This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) outlines concepts for the design and use of fault isolation equipment that have general application. The specific focus is on fault isolation of environmental control systems (ECS) in commercial transports. Presented are general fault isolation purposes, design principles, and demonstration of compliance criteria. These are followed by three design examples to aid in understanding the design principles. Future trends in built-in-test-equipment (BITE) design are discussed, some of which represent concepts already being implemented on new equipment.
The function of a multifunctional display (MFD) system is to provide the crew access to a variety of data, or combinations of data, used to fly the aircraft, to navigate, to communicate, and to manage aircraft systems. MFDs may also display primary flight information (PFI) as needed to insure continuity of operations. This document sets forth design and operational recommendations concerning the human factors considerations for MFD systems. The MFD system may contain one or more electronic display devices capable of presenting data in several possible formats. MFDs are designed to depict PFI, navigation, communication, aircraft state, aircraft system management, weather, traffic, and/or other information used by the flight crew for command and control of the aircraft. The information displayed may be combined to make an integrated display or one set of data may simply replace another.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a review of the general characteristics of power sources that may be used to provide secondary, auxiliary, or emergency power for use in aircraft, space vehicles, missiles, remotely piloted vehicles, air cushion vehicles, surface effect ships, or other vehicles in which aerospace technology is used. The information contained herein is intended for use in the selection of the power source most appropriate to the needs of a particular vehicle or system. The information may also be used in the preparation of a power source specification. Considerations for use in making a trade study and an evaluation of the several power sources are included. More detailed information relating to specific power sources is available in other SAE Aerospace Information Reports or in Aerospace Recommended Practices.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) reviews performance testing parameters for non-cleanable (often referred to as disposable) filter elements utilized in aircraft power and propulsion lubrication systems, including gas turbine engines and auxiliary power units (APUs), propulsion and transmission gear boxes, and constant speed drives and integrated drive generators (IDGs). This document is confined to laboratory testing of filter element performance to qualify the filtration medium and filter element construction as opposed to qualification of the complete filter assembly. The testing discussed here is usually followed by laboratory and on-engine testing of the entire lube filter assembly (including filter element, housing, valving, etc.), which is outside the scope of this AIR.
This document establishes the minimum requirements for ground-based aircraft deicing/anti-icing methods and procedures to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during icing conditions on the ground. This document does not specify the requirements for particular aircraft models. NOTE: Refer to particular aircraft operator or aircraft manufacturer's published manuals and procedures. The application of the procedures specified in this document are intended to effectively remove and/or prevent the accumulation of frost, snow, slush, or ice contamination which can seriously affect the aerodynamic performance and/or the controllability of an aircraft. The principal method of treatment employed is the use of fluids qualified to AMS1424 (Type I fluid) and AMS1428 (Types II, III, and IV fluids). All guidelines referred to herein are applicable only in conjunction with the applicable documents.
The intent of this report is to encourage that the thermal management system architecture be designed from a global platform perspective. Separate procurements for air vehicle, propulsion system, and avionics have contributed to the development of aircraft that are sub-optimized from a thermal management viewpoint. In order to maximize the capabilities of the aircraft for mission performance and desired growth capability, overall system efficiency and effectiveness should be considered. This document provides general information about aircraft Thermal Management System Engineering (TMSE). The document also discusses approaches to processes and methodologies for validation and verification of thermal management system engineering. Thermal integration between the air vehicle, propulsion system, and avionics can be particularly important from a thermal management standpoint.
The scope of this report is to capture fundamental principles of selecting a wire size for an aerospace application using the method prescribed in the AS50881 standard and additional calculations, not found in AS50881, to ensure the wire selection will adequately perform in the specific physical and environment conditions. This report covers wire selection and sizing as part of the electrical wire interconnection systems (EWIS) used in aerospace vehicles. Aerospace vehicles include manned and unmanned airplanes, helicopters, lighter-than-air vehicles, missiles, and external pods. This document does not apply to wiring inside of airborne electronic equipment but shall apply to wiring externally attached to such equipment.
This document applies to prognostics of aerospace propulsion systems. Its purpose is to define the meaning of prognostics in this context, explain their potential and limitations, and to provide guidelines for potential approaches for use in existing condition monitoring environments. This document also includes some examples. The current revision does not provide specific guidance on validation and verification, nor does it address implementation aspects such as computational capability or certification.
This SAE Information Report contains definitions for HEV and EV terminology. It is intended that this document be a resource for those writing other HEV and EV documents, specifications, standards, or recommended practices.
The growing need for a sustainable worldwide mobility is leading towards a paradigm shift in the automotive industry. The increasingly restrictive regulations on vehicle emissions are indeed driving all of the world-leading road vehicles manufacturers to redesign the concept of transportation by developing new propulsion solutions. To this aim, a gradual electrification strategy is being adopted, and several hybrid electric solutions, such as extended-range electric vehicles with reciprocating engines or fuel cells, already represent a valid alternative to conventional vehicles powered by fossil fuels. Despite their appealing features, these hybrid propulsion systems present some drawbacks, mainly related to their complex architecture, causing high overall dimensions, weight and costs, which pose some limitation in their use for small-size vehicles.
This AIR describes the current scientific and engineering principles of gas turbine lubricant performance testing per AS5780 and identifies gaps in our understanding of the technology to help the continuous improvement of this specification.
The article presents studies of the operating process of the pneumatic engine, that can be installed on small vehicles as main or auxiliary power generating system. The aim is to assess the possibility of converting an internal combustion engine into a pneumatic engine capable of moving a vehicle with a small mass in urban settings with dense traffic flows using mathematical modelling. The behaviour in the operating processes of the engine under study has been performed by the computational method and verified experimentally at the installation created in the laboratory of the ICE department in Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University. The computational technique in question differs from the existing ones because it is based on a dynamic model of an internal combustion engine. The developed pneumatic engine was mounted on the stand for determining its power, developed torque, compressed air consumption, pressure in its cylinders and the temperature of heating the engine.
Due to the continuous electrification of vehicles, the variety of different hybrid topologies is expected to increase in the future. As the calibration of real-time capable energy management systems (EMS) is still challenging, a development framework for the EMS that is independent of the hybrid topology would simplify the overall development process of hybrid vehicles. In this paper an analytical methodology, which is used to derive a fuel-optimal, rule-based EMS for parallel hybrids, is transferred to a series topology. It is shown that the fundamental correlations can be applied universally to both parallel and series configurations. This enables the possibility to develop a real-time capable, rule-based controller for a series HEV based on maps that ensures a fuel-optimal operation. These maps provide the optimal power threshold for the activation of the auxiliary power unit and the optimal power output dependent on the driver’s power request.
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a historical technical record describing procedures, required continuous sampling conditions, and instrumentation for the measurement of non-volatile particle number and mass concentrations from the exhaust of aircraft gas turbine engines. Procedures are included to calculate sampling loss performance. This AIR is not intended for in-flight testing, nor does it apply to engine operating in the afterburning mode. This Aerospace Information Report is a historical technical record of the initial document detailing the measurement of non-volatile particle emissions at the exit plane of aircraft gas turbine engines. This methodology was adopted by ICAO into Annex 16 Vol II and updated into Aerospace Recommended Practice ARP6320. Future updates of this document may include explanations of the reasoning and assumptions used to develop this measurement methodology.
New internal combustion engines (ICE) are characterized by increasing maximum efficiency, thanks to the adoption of strategies like Atkinson cycle, downsizing, cylinder deactivation, waste heat recovery and so on. However, the best performance is confined to a limited portion of the engine map. Moreover, electric driving in urban areas is an increasingly pressing request, but battery electric vehicles use cannot be easily spread, due to limited vehicle autonomy and recharging issues. Therefore, hybrid propulsion systems are under development, in order to reduce vehicle fuel consumption, by decoupling the ICE running from road load, as well as to permit energy recovery and electric driving. This paper analyses a new-patented solution for power split hybrid propulsion system with gearbox. The system comprises an auxiliary power unit, adapted to store and/or release energy, and a planetary gear set, which is interposed between the ICE and the gearbox.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures and performance requirements for the defrosting system of enclosed cab trucks, buses, and multipurpose vehicles. It is limited to a test that can be conducted on uniform test equipment in commercially available laboratory facilities. For laboratory evaluation of defroster systems, current engineering practice prescribes that an ice coating of known thickness be applied to the windshield and left- and right-hand side windows to provide more uniform and repeatable test restults, even though—under actual conditions—such a coating would necessarily be scraped off before driving. The test condition, therefore, represents a more severe condition than the actual condition, where the defroster system must merely be capable of maintaining a cleared viewing area.