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Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

Role of Attapulgite on Altering the Performance Properties of Cu-Free Brake-Pads

2020-10-05
2020-01-1601
Abstract: Attapulgite, a unique clay mineral is a crystalloid hydrous magnesium-aluminium silicate, composed of silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, iron oxide etc. having formula Mg5Si8O20(HO)2(OH2)4•4H2O. Its structure is somewhat between laminated and chain structure having very high surface area and porosity. Its magnesium silicate structure resembles a brick wall with every second brick missing. This leaves elongated porous channels that are highly absorbent. Its fibers were proven to be excellent substitute for asbestos in brake-pads. Hardly anything in details is reported on its exact role in controlling tribo-properties of friction materials (FMs) especially Cu-free FMs. Hence, in this work a series of brake-pads with five types was formulated and developed with increasing amount of attapulgite (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt. %) by compensating with inert barite particles in Cu-free FMs.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Technical Paper

Innovative Acoustic Material Concept Integration Into Vehicle Design Process

2020-09-30
2020-01-1527
Integration of acoustic material concepts into vehicle design process is an important part of full vehicle design. The ability to assess the acoustic performance of a particular sound package component early in the design process allows designers to test various designs concepts before selecting a final products. This paper describes an innovative acoustic material concept which is easily integrated in a design process through the use of a database of Biot parameters. Biot parameters are widely used in the automotive industry to describe the physical interactions between the acoustics waves travelling through foams, fibers or metamaterials and the solid and fluid phase of these poro-elastic materials. This new acoustic material concept provides a combination of absorption, transmission loss and added damping on the panel it is attached to.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

2020-09-30
2020-01-1549
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches.
Technical Paper

An Active Safety System Able to Counter Aquaplaning, Integrated With Sensorized Tires, ADAS and 5G Technology for Both Human-Driven and Autonomous Vehicles

2020-09-27
2020-24-0019
Autonomous vehicles must guarantee safety in all road conditions, including driving on wet roads. Aquaplaning (or hydroplaning) is a phenomenon known since the beginning of automotive history, never solved by an active safety system. Currently, no countermeasure system on the market is able to effectively counteract aquaplaning: ABS, ESP or TCS are still inefficient in overcoming this situation. Latest statistical data confirm that the higher percentage of accidents, injuries and deaths are caused by wet road conditions. The aquaplaning happens when the water on the road is too much and the tires start to float causing the instantaneous loss of control. Such phenomenon occurs in human-driven vehicles, with the responsibility of the driver, but in autonomous vehicles (e.g. Level 5), the responsibility for the safety depends on the car and the reduction of the speed is not a solution.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hybrid Polyamide Composites for Replacement of Metallic Parts

2020-09-25
2020-28-0423
Over the past few decades, the world is looking for a better replacement option for metals. Polymers with reinforcements are finding their way deep inside in most of the engineering application because of its lightweight and superior properties. The aim of this study is to investigate hybrid polymer composite polyphthalamide (PPA) reinforced with glass fibre and Poly tetra fluro ethylene. The reinforcement was varied as 10, 20, 30wt% of Glass Fibre, while fixed quantity of Poly tetra fluro ethylene (PTFE) as 5wt % was taken for hybrid composites preparation. The virgin and hybrid composite specimen were prepared under optimal process parametric conditions through the use of injection moulding techniques and test samples were produced as per ASTM standards. The response of physical properties such as density and various Mechanical testing like Hardness, Tensile Strength, impact and flexural test were carried out and noted.
Technical Paper

Enhancing the Tribological Properties PETG and CFPETG Composites Fabricated by FDM via Various Infill Density and Annealing

2020-09-25
2020-28-0429
One of the prominent representatives of tribo and thermal resistant for a class of polyester with high-strength, but still lightweight. The PETG with carbon fiber nano particle (PETGCF) composites also gives even more resistance of wear, heat and chemical, creating it an exceptional choice of application in automotive and other industries. This paper aims to study the influencing process parameter of FDM technique for different infill density (25%,50%,75%,100%) at various load condition and sliding distance on wear and friction characteristics of PETGCF under as- print and annealed condition was investigated via dry sliding tribo-meter apparatus. The trials were done by applying the load of 10N,20N,30N,40N, with a sliding distance of 1000m,2000m for the time period of 10 min at room temperature and responses such as wear rate and coefficient of friction were recorded for further analysis.
Technical Paper

Thermal Properties of Hybrid Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites with SiC as Filler

2020-09-25
2020-28-0460
Scientists and technologists attracted towards natural fibers like banana, cotton, coir, sisal, hemp and jute for the application civil structures and consumer goods. It was identified the electrical resistance, thermal and acoustic insulating properties for possessing of these natural fibers in composites. Natural fibers have many benefits compared to artificial fibers, as an example less density, less weight; low cost, specific properties and they are recyclable and biodegradable. There aren’t any skin effects because of high strength and stiffness, renewable. In alternative manner, there also are some limitations, as an example less thermal stability and wetness uptake. several of them studied a major improvement in properties of hybrid composites with reinforced with glass fiber in resin content however it’s naturally hazard with usage of this glass fiber content.
Technical Paper

Noise absorption behaviour of aluminium honeycomb composite

2020-09-25
2020-28-0453
This paper discusses the experimental and FEA results on sound absorption of aluminium honeycomb composite with polyurethane foam for automobile applications. Different proportion of foam mixed with cotton fabric and wood dust are filled in honeycomb, while keeping the size of the honeycomb same. Initial impedance tube measurement was carried on different samples. Further test results were compared with FEA study on COMSOL software. As honeycomb is lightweight, it is used in various applications such as shock absorbing bumpers, marine industry, aviation, railway industry and many more. The use of wood dust and carbon fabric mixed with foam shows improvement in sound absorption. This study helps to determine suitable honeycomb composite used for various application which having better sound absorption capacity and good compression strength as well.
Technical Paper

Finite Element modeling of elastic properties of flax fiber reinforced epoxy composites

2020-09-25
2020-28-0489
Natural fibers are extracted from plant can be used as a fiber reinforcement in polymer based materials which provides anisotropic mechanical properties due to their interior microstructure. In our county, flax fiber is available in nature abundantly which is widely used for manufacturing of composites for automotive and aerospace application. In these work, young modulus of fiber composites is determined by using mathematical models. Finite element model is used to find the modulus properties of flax fiber reinforced epoxy composite by varying the fiber ratio. The analysis results indicated that finite element model results are correlated with mathematical of flax fiber reinforced epoxy composites.
Technical Paper

Tribological Behaviour of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Bio degradable Material as an Alternative Frictional Brake Pad in Automobiles

2020-09-25
2020-28-0513
The brake pad is one of the most essential part of vehicle. Due to environmental requirements, natural materials are the raising alternative source for manufacturing degradable specimens. The intern of this work is to study the comparison of using carbon fibre and sisal fibre with using cashew nut shell liquid resin (CNSL), cashew nut filler, alumina and graphite. Two formulae and four samples of each set were prepared by varying the fibre type using hydraulic press under optimum process parametric conditions. The prepared samples are taken for tribo test using pin-on-disc tribometer apparatus at room temperature as per ASTM standards. In this load of 10,20,30,40N and sliding distance of 1000,2000,3000m applied and responds like wear rate and co-efficient of friction were noted . On further scanning, electron microscopic analysis was done to observe wear mechanics with the formation of very fine detritus on the surface that was worn out and counter face of composite.
Technical Paper

Optimization and experimental analysis of Magnesium alloy (AZ91E) hybrid nano composite by drilling operation

2020-09-25
2020-28-0509
The usage of AZ91E series magnesium alloy material increases in the field of automobile, aero space and structural applications because of its enhanced mechanical properties, light weight and good machinability characteristics. The present investigation is to optimize the drilling process parameters of magnesium alloy (AZ91E) hybrid nano composite consisting of chopped basalt fiber (9wt%) and SiCnp(7.5wt%) fabricated by vacuum stirring technique.. AZ91E hybrid nano composite is drilled by M-Tab vertical machining centre equipped with CNC under dry state (without coolant). The dry state drilling operation was performed by HSS tool with varied input parameters like drill diameter (4mm, 6mm, 8mm and 10mm), drill diameter prevailing with spindle speed, feed rate and constant depth of cut. The effect of machining time, metal removal rate and surface roughness is evaluated and optimum level of drilling parameters is determined through taguchi technique.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fiber length on the Mechanical properties of Woven jute/ Raw sisal fiber Composite.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0417
The use of natural fiber’s as a composite matrix is tremendously increasing day to day and acting as a replacement product to many conventional materials in the automobile and aviation sectors. Because of it’s bio-degradability, weight to strength ratio, Easy availability, lightweight. The crisscrossed woven jute and raw –sisal fibers had drawn the superior properties in the advanced developing field of the composite. The main objective of this work is to identify the influence of raw sisal fiber in woven Jute/Epoxy composite by varying the size of raw sisal in 3 standards of 10 Millimeters,20 Millimeters, 30 Millimeters. The fabrication of woven jute raw sisal fiber composite is carried out by hand –layer method. The mechanical investigating testing is carried on INSTRON 8801 with a double-acting servo-hydraulic actuator with a digital 8800 controllers for the Tensile specimen with ASTM 3039 Standard and3-point flexural testing specimen standard of ASTM790-00.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on Biogas Production from Waste Press Mud and Cow Dung under Anaerobic Condition

2020-09-25
2020-28-0467
Anaerobic digestion of textile wastes under mesophilic conditions were conducted in batch mode with aim of investigating the bio-methane evolution with an initial solid mass of cow dung – 2 kg, cotton and water in 3:1 ratio and press mud is use in the ratio 3:1 with water were evaluated subsequently for 7 weeks (42 days).The highest production of biogas is noted as 3 m3 in fourth week and the higher production of biogas due to press mud is noted as 0.49 in the fifth week.Carbon dioxide is produced as bi product in this bio digestion process. Highest production rate of methane,biogas and carbon dioxide are in their fourth week. Through this experiment 65%-75% of bio gas is collected by the fourth week.
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