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Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Biodynamic Response of the Hand-Arm System and Study of its Influence on the Vibrational Response of the Steering Wheel

2020-09-30
2020-01-1548
Driver’s hands modify the vibrational response of the steering wheel, so that car manufacturers are used to measure vibrations of the free steering wheel to ensure reproducibility. However, levels measured in this condition do not represent those perceived by the driver. The aim of this study is to predict the vibrational response of the hand-wheel coupled system from measurements of the non-held steering wheel, and of the mechanical impedance of the arm. The mechanical impedance of the hand-arm system is measured at three levels of vibration (0.5 2.5 and 5 m/s²) in two directions of excitation (along the arm and in the normal direction of the palm). The position of the arm and the hand grip are controlled to be as close as possible to a driving situation. For each condition, the mechanical impedance is calculated and compared to models of ISO 10068.
Technical Paper

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

2020-09-30
2020-01-1549
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches.
Technical Paper

An Active Safety System Able to Counter Aquaplaning, Integrated With Sensorized Tires, ADAS and 5G Technology for Both Human-Driven and Autonomous Vehicles

2020-09-27
2020-24-0019
Autonomous vehicles must guarantee safety in all road conditions, including driving on wet roads. Aquaplaning (or hydroplaning) is a phenomenon known since the beginning of automotive history, never solved by an active safety system. Currently, no countermeasure system on the market is able to effectively counteract aquaplaning: ABS, ESP or TCS are still inefficient in overcoming this situation. Latest statistical data confirm that the higher percentage of accidents, injuries and deaths are caused by wet road conditions. The aquaplaning happens when the water on the road is too much and the tires start to float causing the instantaneous loss of control. Such phenomenon occurs in human-driven vehicles, with the responsibility of the driver, but in autonomous vehicles (e.g. Level 5), the responsibility for the safety depends on the car and the reduction of the speed is not a solution.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on Biogas Production from Waste Press Mud and Cow Dung under Anaerobic Condition

2020-09-25
2020-28-0467
Anaerobic digestion of textile wastes under mesophilic conditions were conducted in batch mode with aim of investigating the bio-methane evolution with an initial solid mass of cow dung – 2 kg, cotton and water in 3:1 ratio and press mud is use in the ratio 3:1 with water were evaluated subsequently for 7 weeks (42 days).The highest production of biogas is noted as 3 m3 in fourth week and the higher production of biogas due to press mud is noted as 0.49 in the fifth week.Carbon dioxide is produced as bi product in this bio digestion process. Highest production rate of methane,biogas and carbon dioxide are in their fourth week. Through this experiment 65%-75% of bio gas is collected by the fourth week.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of steering Gearbox station to Improve Industrial safety and Productivity through Ergonomics

2020-09-25
2020-28-0330
The economic growth of the company depends on the quality and delivery time of the components. The pursuit of new techniques is mandatory to maintain quick delivery time without compromising quality. Ergonomics is one such technique that helps to improve workstation productivity by reorganizing the workspace, changing the sequence in operations, up-gradation of machine tools, reducing operator fatigue, etc. The ergonomic study was performed in a tractor steering gearbox manufacturing unit. In the present work,an ergonomic assessment of the workstation is done. Ergonomics assessment includes Rula assessment and Work-place assessment helped to find out the factors influencing the work station to be in alert zone.During the observation of base milling operation the operator need to clamp and de-clamp the steering box manually by using mechanical tools.
Technical Paper

Ra – Solar decoction (Herbal) extractor

2020-09-25
2020-28-0448
In this fast-paced world sustainability makes us to rush behind our jobs and spend little time to maintain our healthy life. As we enjoy the benefits of the technological developments, we are forced to combat against diseases which are also increasing day by day. To reduce the consumption of electricity with reduction in environmental impact for its generation is studied to find the solution. Though we have modern medicines to cure these diseases, the side effects created by the modern medicines pushes us towards our traditional system of medicines to get rid of these diseases and get prevented from them. In recent days, Nilavembu decoction (Nilavembu kudineer), a siddha formulation played a major role in combating the dengue fever. Even though decoction (kudineer) is one of the best forms of medicine having more bio-availability, it needs more fuel for preparation.
Technical Paper

Metamodel Generation for Frontal Crash Scenario of a Passenger Car

2020-09-25
2020-28-0504
An occupant model (Hybrid III 50th percentile) along with seatbelt, steering system, airbags and the B-pillar is simulated in this research work for a frontal crash scenario in LS-Dyna. The inputs to the crash include an acceleration pulse to the seat and the outputs are injury measures in terms of Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Normalized Neck Injury Criterion (NIJ) and Chest Severity Index (CSI). The outcomes from the frontal crash simulation are validated with the results of experimental crash data obtained using post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Further, the same input files are used for simulation in LS-Opt interface to generate metamodels. First, the X and Z translation of dummy along the seat is provided as input for which there was no variation in the head injury criterion (HIC). Next, the input pulse to the seat is parameterized along with the seatbelt loading and the results are obtained respectively.
Technical Paper

Protective Facial Mask Filters Made from Timber Wood Wastes: An Useful Recycling Approach

2020-09-25
2020-28-0451
Anti-pollution masks have been experiencing a noteworthy importance in protecting people from hazardous health effects imparted by pollution gases. Incorporating elements with good adsorption properties in mask could enhance the filtration of air in a fine quality. Activated carbon has been well acknowledged in terms of evincing adequate adsorption properties. This peculiar property of activated carbon made it to be appraised where air filtration comes into light. This work deals with a novel methodology for measurement study on the pollutant gas adsorption effect of activated carbon particle pellets incorporated in the protective facial mask for better adsorption of main pollutant gases utilizing recycled wood wastes. The resulted mask is up to the par and adsorption capability is well appreciated enough to resist the passage of dust particles through nostrils. Easily available and scraped industrial wood waste materials were utilized to synthesize activated carbon.
Technical Paper

Design of Common Electronic Control Unit for Meeting Both 12 Volt and 24 Volt Vehicle Battery Requirements

2020-09-25
2020-28-0342
As electronics is increasingly penetrating automotive subsystems for both passenger and commercial vehicle, need for providing control solutions meeting stringent automotive requirements on one hand and delivering first time right solution based on frugal implementation on another hand is increasingly being felt. Reuse of proven building blocks is one of the key design techniques automotive engineers have been adopting over the years, and automotive embedded systems are no exception. To meet such expectations, vehicle OEMs desire a common Electronic Control Unit (ECU) architecture wherever possible. However as on date, most of the tier-1 suppliers provide different ECU architectures for both 12 Volt and 24 Volt applications. Key challenges are use of common interfaces for output and input devices as well as a common power-supply design which meets 8 to 36 volt requirements. This paper describes the hurdles and solutions for meeting this requirement.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hybrid Polyamide Composites for Replacement of Metallic Parts

2020-09-25
2020-28-0423
Over the past few decades, the world is looking for a better replacement option for metals. Polymers with reinforcements are finding their way deep inside in most of the engineering applications because of its lightweight and superior properties. The aim of this study is to investigate hybrid polymer composite polyphthalamide (PPA) reinforced with glass fiber and Poly tetra fluro ethylene. The reinforcement was varied as 10, 20, 30wt. % of Glass Fibre, while the fixed quantity of Poly Tetra Fluro Ethylene (PTFE) as 5wt. % was taken for hybrid composites preparation. The virgin and hybrid composite specimen were prepared under optimal process parametric conditions through the use of injection moulding techniques and test samples were produced as per ASTM standards. The response of physical properties such as density and various Mechanical testing like Hardness, Tensile Strength, and impact strength were carried out and noted.
Standard

Packing, Preformed - O-Ring Seal, Standard Sizes and Size Codes, Metric

2020-09-22
WIP
MA2010A

This standard provides the standard sizes and side identification codes for preformed packings, elastomeric o-ring seals, for use in metric aerospace fluid systems.

The aerospace o-ring sizes and size identification codes in this standard are in agreement with ISO 3601/1, Series A.

Technical Paper

A System and Method to Determine Soak Time

2020-09-15
2020-01-2016
In a competitive engineering business world, there is a constant demand to meet stringent emissions and on board diagnostic (OBD) regulations in a cost-effective manner. Engineers are tasked with the responsibility to innovate and design solutions around cost-cutting measures that involve reducing bill of material costs on the printed circuit board (PCB). Varied features in commercial application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) devices makes it more challenging to create consistent engineering design methods to provide critical inputs for controls and diagnostic strategies. In addition, continuous evolution of the emissions and OBD regulations in the different markets make it challenging for ASIC design manufacturers to evolve their hardware designs quickly. One such input is soak time. Soak time is typically defined as the amount of time the engine has been turned off. Emission controls and OBD algorithms use soak time to enable cold and hot start processing strategies.
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