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Overview of the Role of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles in Smart Cities

2023-05-16
There is been tremendous progress in the application of technology and artificial intelligence to connected and autonomous vehicles. At the same time, there have been considerable advances in data science and data analysis that allows large data sets to be managed for results. This course introduces big data and analytics, focusing on how these will be applied to data generated by autonomous and connected vehicles. These technologies will be explained within the context of a smart city.
Technical Paper

LANE CHANGE DETECTION AND TRACKING FOR A SAFE-LANE APPROACH USING SENSOR

2022-12-23
2022-28-0489
Improved economic status of people leads to an increase in vehicle density across the world. Many road accidents caused due to poor lane discipline followed by drivers that need to be addressed. Lane discipline can be made possible by educating drivers about its importance and also ensured by effective detection and tracking of vehicles that are plying on the highways. This can be achieved by fixing a device in every vehicle that can detect and track the lane adopted by the vehicle driver during each journey. In this work, a simple lane tracking and detective device is fabricated that consists of an ultrasonic sensor, which is the primary detector that helps in identifying the lane in which the vehicle is moving. The position of the vehicle is recorded by calculating the distance between the right side of the vehicle and the divider that is placed in between the highways.
Standard

Naming Methodology for Driving Automation Systems

2022-11-02
CURRENT
J3265_202211
This document describes a systematic and rigorous process to: (1) identify and evaluate standard names and definitions for driving automation system features, and (2) identify a “user vocabulary” of terms and descriptions that [human] drivers use to describe driving automation system features. The process described in this document includes selection criteria and trade-offs that can be used to select an approach to testing that matches the constraints and objective of a particular evaluation. The data from this process are analyzed to determine users’ name preferences for driving automation system features and what they would expect a specific feature to do, based on the name given to the features. The data generated by this naming methodology can provide guidance regarding the names that may support accurate understanding of the feature’s capabilities and limitations.
Technical Paper

A Hierarchical Model Predictive Control Based Connected Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management Considering Speed Planning

2022-10-28
2022-01-7064
In the context of global warming and energy shortage crisis, how to deal with vehicle speed planning and energy management strategies using intelligent connected information is one of the most significant ways to improve traffic efficiency and vehicle fuel economy. In this paper, a hierarchical model predictive control algorithm based on the connected environment is designed for the study of series hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The higher level and the lower level controller share information with each other and solve two different problems aiming at improving its fuel efficiency. V2X (Vehicle to Everything) information is used as an input for the high-level controller to establish a model predictive framework to plan the future speed and improve its stability of the whole vehicle platoon. The low-level MPC provides a real-time HEV energy management strategy.
Technical Paper

Improved Energy Management with Vehicle Speed and Weight Recognition for Hybrid Commercial Vehicles

2022-10-28
2022-01-7052
The driving conditions of commercial logistics vehicles have the characteristics of combined urban and suburban roads with relatively fixed mileage and cargo load alteration, which affect the vehicular fuel economy. To this end, an adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy (A-ECMS) with vehicle speed and weight recognition is proposed to improve the fuel economy for a range-extender electric van for logistics in this work. The driving conditions are divided into nine representative groups with different vehicle speed and weight statuses, and the driving patterns are recognized with the use of the bagged trees algorithm through vehicle simulations. In order to generate the reference SOC near the optimal values, the optimal SOC trajectories under the typical driving cycles with different loads are solved by the shooting method and the optimal slopes for these nine patterns are obtained.
Book

Autonomous, Connected, Electric and Shared Vehicles: Disrupting the Automotive and Mobility Sectors

2022-10-28
We are at the beginning of the next major disruptive cycle caused by computing. In transportation, the term Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared (ACES) has been coined to represent the enormous innovations enabled by underlying electronics technology. The benefits of ACES vehicles range from improved safety, reduced congestion, and lower stress for car occupants to social inclusion, lower emissions, and better road utilization due to optimal integration of private and public transport. ACES is creating a new automotive and industrial ecosystem that will disrupt not only the technical development of transportation but also the management and supply chain of the industry. Disruptions caused by ACES are prompted by not only technology but also by a shift from a traditional to a software-based mindset, embodied by the arrival of a new generation of automotive industry workforce.
Standard

Ice Undercutting Test Method for Runways and Taxiways Deicing/Anti-Icing Chemicals

2022-10-27
CURRENT
AIR6172B
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, users, regulators and airport authorities) with relative ice undercutting capacity of runway deicing chemicals, by measuring the area of ice undercut pattern as a function of time. Such runway deicing chemicals are often also used on taxiways and other paved areas. This test method does not quantitatively measure the theoretical or extended time of ice undercutting capability of ready-to-use runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals in liquid or solid form.
Standard

Ice Melting Test Method for Runways and Taxiways Deicing/Anti-Icing Chemicals

2022-10-27
CURRENT
AIR6170B
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, users, regulators, and airport authorities) with relative ice melting capacity of runway deicing chemicals, by measuring the amount of ice melted as a function of time. Such runway deicing chemicals are often also used on taxiways and other paved areas. This test method does not quantitatively measure the theoretical or extended time ice melting capability of ready-to-use runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals in liquid or solid form.
Standard

Ice Penetration Test Method for Runways and Taxiways Deicing/Anti-Icing Chemicals

2022-10-27
CURRENT
AIR6211B
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, users, regulators, and airport authorities) with a relative ice penetration capacity of runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals, by measuring the ice penetration as a function of time. Such runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals are often also used on taxiways and other paved areas. This test method does not quantitatively measure the theoretical or extended time of ice penetration capability of ready-to-use runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals in liquid or solid form.
Standard

Long-Stroke Air-Brake Actuator Marking

2022-10-17
WIP
J1817
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a marking system to distinguish long-stroke from standard stroke for service, parking, and combination air-brake actuators, and components. Said actuators are used for applying cam type foundation brakes by slack adjuster means.
Journal Article

Safety Spacing Control of Truck Platoon Based on Emergency Braking under Different Road Conditions

2022-10-13
Abstract Vehicle platooning reduces fuel consumption, improves traffic throughput, and achieves smaller intervehicle spacing which increases the probability of danger during platoon braking. This article presents a sliding mode control based on the safety spacing policy for longitudinal control of a connected truck platoon with a focus on the predecessor following interactions. In particular, the modified safety spacing policy considering the intervehicle braking information communication delay, the sluggish nature of the brake actuator, the road conditions on each vehicle as well as the vehicle motion state is proposed. On this basis, an acceleration sliding mode controller is proposed, which takes into consideration the spacing error and speed error of the intervehicle, and the control error is zero, so as to obtain the expected acceleration of each vehicle in the platoon.
Journal Article

Influence of Yaw and Lateral Offset on the Aerodynamics of a Two-Truck Platoon

2022-10-11
Abstract Governmental regulations and customer demand for more energy-efficient vehicles are driving the development of new solutions in the automotive sector. One way of improving energy efficiency is by reducing the aerodynamic drag. A possible solution to achieve this is the concept of vehicles driving in close proximity, which is now becoming feasible considering the advances in vehicle automation and communication. This study focuses on the behavior of aerodynamic forces and flow effects in a two-truck platoon when more realistic road conditions, such as lateral offset and yaw, are present. The study is primarily numerical, but the results are validated against an experimental campaign conducted earlier by the authors. The main findings are that the drag of the leading truck is mostly governed by the base pressure of its trailer and that the truck sees only minor changes when a lateral offset is added, except at very short intervehicle distances.
Technical Paper

Two Wheeler Suspension Tuning with Extended Half-Car Model

2022-10-05
2022-28-0087
Suspension tuning is a very crucial part in development stage of two-wheeler as it addresses two major attributes: Rider comfort and Vehicle Road holding capability. Various analyses like pitch, bounce, unsprung masses behavior, etc. can be done through simulation models before getting on to test vehicles for objective and subjective feel and tuning. Tire being a series element with suspension, plays a crucial part in the tuning because of is radial stiffness. Also, the size of tire matters as it envelops a surface and transmits a modified road profile to the axle of wheel, e.g. a very small pothole almost fully gets absorbed by tire itself and therefore hardly any movement is observed at the wheel axle. In this paper, an extension on half-car model is done which captures the enveloping behavior of the tire over the road surface, as enveloping behavior leads to change in suspension stroke values from what we observe from standard half-car model.
Technical Paper

An ML-Based Fleet Management System for Electric Vehicles

2022-10-05
2022-28-0300
Considering the general trend towards electric mobility and the higher costs of electric vehicle ownership, the popularity of fleet operations of electric vehicles is on the rise. Fleet operators provide car sharing and/or rental and taxi services to customers. However, the major concerns of such operators are the battery health as well as the electric vehicle range, in other words, the distance the car can travel with the given battery charge. The scope covers the design of a management software for efficient deployment of fleet vehicles, taking into account the health of battery packs as well as driver behaviour, the latter of which is determined via machine learning by receiving acceleration patterns of the drivers. Hence, the goal of the fleet management system is to provide significant value addition to fleet owners in terms of economic benefits and ease of management.
Technical Paper

Study of Key Attributes of Sustainability of Automobile Solutions in India

2022-10-05
2022-28-0313
The changing mobility landscape of India reveals that the erstwhile transport modes of the 20th century i.e., railways and road buses are making way for airlines, personal vehicles, shared mobility, metro rails. Rapid technological changes, stricter regulations, new transport cultures autonomous, connected, electric and shared (ACES), state-of-the-art and environmental concerns are shaping up the eco-system for automobiles. Despite these challenges roadways and automobiles will continue to be most prominent solution in India for future. But for that, the automobile sector should be agile, innovative, and adaptable to changing eco-system, vigilant to thwart threat of alternate mobility solutions and must provide sustainable solutions for the future. The purpose of this paper to evaluate various mobility solutions, ascertain prominence of upcoming automobile solutions and their sustainability for future in India.
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of Adaptive Accident-Avoidance System for Autonomous Vehicles

2022-10-05
2022-28-0012
Accident Avoidance is an important part of transportation infrastructures, serves to secure pedestrians lives and possessions and keep traffic flow in order. The main aim of the proposed prediction system is to detect the pedestrian crossing by considering various behaviors of the pedestrians in different types of lanes. In this technique the pre-processing of the captured frame and probabilistic branching of the frame are taken care by the Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM). When the pedestrian crossing is detected, the distance is calculated based on the ratio between the area of ROI and the frame area. Based on the calculated distance, the brake is controlled automatically to stop the accidents in obstructed areas. The proposed technique is beneficial in road safety applications to scale back the unpredictability in determining the behavior of the pedestrians while crossing the road.
Technical Paper

An Alternative to the Traditional Indian Railway Network: Hyperloop and its Feasibility

2022-10-05
2022-28-0016
There has been a radical shift in the way individuals commute. The growing interest in the comfort and luxury of private vehicles has resulted in severe traffic congestion, a major concern worldwide. India, a highly populous country, requires public transportation that can attract and provide seamless, affordable, fast, and secure commutes to its citizens while remaining sustainable and environmentally friendly. An analysis of the Indian Railway shows the need and demand for a high-speed transport system. High-speed rails have always garnered attention for their speed, technology, and communication capabilities. Hyperloop technology is one such endeavor that has piqued the world's interest. Hyperloop is a futuristic mode of transportation currently under development. It has a floating pod that races along inside giant low-pressure tubes, either above or below ground. The testing pod is capable of covering 400 m in 15 s under a preliminary experiment.
Technical Paper

Evolution of ADAS and V2X (Vehicle to Vehicle/Infrastructure) Communication for Indian Roads and the Challenges Thereof

2022-10-05
2022-28-0010
This paper focuses on adapting the technology of Autonomous Driving with respect to different SAE level that fits for Indian roads. The need of the mobility in India is more on safety, faster connectivity, shared services and comfort functions. The driving factors for this change on Indian roads will be cost, legality, consumer experience and driver experience. Some of the problem areas which needs to be addressed are the dynamic infrastructure changes (roads, constructions, traffic etc.), seamless integration of goods transportation from the source to the end user, traffic congestion and Farming and Health Care. To progress faster from developing country to developed country, one of the important factor to be improved is on mobility and connectivity in mobility. For Indian market, IOT and V2X takes priority over autonomous features due to vast resource availability.
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