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Standard

Titanium Alloy Bars, Wire, Forgings, and Rings 6Al - 6V - 2Sn Annealed

2022-05-24
CURRENT
AMS4978J
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of bars, wire, forgings, flash welded rings 4.000 inches (101.60 mm) and under in diameter, or least distance between parallel sides and stock of any size for forging or flash welded rings (see 8.8).
Standard

Flammability Test Method for Aircraft Comfort Blankets

2022-04-29
CURRENT
ARP5627A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to blankets used for passenger comfort within transport category aircraft cabins. When the term “blanket” is used in this document it refers to all blankets that are provided by the aircraft operator for passenger warmth.
Journal Article

Study of Statistical Narrow-Band Models for Infrared Signature of an Aeroengine Exhaust Plume in Mid-wave Infrared and Short-Wave Infrared Band

2022-04-20
Abstract An aeroengine exhaust plume is one of the important sources of infrared (IR) signature in the 3-5 μm and the 2-3 μm bands. Analysis, characterization, and modeling of the exhaust plume IR emission are needed for insight into its role in aircraft survivability against IR-guided missiles. The IR signature estimation of aeroengine exhaust needs estimation of radiative properties of absorbing-emitting exhaust gases, e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O). The radiative properties of the gases can be estimated by a mathematical model with a spectroscopic database of these gases. Low-Resolution Transmission (LOWTRAN), Moderate-Resolution Transmission (MODTRAN), High-Resolution Transmission (HITRAN), and High-Temperature Transmission (HITEMP) are some commonly used spectroscopic databases. This study compares Statistical Narrowband (SNB) models with the various other mathematical models used for the estimation of radiative properties of exhaust gases.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: April 2022

2022-04-01
Predicting mobility in military operational scenarios U.S. Army leads a seven-year, multinational effort to develop new off-road vehicle mobility analysis methodology. Hitting the gas on hydrogen tech OEMs and global suppliers still are betting big on hydrogen propulsion as a solution for decarbonizing the heavy-duty trucking industry. BEV truck manufacturers charge ahead Several companies announced new product offerings and prototypes of BEVs at the NTEA Work Truck Week in Indianapolis. Editorial Maintaining EV chargers yet another challenge Precision tech the 'backbone' to CNH's digital strategy Purdue prototypes new EV fast-charge cable 3DEO unveils metal 3D-printing platform for mass production Paccar launches new 18-speed automated transmissions Lightning's eChassis targets commercial EVs Quantron launches 12-m battery-electric bus; fuel-cell variant to follow Q&A Chemours' Christina Spalding shares insights on the commercial-vehicle industry's shift to R-1234yf HVAC refrigerant.
Technical Paper

Laser-Based In-Exhaust Gas Sensor for On-Road Vehicles

2022-03-29
2022-01-0534
A novel laser-absorption gas sensing apparaOn-vehicle Testing at VERtus capable of measuring NO directly within vehicle exhaust was developed and tested. The sensor design was enabled by key advances in the construction of optical probes that are sufficiently compact for deployment in real-world exhaust systems and can survive the harsh, high-temperature, and strongly vibrating environment typical of exhaust streams. Prototype test campaigns were conducted at high-temperature flow facilities intended to simulate exhaust gas conditions and within the exhaust of vehicles mounted on a chassis dynamometer. Results from these tests demonstrated that the sensor prototype is fundamentally free of cross-interference with competing species in the exhaust stream, can achieve a 1 ppmv NO detection limit, and can be operated across the full range of thermodynamic conditions expected for typical vehicle exhausts.
Technical Paper

Development of a Ceramic EHC

2022-03-29
2022-01-0535
In recent years, electrically heated catalysts (EHCs) have been developed to achieve lower emissions. In several EHC heating methods, the direct heating method, which an electric current is applied directly to the catalyst substrate, can easily activate the catalyst before engine start-up. The research results reported on the use of the direct heating EHC to achieve significant exhaust gas purification during cold start-up [1]. From the perspective of catalyst loading, ceramics is considered to be a better material for the substrate than metal due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the catalyst and the substrate, but the EHC made of ceramics has difficulties such as controllability of the current distribution, durability and reliability of the connection between the substrate and the electrodes.
Technical Paper

Development of Steady State NO2:NOX Control via an Independent Nitric Decomposition System for the Exhaust Composition Transient Operation Laboratory

2022-03-29
2022-01-0548
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) utilizes the burner-based Exhaust Composition Transient Operation LaboratoryTM (ECTO-Lab) to accurately simulate transient engines and replicate real exhaust that is produced by light and heavy-duty engines for aftertreatment aging and evaluations. This system can generate and dose NOX over transient cycles from a range of 20 ppm to 1200 ppm where the NOX is generated by the in-situ decomposition and combustion of a fuel-bound, nitrogen containing compound. During the combustion and decomposition of the nitrogen containing compound over 95 % of the NOX generated is in the form of NO. To authentically simulate exhaust gases, it is necessary to account for the distribution of the NO to the NO2. Since previous work has established that the decomposition of nitric acid can be utilized as a method to generate NO2, the objective of this project was to develop control of NO and NO2 within SwRI’s ECTO-Lab through the decomposition of nitric acid.
Technical Paper

2022-Global Kinetic Modeling of a Commercial DOC Based on a Reduced Synthetic Gas Bench Protocol

2022-03-29
2022-01-0558
Various techniques are constantly being devised to accelerate model generation leading to shorter product development cycle. This work proposes and implements a reduced synthetic gas bench (SGB) test protocol for a commercial Pt-Pd diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) that can be used to develop global reaction kinetics. The kinetics thus developed were implemented in a 1D model to predict DOC emissions accurately over a wide operating window. Hydrocarbons (HCs) in the exhaust were categorized as Propylene (C3H6) representing partially oxidized hydrocarbons and n-Decane (C10H22) representing unburnt fuel. Test protocols were defined using the order of inhibition of the various species present in the exhaust, namely, CO, NOx (NO+NO2) and HC for the specific reaction under consideration. The oxidation reactions for CO and HCs were found to be inhibited competitively by CO and HCs; both the NOx species inhibited these reactions to the same extent.
Technical Paper

EGR Cooler Fouling Reduction: A New Method for Assessment in Early Engine Development Phase

2022-03-29
2022-01-0589
High pressure EGR provides NOx emission reduction even at low exhaust temperatures. To maintain a safe EGR system operation over a required lifetime, the EGR cooler fouling must not exceed an allowable level, even if the engine is operated under worst-case conditions. A reliable fouling simulation model represents a valuable tool in the engine development process, which validates operating and calibration strategies regarding fouling tendency, helping to avoid fouling issues in a late development phase close to series production. Long-chained hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas essentially impact the fouling layer formation. Therefore, a simulation model requires reliable input data especially regarding mass flow of long-chained hydrocarbons transported into the cooler. There is a huge number of different hydrocarbon species in the exhaust gas, but their individual concentration typically is very low, close to the detection limit of standard in-situ measurement equipment like GC-MS.
Technical Paper

Two Dimensional Measurements of Soot Size and Concentration in Diesel Flames by Laser Based Optical Methods

2022-03-29
2022-01-0416
Soot particle size, particle concentration and volume fraction were measured by laser based methods in optically dense, highly turbulent combusting diesel sprays under engine-like conditions. Experiments were done in the Chalmers High Pressure, High Temperature spray rig under isobaric conditions and combusting commercial diesel fuel. Laser Induced Incandescence (LII), Elastic Scattering and Light Extinction were combined quasi-simultaneously to quantify particle characteristics spatially resolved in the middle plane of a combusting spray at two instants after the start of combustion. The influence that fuel injection pressure, gas temperature and gas pressure exert on particle size, particle concentration and volume fraction were studied. Probability density functions of particle size and two-dimensional images of particle diameter, particle concentration and volume fraction concerning instantaneous single-shot cases and average measurements are presented.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study on the Transient Behavior of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine under Cold Start Conditions

2022-03-29
2022-01-0401
The cold start process is critical to control the emissions in a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. However, the optimization is very challenging due to the transient behavior of the engine cold start. A series of engine simulations using CONVERGE CFD™ were carried out to show the detailed process in the very first firing event of a cold start. The engine operating parameters used in the simulations, such as the transient engine speed and the fuel rail pressure (FRP), came from companion experiments. The cylinder pressure traces from the simulations were compared with experiments to help validate the simulation model. The effects of variation of the transient parameters on in-cylinder mixture distribution and combustion are presented, including the effects of the rapidly changing engine speed, the slowly vaporized fuel due to the cold walls, and the low FRP during the first firing cycle of a 4-cylinder engine. Comparison was also made with non-transient steady state operation.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Switching Characteristics of Hydrogen-Nitrogen Filled DC Contactor Under External Magnetic Field

2022-03-29
2022-01-0728
The electric or hybrid vehicles need fast switching operation in order to ensure the quick-response of the motors. This process is carried out by compact direct-current contactors which are designed to perform the switching over multiple cycles. During the contact separation, the gas between the contacts breaks down and the resulting thermal arc provides a conductive channel that sustains the current. Until the arc is quenched, the current continues to flow through the contacts despite the physical separation. This unintended flow of current could lead to a larger response time than the safe operation limits. We perform high-fidelity simulation of thermal arc in hydrogen-nitrogen mixture environment under external magnetic field of 1 Tesla. The hydrogen enrichment level is kept at 0%, 40%, 50% and 80%. The contacts are separated at 8 m/s. It is demonstrated that the increase in hydrogen concentration leads to smaller arc lifetime thereby improving the circuit interruption performance.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Finite Element Calculation of Cold Gas Inflator Housing Ultimate Breakage Load

2022-03-29
2022-01-0766
For cold gas Inflator, high refinement of ultimate pressure load forecast of inflator housing is one key of Inflator development. For inflator housing hydro-burst test ultimate load calculation, nonlinear finite element software for high precision results. At beginning, the material parameters of inflator housing for simulation is correlated. The FEA material model adopts the stress-strain data from uniaxial tensile experiments. Considering the geometrical nonlinearity resulting from large deformation as well as material nonlinearity from plastic hardening, the whole tensile process from tensile deformation to failure of the specimen is simulated. Numerical results show that the simulation is appropriate to predict the entire deformation process, and simulation results of ultimate tensile load, X-shape distribution of concentrated instability zone, the fracture location and inclined angle all agrees with that of test results.
Technical Paper

Bulk Spray and Individual Plume Characterization of LPG and Iso-Octane Sprays at Engine-Like Conditions

2022-03-29
2022-01-0497
This study presents experimental and numerical examination of directly injected (DI) propane and iso-octane, surrogates for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline, respectively, at various engine like conditions with the overall objective to establish the baseline with regards to fuel delivery required for future high efficiency DI-LPG fueled heavy-duty engines. Sprays for both iso-octane and propane were characterized and the results from the optical diagnostic techniques including high-speed Schlieren and planar Mie scattering imaging were applied to differentiate the liquid-phase regions and the bulk spray phenomenon from single plume behaviors. The experimental results, coupled with high-fidelity internal nozzle-flow simulations were then used to define best practices in CFD Lagrangian spray models.
Technical Paper

Development of a Ceramic EHC

2022-03-29
2022-01-0536
In recent years, electrically heated catalysts (EHCs) have been developed to achieve lower emissions. In several EHC heating methods, the direct heating method, which an electric current is applied directly to the catalyst substrate, can easily activate the catalyst before engine start-up. The research results reported on the use of the direct heating EHC to achieve significant exhaust gas purification during cold start-up [1]. From the perspective of catalyst loading, ceramics is considered to be a better material for the substrate than metal due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the catalyst and the substrate, but the EHC made of ceramics has difficulties such as controllability of the current distribution, durability and reliability of the connection between the substrate and the electrodes.
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