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Training / Education

Big Data Analytics for Connected, Autonomous Vehicles and Smart Cities

2021-09-28
There is growing interest in the concept of a smart city and how these advanced technologies will improve the quality of living and make a city more attractive to visitors, commerce and industry. This course fills an unmet need for defining and explaining the relationship between connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) and smart city transportation. It is apparent that CAVs will achieve the best results when integrated with current and emerging urban infrastructure for transportation. This course addresses such integration from technology, organizational, policy and business model perspectives.
Training / Education

Overview of the Role of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles in Smart Cities

2021-09-13
There is been tremendous progress in the application of technology and artificial intelligence to connected and autonomous vehicles. At the same time, there have been considerable advances in data science and data analysis that allows large data sets to be managed for results. This course introduces big data and analytics, focusing on how these will be applied to data generated by autonomous and connected vehicles. These technologies will be explained within the context of a smart city.
Book

The Road Forward: More Conversations with Top Women in the Automotive Industry

2021-04-12
PRE-ORDER TODAY! Book Releases in mid-April 2021. Carla Bailo, CEO of the Center for Automotive Research, and Terry Barclay, CEO of Inforum, bring together over 70 of the most influential women in the automotive industry to share their insight and advice. As with their first book, The Road to the Top, Bailo and Barclay interview women in positions of leadership throughout the industry from suppliers, to OEMs and academia. The Road Forward provides insight and advice to all professionals on the impact of the COVID pandemic by sharing your thoughts of the road ahead and what changes you have experienced professionally, personally, and socially. In addition, the leaders discuss resilience, professional network maintenance and growth, personal growth, diversity and inclusion, and sustainability.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Impacts of Dedicated CAV lanes in a Connected Environment: An application of Intelligent Transport Systems in Corktown, Michigan

2021-04-06
2021-01-0177
The interaction of Connect and Automated vehicles (CAV) with regular vehicles in the traffic stream has been extensively researched. Most studies, however, focus on the calibrating driver behavior models for CAVs based on various levels of automation and driver aggressiveness. Other related studies largely focus on the coordination of CAVs and infrastructure like traffic signals to optimize traffic. However, the effects of different strategic orchestrations of CAVs in the traffic stream in the comparative scenario-based analysis is understudied. Thus, this study develops a framework and simulations for integrating CAVs in a corridor section. We develop a calibrated model with CAVs for a corridor section in Corktown, Michigan, and simulate how dedicated CAV lane operations can be implemented without significant change in existing infrastructure.
Technical Paper

A Real-time Curb Detection Method for Vehicle by Using a 3D-LIDAR Sensor

2021-04-06
2021-01-0076
Effectively detecting road boundaries in real time is critical to the applications of autonomous vehicles, such as vehicle localization, path planning and environmental understanding.To precisely extract the road boundaries from the 3D LiDAR data, a real-time curb detection algorithm consisting of four steps is proposed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Arrangement and Control Method of Cooperative Vehicle Platoons

2021-04-06
2021-01-0113
With the development of cellular communication technology and for the sake of reducing drag resistance, the multi-lane platoons technology will be more prosperous in the future. In this article, the cooperative vehicle platoons method on the public road is represented. The method’s architecture is composed of the following parts: behavior decision, path planning and vehicle dynamic control. The behavior decision uses the finite state machine to make decision and judgment on the cooperative lane change of vehicles, and starts to execute the lane change step when the lane change conditions are met. In terms of path planning, with the goal of ensuring comfort, the continuity of the vehicle state and no collision between vehicles, a fifth-order polynomial is used to fit every vehicle trajectory. In terms of vehicle dynamic control, a model predictive control algorithm is used to solve the multi-vehicle centralized optimization control problem.
Technical Paper

Factors that Influenced Drivers’ Responses to a Slower-Moving, or Slowing Lead Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0890
The most common fatal rear end crash in 2014 through 2018 involved a stopped or slow-moving lead vehicle being struck by a vehicle traveling 50 to 70 mph. These crashes have been referred to as looming-related events. Looming relates to the rate of increase of the visual subtended angle of the lead vehicle, or in simple terms, how fast the lead vehicle appeared to grow as the approach driver got closer. Looming is one of many cues that are available to drivers. This research will address other cues that are available to drivers, and then determine which of those cues were associated with a change in driver response among naturalistic drivers in the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP-2). While there might be cues other than looming available to drivers, very few were associated with changes in drivers’ responses.
Technical Paper

Multi-objective control of dynamic chassis considering road roughness class recognition

2021-04-06
2021-01-0322
For the control of the semi-active suspension with continuously adjustable damping, in addition to the ride comfort, the handling and stability requirements also need to be considered,but these needs are often not met at the same time. This contradiction put forward a big challenge for the design of the controller, especially in the face of complex working conditions. Traditional controllers are mainly aimed at restraining vehicles’ attitude caused by the changes in the environment or vehicle motion state, they lack adaptive adjustment to disturbances with certain statistical characteristics, so the control has a certain lag. In order to solve this problem, Adaptive Road Disturbance Fuzzy Control (ARDFC) of the semi-active suspension with continuously adjustable damping considering road roughness class identification is proposed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Study on Vibration Reduction Technology for Transportation of TEG Dehydration Unit Regeneration Module

2021-04-06
2021-01-0334
In the oil and gas industry, cargo truck is one of the most important ways to transfer the skid-mounting from the manufacturer to the job location. Under the condition of bumpy road surface, the random vibration from the ground can easily cause the resonance of the internal equipment components of the skid-mounting, produce large deformation in the pipeline and equipment connection, and even cause equipment damage. In this paper, the finite element analysis model and dynamic rigid flexible coupling model of a TEG dehydration unit regeneration skid-mounting are established by using the finite element analysis and multi-body dynamics software. The modal and stress distribution of the skid under typical load cases are analyzed, as well as the vibration influence of the skid-mounting under different road excitation. Two ways are proposed to improve the anti-vibration ability of the skid, and comparative analysis is made.
Technical Paper

Collision Avoidance Strategy of High-speed AEB System Based on Mnimum Safety Distance

2021-04-06
2021-01-0335
AEB system is an important part of automobile active safety, which can effectively reduce rear-end collision accidents and protect drivers' safety through active braking. AEB system has been included in many countries' new car assessment programme as the test content of active safety. In view of obviously deficiencies of the existing AEB control algorithm in avoiding longitudinal collision at high speed, it is proposed to an optimized model of the minimum safe distance for rear-end collision prevention on high-speed road in order to improve the accuracy of AEB system. Considering the influence of road adhesion coefficient and human comfort on the maximum braking deceleration, it is established to a more accurate and reasonable AEB system to avoid collision for expressway. The collision avoidance strategy is verified by simulation software.
Technical Paper

Local path planning and tracking control considering tire cornering stiffness uncertainty

2021-04-06
2021-01-0339
In autonomous vehicles, the tyres come into direct contact with the ground, and the external force of the vehicle during driving comes from the tyres. Therefore, the dynamic analysis of the tyres is particularly important. During vehicle driving, changes in tire vertical load, tyre slip angle, road condition, tire pressure and tire friction all give rise to uncertainties in tire cornering stiffness. Even the same tire is slightly different during manufacturing. Uncertainty of tire cornering stiffness has a great influence on automatic driving path planning and control strategy. In this paper, considering the uncertainty of tire cornering stiffness, a tire cornering stiffness model is established by fitting several sets of tire data. An autonomous vehicle trajectory planning and control method are proposed based on the model predictive control (MPC) method. Several complex road scenarios are built in PreScan, and control module was built by using Simulink.
Technical Paper

Road-Shoulder Scanning for Minimum Risk Maneuver In Semi-Automated Driving Using Multi-sensor Kalman Filter

2021-04-06
2021-01-0867
Based on SAE’s classification, level 3 driving automation and beyond will be capable to free human drivers while semi-automated driving features are engaged. However, semi-autonomous vehicles may encounter scenarios that under which, the semi-autonomous driving features might not be available or safe. Such scenarios include sensor/actuator malfunction, hazardous road-condition, etc. To comply with safety requirement, semi-automated vehicles should be able to perform Minimum Risk Maneuver (MRM) into road-shoulder whenever semi-autonomous mode isn’t possible. Determining availability of the road shoulder is a key to the MRM, but is also a challenging problem given state of art perception signals. None of the perception signals are robust enough to correctly detect shoulder availability for all circumstances. In this paper, a multi-sensor Kalman Filter is utilized to fuse multiple perception signals from radar, vision, and drivable corridors.
Technical Paper

Gap analysis and future needs of tire wear particles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0621
Traffic-related particles have been recognized as a significant contributor of particulate matter, especially in urban cities. Exhaust and non-exhaust traffic-related particles are reported to contribute almost equally to traffic-related emissions. Exhaust traffic-related particles are emitted as a result of incomplete fuel combustion and lubricant volatilization during the combustion process, and non-exhaust traffic-related particles are either generated from brake, tire, clutch and road surface wear or already exist in the environment as deposited particles and become resuspended due to traffic induced turbulence. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particles from road traffic has a significant impact on our health. Among non-exhaust sources, tire wear can be a significant particulate matter contributor, with its contribution up to 30% by mass to non-exhaust traffic-related emissions.
Technical Paper

A Research on autonomous vehicle control in track beyond its limits of handling

2021-04-06
2021-01-0977
In this paper, we would like to address the research related to the self-driving system that has been actively carried out recently.Previous studies have been limited to linear, Pseudo-steady state-like handling areas of vehicles to ensure stability of control.However, the driving speed of self-driving cars will increase more and more, which will expand to non-linear areas of vehicles where tire grips are saturated.This requires a technology to create the shortest driving path in order to complete the racing track as quickly as possible while grasping the tire grip limits of the vehicle in real time.The entire controller has three instrumentation structures: The target motion is determined in the supervisor phase,and the target force to follow the target behavior is calculated in the upper stage controller.Finally, the lower stage controller calculates the actuator phase control input corresponding to the target force.For vehicles driving on a racing track, it is best to drive at the shortest distance without the limit of the tyre grip due to lateral forces,but for driving with turns the minimum curvature trajectory would be a way to maintain high road speeds.In the end, the optimum driving inside the racing track repeated straight and turn will result in an optimal value in the form of a mixture of minimum curvature and shortest distance driving techniques, which will require an understanding of the vehicle's cornering grip limits and acceleration/braking performance.This study covered vehicle control technology that creates and follows optimal driving paths while maintaining maximum and maximum lateral acceleration within high speed driving tracks.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Road Slope Ahead of Vehicles Based on Data Fusion and Data Mining

2021-04-06
2021-01-0910
Heavy commercial vehicles may frequently shift gears when they are running on long and downhill roads in mountainous areas. In order to improve driving safety and fuel economy, it is necessary to predict the slope of the road ahead in real time and correct the driver's shift strategy in time. At present, the road slope estimation is mainly based on the real-time estimation of the road slope at the current position of the vehicle based on the vehicle driving information obtained by the sensor, but the road slope of the road section that the vehicle ahead is about to reach has not been predicted. In this paper, based on the road slope information of the road section that the vehicle has driven through, combined with GIS information and road design standards, the road slope of the road section ahead of the vehicle is predicted.
Technical Paper

Track-Based Aerodynamic Testing of a Two-Truck Platoon

2021-04-06
2021-01-0941
Fuel savings from truck platooning are generally attributed to an aerodynamic drag-reduction phenomena associated with close-proximity driving. The current paper is the third in a series documenting track testing of a two-truck platoon with a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) system where fuel savings and aerodynamics measurements were performed simultaneously. Constant-speed road-load measurements from instrumented driveshafts and on-board wind anemometry were combined with vehicle measurements to calculate the aerodynamic drag-area of the vehicles. The drag-area results are presented for each vehicle in the two-truck platoon, and the corresponding drag-area reductions are shown for a variety of conditions: gap separation distances (9 m to 87 m), lateral offsets (up to 1.3 m), dry-van and flatbed trailers, and in the presence of surrounding traffic.
Technical Paper

Using Demanded Power and RDE Aggressiveness Metrics to Analyze the Impact of CACC Aggressiveness on Heavy Duty Platooning Power Consumption

2021-04-06
2021-01-0069
Presently, a main objective of the mobility sector is to reduce its impact on the global greenhouse gas emission. While there are many techniques being explored, a promising approach to improve fuel economy is to reduce the required energy by using slipstream effects. Some studies of heavy-duty platooning vehicles have reported fuel savings that are not as high as expected. To understand the cause for that discrepancy, this study took a step back from evaluating fuel savings and analyzed the demanded engine power during platooning and non-platooning runs instead. A series of platooning runs utilizing class 8 semi-trucks platooning via Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) was performed. Comparing the demanded engine power revealed the benefits of platooning on the aerodynamic drag while disregarding any potential negative side effects on the engine.
Technical Paper

Visual SLAM in Long-range Autonomous Parking Application based on Instance-aware Semantic Segmentation via Multi-task Network Cascades and Metric Learning Scheme

2021-04-06
2021-01-0077
Long-range Autonomous Parking is becoming an attractive application in terms of demands. Vehicle is capable of driving autonomously into the appointed parking slot when driver leaves it at the drop-off spot. In this application, the ability of accurate localization has become a key issue, especially in GPS-denied environments. This paper proposes a method of localizing vehicle for Long-range Autonomous Parking, which is achieved by Visual SLAM based on deep learning algorithms. Firstly, we come up with an instance-aware semantic segmentation of parking scene images from the surround-view camera based on Multi-task Network Cascades, and detect the main objects of interest that are road-way objects like road markings even in complex visual environments such as lighting variations, shadows. Then we infer the localization of road marking points combining the information of wheel speed odometer and build the semantic map of the parking lot.
Technical Paper

Speed Limiter using Disturbance Observer

2021-04-06
2021-01-0102
This paper suggests disturbance and acceleration observers which improve performance of a speed limit assist control. The nonlinear disturbance observer was designed so that disturbance caused by parameter and load uncertainties is able to be estimated exponentially. With the contribution of the observer, feed-forward control and I gain can be omitted while improving steady-state error elimination and overshoot reduction performance. The convergence of observer is demonstrated in the time domain. The acceleration observer is also designed to reduce the effect of wheel slip. The acceleration observer gives smooth speed control over changes in slope. The performance of the control has been verified not only on flat roads, but also on long wave roads and rapidly changing ramps.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Bluff Bodies in Close Longitudinal Proximity – Part 2

2021-04-06
2021-01-0952
An Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Bluff Bodies in Close Longitudinal Proximity – Part 2 At the 2019 SAE World Congress, the authors presented the results of wind tunnel tests conducted on three Windsor bluff body models in close proximity (paper no. 2019-01-0659). In contrast to many of the previously published investigations on platooning using wind tunnel tests, CFD analyses and road trials, the authors chose the vehicle profile shape as their variable rather than the traditional longitudinal spacing. The results, from the 98 configurations of all three styles in every position within the platoon, showed a high degree of sensitivity to body style. Perhaps surprisingly, the generalised perception of trailing models in platoons benefitting most in drag reduction by being shielded by leading vehicles was rarely the case. Additionally, in all but two configurations the trailing model saw a drag penalty compared to its performance as a single model.
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