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Technical Paper

Numerical investigation of Electrostatic Spray Painting Transfer Processes for vehicle Coating

2019-09-16
2019-01-1856
In this study we examined numerically the electrostatic spray transfer processes in the rotary bell spray applicator, which is this case implemented in a full 3D representation. The algorithm implemented and developed for this simulation includes airflow, spray dynamics, tracking of paint droplets and an electrostatic modularized solver to present atomization and in-flight spray phenomena for the spray forming procedure. The algorithm is implemented using the OpenFOAM package. The shaping airflow is simulated via an unsteady 3D compressible Navier-Stokes method. Solver for particle trajectory was developed to illustrate the process of spray transport and also the interaction of airflow and particle that is solved by momentum coupling. As the numerical results in this paper indicates dominant operating parameter voltage setting, further the charge to mass ratio and air-paint flow rate deeply effect the spray shape and the transfer efficiency (TE).
Standard

Aviation Lubricant Tribology Evaluator (ALTE) Method to Determine the Lubricating Quality of Gas Turbine Lubricants

2019-06-12
WIP
ARP6255A
Employing ‘ball-on-cylinder’ philosophy, a non-rotating steel ball is held in a vertically mounted chuck and using an applied load is forced against an axially mounted steel cylinder. The test cylinder is rotated at a fixed speed while being partially immersed in a lubricant reservoir. This maintains the cylinder in a wet condition and continuously transports a lubricating film of test fluid to the ball and cylinder interface. The diameter of the wear scar generated on the test ball is used as a measure of the fluid’s lubricating properties. The apparatus can be used, by adjusting the operating conditions, to reproduce two different wear mechanisms; mild and severe wear, the ALTE therefore has the ability to assess a lubricant’s performance in that regard.
Standard

Heat Resistant Aluminized Paint

2019-06-11
CURRENT
AMS3604A
This specification establishes requirements for a heat resistant aluminized organic coating with sufficient corrosion and erosion resistance for the finished substrate.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Ice Adhesion Using the Blister Test

2019-06-10
2019-01-1948
Structures in cold weather environments are susceptible to atmospheric ice formation. A fracture mechanics based approach is proposed for in situ characterization of the interfacial fracture energy of ice on different substrates. This paper summarizes the development of the experimental and analytical framework to measure the ice adhesion energy, calibrated on static ice. The testing configuration utilizes a shaft-loaded blister test to produce stable crack propagation, from a well-defined pre-crack at the interface of the ice layer and the substrate. Measurements of the fracture energy are taken over a range of ice thicknesses and surface roughnesses. The developed analytical framework to estimate adhesion energy are verified and calibrated via finite element numerical simulation of the proposed geometric configuration and employing cohesive surfaces along the interface to simulate the crack nucleation and propagation process.
Technical Paper

Creation of an Icephobic Coating using Graphite Powder and PTFE Nanoparticles

2019-06-10
2019-01-1979
Ice accretion can cause numerous inefficiencies, structural stresses, and failures in applications ranging from building design to power generation and aerospace applications. Currently, some of the leading de-icing technologies, such as the ICE-WIPS system, utilize a heating element coupled with a superhydrophobic surface. The high power consumption inherent in these systems can make them expensive and impractical, especially when coupled with power generating systems. Reduced power consumption in these de-icing technologies can be achieved through increased absorption of solar radiation in the visible range while maintaining hydrophobic performance of a coating. In this work, a Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and graphite-based superhydrophobic surface is proposed, which maintains similar hydrophobic performance to standard superhydrophobic surfaces.
Technical Paper

An Explorative Study to Use Super-Hydrophilic/Super-Hydrophobic Hybrid Surfaces for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

2019-06-10
2019-01-1995
An explorative study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel hybrid anti-/de-icing strategy for aircraft icing mitigation. The hybrid method was developed by combining the electro-thermal heating mechanism and specialized surfaces/coatings with different wettabilities. While an electrical film heater was utilized to provide thermal energy around the leading edge of a NACA0012 airfoil model, two different coating strategies, (i.e., (a). Superhydrophobic coating covering the entire airfoil surface to increase droplets bounce-off and accelerate surface water runback vs. (b). super-hydrophilic coating at the leading edge to increase evaporation area + superhydrophobic coating in downstream to prevent runback refreezing) were proposed and evaluated aiming at maximizing the anti-/de-icing efficiency of the hybrid method.
Technical Paper

Advanced Nanocomposite Low Adhesion Icephobic Coating for Aerospace Applications

2019-06-10
2019-01-1996
Icing is a major safety issue for flight operations in the civil, defense and space sectors. Ice can form on critical components during takeoff/landing, or while in service, depending on prevailing weather conditions. Aircraft manufacturers relies on two different approaches to prevent ice buildup using an active anti-icing system to melt ice buildup or deicing chemicals/ice repellent surface to minimize the buildup ice. The use of active anti-icing systems offers good protection, however can add significant penalty to overall weight, energy consumption and cost. Aerospace industry is in need for an advanced ice repellent surface to effectively minimize ice buildup on critical components with no modification to existing design can provide significant relief to ice prone systems.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Droplet Impinging Erosion Characteristics of an Icephobic, Elastic Soft Surface

2019-06-10
2019-01-1997
Elastic soft material/surface, such as Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), is a perspective, useful and low-cost hydrophobic and icephobic coating. While it has been reported to have good mechanical durability, its erosion durability under the high impacting of water droplets pertinent to aircraft inflight icing phenomena has not been explored. In this study, the droplet imping erosion characteristics of an icephobic PDMS surface/material is evaluated systematically upon the dynamic impinging of water droplets at different impact velocities (~ up to 75m/s), in comparison with other state-of-the-art icephobic materials/surfaces, such as superhydrophobic surface (SHS) and slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS). Surprisingly, the contact angle (CA) of the elastic PDMS is shown to have an over 20° increase (from 105° to 128°), which represents better hydrophobicity, after the erosion test which is mainly contributed to the higher roughness of the eroded PDMS surface.
Standard

Primer, Zinc Molybdate

2019-06-06
CURRENT
AMS3117A
This specification covers a zinc molybdate primer in the form of a liquid.
Standard

Test Strip, Holder, and Gage for Shot Peening

2019-06-06
CURRENT
J442_201906
This SAE standard defines requirements for equipment and supplies to be used in measuring shot peening arc height and other surface enhancement processes. Guidelines for use of these items can be found in SAE J443 and SAE J2597.
Standard

Instrumental Color Difference Measurement for Exterior Finishes, Textiles and Colored Trim

2019-06-05
WIP
J1545
The practice applies to parts and materials used in vehicle manufacture which are intended to be acceptable color matches to a specified color standard. This practice is intended for use with parts or materials that are opaque or nearly so and does not apply to transparent materials. Materials covered by this practice include topcoat paint finishes, interior soft trim, interior and exterior hard trim, and exterior film.
Standard

Instrumental Color Difference Measurements for Colorfastness of Automotive Interior Trim Materials

2019-06-05
WIP
J1767
The practice described applies to textile and flexible plastic parts and materials used in automotive vehicles. Special care should be taken when high pile carpet samples are being evaluated. The intent of this SAE Recommended Practice is to specify procedures for the instrumental measurement of color differences brought about by the exposure of textile and flexible plastic automotive parts to various colorfastness tests. It may be used for the specification of limits of color differences which may be tolerated in a specific test.
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