With the growing demand of fuel economy, light weighting, as well as NVH comfort, the optimization of the damping pads has become a topic of increasing importance. In numerical simulation, the traditional methods generally make use of the modal strain energy of the metal sheet as the main indicator for making layout choice for the damping pads. The optimization is not performed according the vehicle’s real working condition. Furthermore, the traditional methods do not depend on the accurate properties of the damping material. In this paper, a novel optimization method based on energy analysis is presented.
Technical Paper

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

2020-09-30
2020-01-1549
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches.
Technical Paper

An Active Safety System Able to Counter Aquaplaning, Integrated With Sensorized Tires, ADAS and 5G Technology for Both Human-Driven and Autonomous Vehicles

2020-09-27
2020-24-0019
Autonomous vehicles must guarantee safety in all road conditions, including driving on wet roads. Aquaplaning (or hydroplaning) is a phenomenon known since the beginning of automotive history, never solved by an active safety system. Currently, no countermeasure system on the market is able to effectively counteract aquaplaning: ABS, ESP or TCS are still inefficient in overcoming this situation. Latest statistical data confirm that the higher percentage of accidents, injuries and deaths are caused by wet road conditions. The aquaplaning happens when the water on the road is too much and the tires start to float causing the instantaneous loss of control. Such phenomenon occurs in human-driven vehicles, with the responsibility of the driver, but in autonomous vehicles (e.g. Level 5), the responsibility for the safety depends on the car and the reduction of the speed is not a solution.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hybrid Polyamide Composites for Replacement of Metallic Parts

2020-09-25
2020-28-0423
Over the past few decades, the world is looking for a better replacement option for metals. Polymers with reinforcements are finding their way deep inside in most of the engineering application because of its lightweight and superior properties. The aim of this study is to investigate hybrid polymer composite polyphthalamide (PPA) reinforced with glass fibre and Poly tetra fluro ethylene. The reinforcement was varied as 10, 20, 30wt% of Glass Fibre, while fixed quantity of Poly tetra fluro ethylene (PTFE) as 5wt % was taken for hybrid composites preparation. The virgin and hybrid composite specimen were prepared under optimal process parametric conditions through the use of injection moulding techniques and test samples were produced as per ASTM standards. The response of physical properties such as density and various Mechanical testing like Hardness, Tensile Strength, impact and flexural test were carried out and noted.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on Biogas Production from Waste Press Mud and Cow Dung under Anaerobic Condition

2020-09-25
2020-28-0467
Anaerobic digestion of textile wastes under mesophilic conditions were conducted in batch mode with aim of investigating the bio-methane evolution with an initial solid mass of cow dung – 2 kg, cotton and water in 3:1 ratio and press mud is use in the ratio 3:1 with water were evaluated subsequently for 7 weeks (42 days).The highest production of biogas is noted as 3 m3 in fourth week and the higher production of biogas due to press mud is noted as 0.49 in the fifth week.Carbon dioxide is produced as bi product in this bio digestion process. Highest production rate of methane,biogas and carbon dioxide are in their fourth week. Through this experiment 65%-75% of bio gas is collected by the fourth week.
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