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Technical Paper

High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat system for tractor sheet metal application.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2541
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
Technical Paper

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator

2019-11-21
2019-28-2381
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.
Technical Paper

Design & analysis of 2 point aluminum upper control arm in modular multi link rear suspension system

2019-11-21
2019-28-2564
In current automobile market, due to the need of meeting future CO2 limits and emission standards, demand for hybrid systems is on the rise. In general, the requirements of modern automobile architecture demands modular chassis structure to develop vehicle variants using minimum platforms. The multi-link modular suspension system provides ideal solution to achieve these targets. To match ideal stiffness characteristics of system with minimum weight, aluminum links are proving a good alternative to conventional steel forged or stamped linkages. Design of current 2-point link (Upper Control Arm) is based on elasto-kinematic model developed using standard load cases from multi body dynamics. CAD system used is CATIA V5 to design upper control arm for rear suspension. This arm connects steering knuckle & rear sub frame. For Finite Element Analysis we used Hyperworks CAE tool to analyze design under all load cased & further optimization is done to resolve highly stressed zones.
Technical Paper

Study on Applicable Methods to Mitigate Galvanic Corrosion between Wheel Bearing and Aluminum knuckle

2019-09-15
2019-01-2136
The substitution of aluminum for steel is an effective weight reduction solution where the application permits it; aluminum knuckles have been being widely used for this reason. However, when an aluminum knuckle is assembled with the steel outer-ring of a wheel bearing without any means for galvanic corrosion prevention, the aluminum knuckle may severely corrode. Galvanic corrosion product can make it difficult to remove a wheel bearing from the aluminum knuckle during vehicle maintenance. Prevention of this problem is the focus of this paper. In this study, several concepts were examined to prevent or mitigate galvanic corrosion between a wheel bearing and its mating aluminum knuckle. One set of concepts involves using surface treated metal sleeves (using ferritic nitro-carburizing or a special coating). The sleeves were then inserted onto the outer-ring diameters of the wheel bearings prior to assembly into the steering knuckle.
Technical Paper

Knock Mitigation by Means of Coolant Control

2019-09-09
2019-24-0183
The potentiality of knock mitigation by means of the control of the coolant flow rate is investigated. As a first step, the dynamic behavior of the wall temperature in response to a sudden variation of the coolant flow rate is analyzed experimentally in a small displacement, 4-valve per cylinder SI engine, which is equipped with an electrically driven pump. Subsequently, the influence of the wall temperature on knock onset is analyzed through a zero-dimensional model and the Livengood and Wu integral. Finally, an experimental activity on the engine test bed is carried-out in order to evaluate the influence of the coolant flow rate and of the engine inlet coolant temperature on the knock phenomenon. Results show that, even though a retarded spark advance and a mixture enrichment are not avoidable in the early stage of knock onset, a cooling control can help reducing the time of use of these fuel consuming strategies in the case of prolonged high-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Efficient Test Bench Operation with Early Damage Detection Systems

2019-09-09
2019-24-0192
The efficient operation of test benches within the framework of research and development projects directly correlates with the "health" of the examinee to be investigated. The use of so-called Early Damage Detection Systems (EDDS) is becoming increasingly popular for reasons of Unit Under Test (UUT) monitoring. In the context of this publication the expectations of an EDDS and its structure are discussed as well as its advantages and disadvantages in test bench operation analyzed and compared with the results of measurements. The used EDDS should primarily prevent the damage, up to the loss of the test object by a total loss, in order to ensure a finding possibility of the damaged part at the examined test object. A deviation of the test object behavior from the undamaged condition must be recognized in an early status and must lead to a shutdown of the test bench operation after reaching a defined limit value.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Powertrain Technology Assessment Through an Integrated Simulation Approach

2019-09-09
2019-24-0198
Global automotive fuel economy and emissions pressures mean that 48V hybridisation will become a significant presence in the passenger car market. The complexity of the powertrain solutions is increasing in order to further increase fuel economy for hybrid vehicles and maintain robust emissions performance. However, this results in complex interactions between technologies which are difficult to identify through traditional development approaches, resulting in sub-optimal solutions for either vehicle attributes or cost. This paper presents the results from a simulation programme focussed on the optimisation of various advanced powertrain technologies on 48V hybrid vehicle platforms. The technologies assessed include an electrically heated catalyst, an insulated turbocharger, an electric water pump and a thermal management module (a coolant valve replacing a conventional thermostat).
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Compact Heat Exchangers for I.C. Engine Oil Cooling

2019-09-09
2019-24-0179
In the last years, the increase of the specific power of the modern engines has required a parallel improvement of the performances of the cooling system. In this context, also the control of the oil temperature has become an important issue, leading to the introduction of dedicated cooling circuits (air-cooled or liquid-cooled). Among the two, the liquid-cooled solution results in a more compact installation in which the oil-to-liquid heat exchanger is directly mounted on the engine block and integrated in the engine cooling system. It is clear that, in a liquid-cooled solution, the design of the heat exchanger represents an issue of extreme concern, which requires a compromise between different objectives: high compactness, low pressure drop, high heat-transfer efficiency. In this work, a computational framework for the CFD simulation of compact oil-to-liquid heat exchangers, including offset-strip fins as heat transfer enhancer (turbolator), has been developed.
Technical Paper

Validity of a Steady-State Friction Model for Determining CO2 Emissions in Transient Driving Cycles

2019-09-09
2019-24-0054
Due to its high benefit-cost ratio, decreasing mechanical friction losses in internal combustion engines represents one of the most effective and widely applicable solutions for improved engine efficiency. Especially the piston group – consisting of piston, rings and pin – shows significant potential for friction reduction, which can be evaluated through extensive experimental parameter studies. For each investigated variant, the steady-state friction measurements are fitted to an empirical polynomial model. In order to calculate the associated fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in transient driving cycles, the steady-state friction model is used in a map-based vehicle simulation. If transient engine operation entails friction phenomena that are not included in the steady-state model, the simulation could yield erroneous fuel consumption and CO2 predictions.
Standard

Hydraulic Hose

2019-06-27
WIP
J517
This SAE Standard provides general, dimensional and performance specifications for the most common hoses used in hydraulic systems on mobile and stationary equipment. The general specifications contained in Sections 1 through 12 are applicable to all hydraulic hoses and supplement the detailed specifications for the 100R-series hoses contained in the later sections of this document (see Tables 1 and 2). This document shall be utilized as a procurement document only to the extent as agreed upon by the manufacturer and user. The maximum working pressure of a hose assembly comprising SAE J517 hose and hose connectors per SAE J516, SAE J518, SAE J1453, etc., shall not exceed the lower of the respective SAE maximum working pressure values. When using SAE J517 hose for marine applications, reference SAE J1475, SAE J1942, and SAE J1942-1. The SAE J517 100R9, 100R10, and 100R11 hoses are discontinued due to lack of demand. For DOD orders see Appendix C.
Standard

Formed Tube Ends for Hose Connections and Hose Fittings

2019-06-20
WIP
J1231

This SAE Standard provides general and dimensional specifications for formed tube ends and hose fittings. These connections are intended for general applications in low pressure automotive and hydraulic systems on automotive, industrial, and commercial products. The fittings shown in Figures 2 and 3 are intended to be retained by hose clamps as specified in SAE J1508.

It is recommended that where step sizes or additional types of fittings are required, they be designed to conform with the specifications of this document insofar as they may apply. The following general specifications shall supplement the dimensional data contained in the tables with respect to all unspecified detail.

Journal Article

Optimizing Cooling Fan Power Consumption for Improving Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency Using CFD Technique

2019-06-11
Abstract Fan cooling system of an air-cooled diesel engine is optimized using 3D CFD numerical simulation approach. The main objective of this article is to increase engine fuel efficiency by reducing fan power consumption. It is achieved by optimizing airflow rates and flow distribution over the engine surfaces to keep the maximum temperature of engine oil and engine surfaces well within the lubrication and material limit, respectively, at the expense of lower fan power. Based on basic fan laws, a bigger fan consumes lesser power for the same airflow rate as compared to a smaller fan, provided both fans have similar efficiency. Flow analysis is also conducted with the engine head and block modeled as solid medium and fan cooling system as fluid domain. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence (RANS) equations were solved to get the flow field inside the cooling system and on the engine liner fins. The Moving Reference Frame approach was used for simulating the rotation of a fan.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

2019-06-10
2019-01-1965
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry used for this study is the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) in January 2018. The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA in-house code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study to Evaluate Hydro-/Ice-Phobic Coatings for Icing Mitigation over Rotating Aero-engine Fan Blades

2019-06-10
2019-01-1980
Ice accretion on aero-engines, especially on the fan blades, is the very hazardous icing incident due to the potential performance degradation of jet-engines. In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to examine the performance of ice-phobic coatings for jet-engine fan icing mitigation. The experimental study was performed in the unique Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT) with a scaled engine fan model operated under wet glaze and dry rime ice conditions. To evaluate the effects of anti-icing coatings and to acquire the important details of ice accretion and shedding process on fan blade surfaces, a “phase-locked” imaging technique was applied with a high-resolution imaging system. The power input required to drive the engine fan model rotating at a constant prescribed speed was also measured during the ice accretion experiment.
Technical Paper

An Ice Shedding Model for Rotating Components

2019-06-10
2019-01-2003
A CFD simulation methodology is presented to evaluate the ice that sheds from rotating components. The shedding detection is handled by coupling the ice accretion and stress analysis solvers to periodically check for the propagation of crack fronts and possible detachment. A novel approach for crack propagation is highlighted where no change in mesh topology is required. The entire computation from flow to impingement, ice accretion and crack analysis only requires a single mesh. The accretion and stress module are validated individually with published data. The analysis is extended to demonstrate potential shedding scenarios on three complex industrially-relevant 3D cases: a helicopter blade, an engine fan blade and a turboprop propeller. The largest shed fragment will be analyzed in the context of FOD damage to neighboring aircraft/component surfaces.
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