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Big Data Analytics for Connected, Autonomous Vehicles and Smart Cities

2022-05-17
There is growing interest in the concept of a smart city and how these advanced technologies will improve the quality of living and make a city more attractive to visitors, commerce and industry. This course fills an unmet need for defining and explaining the relationship between connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) and smart city transportation. It is apparent that CAVs will achieve the best results when integrated with current and emerging urban infrastructure for transportation. This course addresses such integration from technology, organizational, policy and business model perspectives.
Technical Paper

Customer usage profile based Luggage compartment development at concept phase

2021-10-01
2021-28-0153
The SAE J1100 based standard cargo volume index methods and predefined luggage objects are very specific to United States population. The European luggage volume calculation and standard luggage calculations are primarily based on DIN and ISO standards. Luggage volume declaration by manufacturers are based on any of these methods. The calculations are complicated and there is a possibility of declaring different values for similar luggage compartments. The major purchase decision of vehicle is based on its luggage capacity and current methods are very limited to make an intelligent decision by a customer. Market specific customer usage patterns for luggage requirements and protecting them in vehicle architecture upfront in concept stage is important to retain the market position and buying preference of customers. The usage patterns is collected from customer clinics and marketing inputs.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Socio-Economic Loss due to Road Traffic Accident in India

2021-09-22
2021-26-0012
India witnessed 151 417 road deaths in the year 20181 and this alarming number is due to increased urbanization, motorization and per capita income. India is home to the 2nd largest road network in the world and accounts for the highest number of road deaths globally. Curbing the menace of road deaths requires tactical road safety policies and their effective implementation. The meagre availability of factual data regarding socio-economic loss due to road crashes is proving to be a hindrance to the ideation and implementation of the policies. The Planning Commission estimated the social costs of road accidents to be ₹ 55 000 crore in 1999-2000 which was roughly 3% of the country’s GDP and this value was revised to ₹ 100 000 crores in 2011. Absence of data regarding the loss in recent times due to road crashes have been a motivating factor to our study. Road deaths bring about a great deal of human suffering in terms of social, medical and economic costs.
Technical Paper

Rider State Monitoring for Attentiveness Detection for Enhanced Two-wheeler Safety

2021-09-22
2021-26-0023
Statistics report that one death occurs on Indian roads every three and a half minutes. With discussions on regulating new safety technologies like ABS, ESC, Advanced Rider Assistance Systems (ARAS) etc. for two-wheelers in India, the automotive industry has been grappling with challenges, in terms of developing cost-effective and innovative solutions adapted to regional market and its customers. Also, regulations that mandate the use of rider assistive technologies not only present opportunities to improve road safety, but also challenges for safe adoption and implementation. Distracted and inattentive riding is one of the major causes for severe road accidents in two-wheeler segments . The causes of distraction can be many - but the foremost one - as indicated by the accident data analysis - is the distraction due to mobile phones.
Technical Paper

Application of Electric Cam Phaser System (ECP) for Smooth Engine Starting Behavior in Hybrid Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0057
In the current situation and upcoming government regulations, hybrid vehicles are very promising in terms of meeting fuel economy and stringent requirements of emission norms. Herein, hybridization will be mostly done with gasoline and CNG vehicles. As a normal practice, engine is switch off at the signal and again restart with engine start-stop technology. So, instances of engine start/stop are increases in hybrid vehicle in comparison with standard IC engine vehicle. In order to achieve smooth engine start, engine starting torque can be optimized by adjusting engine valve timing. As electric cam phaser (ECP) meets valve timing target even before first engine combustion start, this is one of the critical technologies in reducing engine starting torque and time reaching to idle speed. This engine starting strategy also gives benefits in terms of reducing engine start emissions and improving fuel economy.
Technical Paper

A unique approach for motion planning for autonomous vehicle using modified Lattice Planner

2021-09-22
2021-26-0121
In order to travel in a chaotic and dynamic environment, an autonomous vehicle requires a motion plan. This motion plan ensures that the vehicle is able to travel without any collision and at the same time also following the traffic rules. The optimum solution for this problem exists in higher dimensions, however, with the help of useful heuristics the problem can be solved in real time, which is required for real time operation of an autonomous vehicle. This is generally known as motion planning for an autonomous vehicle. There are different well established techniques available to plan a collision free kinematically traversable path. One of such techniques is called Lattice planner. However, the legacy version of lattice planner is not optimized and also is prone to fail under specific dynamic environment conditions. Moreover, the legacy version of lattice planner is also not road aware. Due to this reason it a semi optimized way to solve the motion planning problem.
Technical Paper

A modular approach to vehicle management in a platoon group

2021-09-22
2021-26-0125
Vehicle platooning is a key research area where increased focus and interest is shown to maximize the transport efficiency of road vehicles. Although the key benefits are projected as increased fuel efficiency especially when it comes to commercial vehicles, allied benefits such as convoy pack efficiency, traffic throughput rate, increased life cycle of components and a source of monetary benefit when using a subscription model are areas which need to be explored. Existing literature points to control strategies predominantly focused on longitudinal control and traffic management in bottlenecks.
Technical Paper

Bus NVH refinement: A Journey towards Comfortable Future

2021-09-22
2021-26-0272
The future of bus transit in new millennium is promising. This optimism is based on an anticipated long-term slowdown in growth of suburbs and revitalization of central cities. It reflects and escalates the public concern with traffic congestion, sprawl and pollution. This calls for double the use of public transport to address above issues. It calls for changing the mind-set of society towards public transports like buses, coaches etc. This could happen if bus design ensures right comfort, safety & TCO by ensuring refined bus transport. Hence, it is responsibility of OEMs to provide the new generation buses and coaches, which will ensure the public demands of comforts in terms of NVH refinement. This paper covers the innovative approach used to convert the existing bus NVH refinement to next level as a short-term solution and with the intention of articulating NVH strategies for new generation bus development.
Technical Paper

Machine learning based model development with annotated database for Indian Specific object detection

2021-09-22
2021-26-0127
Now-a-days, Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) is equipping cars and drivers with advance information and technology to make them become aware of the environment and handle potential situations in better way semi-autonomously. High-quality training and test data is essential in the development and validation of ADAS systems which lay the foundation for autonomous driving technology. ADAS uses the technology like radar, vision and combinations of various sensors including LIDAR to automatize dynamic driving tasks like steering, braking, and acceleration of vehicle for controlled and safe driving. And to integrate these advance technologies, the ADAS needs labeled data to train the algorithm to detect the various objects and moments of driver. Image annotation is one the well-known service to create such training data for computer vision. There are number of open source annotated datasets available viz. COCO, KITTI etc.
Technical Paper

Component S/N Curve Testing Methodology for Exhaust System Validation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0451
The exhaust system design and development needs to be more flexible and easily adaptable for the dynamic changes with the introduction of new emission and noise regulations. Conventionally, bending moment testing is used to validate significant components like inlet and outlet pipe/cone joints and bend pipes through Bi-Ax test rig. Road load re-production test is an improvement of the conventional approach to predict component durability. However, it is more time consuming and involves the sequential process of acquiring road load data such as sensor instrumentation, strain measurement at the test track, data processing and input to Bi-Ax testing. S/N Curve testing is introduced recently as an alternate method to minimize the use of RLDA. It can be done upfront during vehicle unavailability and other challenging conditions and also as a parallel activity along with RLDA.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Lift Axle Control System at Vehicle Level using AMESim.

2021-09-22
2021-26-0427
Lift axle is essentially provided in the commercial vehicles to increase the vehicle’s load carrying capacity. The axle is lowered in the case of a high payload and the load is evenly distributed among the wheels both on fixed axles and the lift axle. This ability of lifting the axle implies better maneuverability in turns, better fuel consumption and less wear and tear on the tires and brake shoes. Also it will reduce the damage to the road surfaces.This lowering and lifting the lift axle is controlled by a series of valves together called Lift axle control system(LACS). This LACS has to take into account the vehicle load condition, the ignition state and gear state to decide if the axle has to be lifted or lowered. This paper deals with the modelling and simulation of the LACS system at the vehicle level and optimise the design for the respective desired design solution.
Technical Paper

“EVO: New metallic substrate development for Commercial Vehicle and Non-road applications”

2021-09-22
2021-26-0211
Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the Commercial Vehicle and Non-Road industry in all countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions under real world driving conditions and fulfill future legal requirements. Specially for India traffic conditions and payload to engine size conditions new cost-effective solutions are needed to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. Metallic substrates with structured foils like the Transversal StructureTM (TS) or the Longitudinal StructureTM (LS) have been proved to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size. Now Vitesco Technologies is developed a new Substrate for Heavy duty applications that specifically maintains the geometric surface area at a very high level and improves further the mass transport of the pollutants, which potentially leads together to very high pollutant conversion rates.
Technical Paper

Development of Thermal detection device for Automotive vehicles to monitor human body heat

2021-09-22
2021-26-0232
According to research study Epidemics such as SARS, COVID-19 spread have caused huge negative impacts on population health and the economy around the globe. The outbreak placed a huge burden on international health systems that were already straining to address AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and a host of other conditions. Research has proven that if infected person is not found easily then spread of infection in society will takes the shape of large-scale community transmission. Most of the infection spared cause due to infections may go unnoticed from the infected person. One part of the access checker scans a person’s body temperature by measuring infrared radiation emitted by their skin. Fever screening by infrared thermal imaging has become more widespread following the SARS infection, and particularly during the pandemic H1N1 and COVID-19 outbreak. skin temperature measured without contact by monitoring the emitted infrared radiation.
Technical Paper

Customer-Centric Subjective Vehicle Evaluation by Assigning Weights to Attribute Parameters using Analytic Hierarchy Process

2021-09-22
2021-26-0492
Subjective vehicle evaluation is a critical and established method to validate, engineer, and refine vehicle attributes. Organizations have an array of products catering to different customer requirements and expectations. To achieve better customer centricity and focused vehicle product attribute targets, weightage factoring of its corresponding parameters is essential. Subjective evaluations by vehicle evaluators comprise of providing ratings and feedback about attributes during different development stages of the product. All attribute parameters are presumed to have equal significance to the end customer. At times the end customers have different preferences for different vehicle attribute parameters. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to obtain the weightage factors for attribute parameters. Conventional method to obtain an overall attribute subjective rating is a simple mathematical average of the parameter ratings.
Technical Paper

Multi-axial road simulation for Component level validation of engine mount structure and elastomer

2021-09-22
2021-26-0452
Today, reducing the vehicle development time is a very crucial task. In the early development stages, the limited time and vehicle prototypes are available for validation. In such scenarios, durability validation of different design iterations of critical components like engine mounts, with respect to the real road usage is a challenge. Road simulation testing in a laboratory is a reliable approach to fatigue and durability tests for the evaluation of platforms, components and subassemblies. Durability evaluation of engine mount is, generally, performed either at assembly level, using multi-axial road simulation approach or at component level, using uniaxial sinusoidal load testing. The new testing approach here allows testing of engine mounts at component level using road simulation approach by applying multiaxial loads or deflections as per the real road usage conditions.
Technical Paper

Automatic Torque Mode Selection Based on Vehicle Load for Commercial Electric Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0141
Range of an electric vehicle is one of the most prominent decisive factors for a person willing to buy an electric vehicle. In this paper an algorithm is developed to estimate the load carried by the truck or passengers in case of a bus and accordingly switch between ECO, ECO+, Normal, Power, and Power+ modes. This is similar to the ECO/Power switches available in the vehicles, but here auto switching is done to reduce driver dependability and allow vehicle to operate in 5 different modes without driver intervention. Optimum utilization of available torque is done for efficient operation of the vehicle in all load and road conditions. The model based software development using MATLAB Simulink is used to develop an algorithm which will switch to Power or Power+ torque mode if the vehicle is fully laden or if the vehicle is going on a steep hill, whereas the algorithm will switch to ECO+ or ECO mode if the vehicle is empty or carrying less load.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Assess Headlamp Performance in Virtual Environment and its Correlation Rear World Driving Conditions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0130
Currently, vehicle level headlamp photometric performance assessment is a manual process involving testing of physical vehicle in different driving, environment, road and traffic conditions. It requires design intent headlamps and prototype vehicle, which is only possible at the later stage of vehicle development program. It has its own difficulties and challenges to address the variability in road, traffic and environment conditions; it is likely to compromise on the accuracy of test results and data. Hence, assessment of lamps perform on vehicle level for different road environments and conditions becomes a time consuming activity. To overcome this problem, a novel approach involving data driven model development is used. With development of this methodology, upfront assessment headlamp photometric performance at subsystem & vehicle level is made possible at much early stage of vehicle development program.
Technical Paper

SELF-GOVERNING COMMUTE FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITY IN AUTONOMOUS / SHARED MOBILITY BY UNIVERSAL DESIGN PROCESS

2021-09-22
2021-26-0122
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Self-driving cars are the future of mobility systems and should be a helping hand for Peoples With Disability (PWD) for their daily commute. The current technologies are addressing only some of the needs / specific type of disability or an application in mobile that helps them during their journey in Autonomous Vehicle (AV). PWD will be looking for opportunities for self-governing commute and will be willing to travel independently with their portable helping aids, personalized configurations in vehicle, along with organized help based on their need. Our study is to understand the mobility needs and challenges for all types of PWD and enable them by a universal / inclusive design approach in autonomous vehicles. The inclusive design / features in Autonomous / Shared vehicle could motivate the PWD to travel independently or with minimum help based on type of challenge they have.
Technical Paper

Coastdown Road Load Coefficients of Passenger Vehicles – Variation Analysis and its Correlation with Temperature

2021-09-22
2021-26-0487
Road Load parameters (rolling resistance & aerodynamic drag) of a vehicle have strong impact on overall Vehicle Emissions & Fuel Economy. The road load coefficients are simulated on chassis dynamometer to carryout emission & fuel economy measurement and are hence required to be found beforehand. A realistic measure of road load parameters can be obtained by conducting a coastdown test. Coastdown test results are hugely impacted by various environmental parameters like ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed etc. Though performed in standard boundary conditions, results of multiple tests performed on a vehicle vary from one another due to variations in the mentioned environmental parameters over & above standard test to test variation. This paper aims at studying the variation in test results due to ambient temperature as one of the parameters responsible.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of heating the air in a hybrid power unit with the pneumatic engine for a compact wheeled vehicle

2021-09-21
2021-01-1246
The article proves the necessity for heating the air in the pneumatic engine of a hybrid power unit designed for moving a compact wheeled vehicle. The aim is to improve the pneumatic engine operation indicators by heating the compressed air before it is supplied to the cylinder using the obtained theoretical and experimental studies. For the easy-to-use of assessing the effectiveness of heating the air supplied to a pneumatic engine, the experiments were carried out by two speed indicators p_s = 0.7MPa and p_s = 0.9MPa, according to them the testing of a pneumatic unit was conducted without heating the compressed air at the temperature equal to the ambient temperature T_s = 293K. Also, during the experiments a pneumatic engine was tested at other temperatures while supplying the compressed air at the inlet to the engine cylinder.
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