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Technical Paper

High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat system for tractor sheet metal application.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2541
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Durability of Mold-In-Color Engineering Plastics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2542
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles.
Technical Paper

Photo oxidation analysis method for automotive coating weathering performance evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2555
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Accelerated artificial weathering performance has been always observed as critical and most important factor for durability prediction of colour and resin for a coating system. Photo oxidation of resin is the phenomenon behind coating’s ageing. Though accelerated weathering tests protocols are widely used in industry, they are very costly and still very time consuming. One automotive grade accelerated testing can go as long as 8 months duration. METHODOLOGY (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation value (POV) is proportionate to the degradation of the resin material used in coating. During the accelerated weathering POV is measured for the coating at stipulated interval during initial phase and trend is plotted for deterioration verses weathering test duration. POV can be analysed with the help of FTIR analysis to observe bond absorption energy and bond separation energy in the resin system. This trend can be extrapolated to predict the weathering performance of coating.
Technical Paper

MITIGATION FOR EDGE CORROSION PROTECTION FOR AUTOMOTIVE BODIES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2561
TITLE: MITIGATION FOR EDGE CORROSION PROTECTION FOR AUTOMOTIVE BODIES. Keyword: Edge corrosion, Edge protection, Rust on edges, Corrosion mitigation. Objective: A major challenge to automotive industry is to protect the vehicle from corrosion in varying environment with respect to different service conditions. One of the main types of corrosion that affects aesthetic look is edge corrosion on sheet metal. Mostly edge is acting as starting point of corrosion due to unprotected metal exposed to environment. A special attention to be given to exposed edges to protect from rust formation. Methodology: To mitigate corrosion in visible area, various solution proposed in manufacturing process, material usage, sealer application, BIW design. Samples were prepared as per design of experiments with respect to manufacturing process condition and subjected for testing. Results: Proposed solutions were validated in manufacturing process line and reports are discussed.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior cleanliness tracker

2019-11-21
2019-28-2466
The future of mobility is being driven towards fully autonomous driving. As a result, people spend majority of the time in vehicles for chores other than driving. The focus of automotive makers shifts towards providing best-in-class passenger comfort. One of the least focused area in passenger comfort is vehicle interior cleanliness which requires periodic human intervention. An intelligent vehicle can outsmart a human by self-caring to maintain the cleanliness elements on floor, seat and roof. This paper addresses subjects like wetness, dirt and stains in the vehicle interior utilizing the capability of Interior sensing platform. An internally mounted camera in the vehicle can capture images of the interior and apply image processing techniques to identify the subjects mentioned above. The wetness on the floor mats can lead to moldy odor, corrosion, failure of the electronic components in the car.
Training / Education

Materials Degradation in Mechanical Design Wear, Corrosion, Fatigue and their Interactions

2019-10-08
Materials degradation from environmental conditions is a common factor that will often occur in mechanical equipment used in every type of environment. These processes can frequently materialize in unpredicted and harmful ways, especially when they interact and lead to early component damage or failure. This five-session course will summarize the mechanisms that cause materials and mechanical components to degrade in service through exposure to deleterious mechanical and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Regenerative Brake Control Strategy to Remove Brake Rust

2019-09-15
2019-01-2125
When the vehicle is parked overnight or for long periods of time, rust occurs on the friction surface of the brake disc and the brake pad will retain humidity, which will destabilize the friction coefficient for the brake parts, causing a various noises and nonlinear brake feeling. In the case of gasoline or diesel vehicles, brake disc rust and pad humidity conditions are usually eliminated by several friction(hydraulic) brakes, but in the case of environmental vehicles, such as EV, FCEV, HEV, due to the regenerative braking system, it is not easy to escape these conditions. Moreover, in the case of environmental vehicles, several friction(hydraulic) brakes to escape these conditions, affect fuel efficiency. Therefore, applying logic to remove brake rust and humidity conditions requires a strategy for cooperative control of regenerative braking considering fuel efficiency performance.
Technical Paper

Brake Rotor Corrosion and Friction Cleaning Effect on Vehicle Judder Performance

2019-09-15
2019-01-2115
The impact of the corrosion on the brake rotors and its effect on the global vehicle behaviour under braking conditions is one of the main hot topics in the brake industry nowadays. This situation is even emphasised by the constant escalation of the electric vehicle in the automotive market. The regenerative brake system, being part of the brake actuation of the vehicle, assumes part of the torque generally produced by the conventional brakes, potentially reducing its friction use and therefore being more sensitive to become corroded. Two main areas have been selected for this study, related with the corrosion appearance on the brake parts: the cleaning properties that the different friction brake parts in the market can obtain; and the vehicle vibration perceived during this phase of corrosion removal. All in all, introducing advanced equipment for the on-vehicle test characterization (wheel torque meters) and a correlation with the dynamometer bench measurements.
Technical Paper

Role of Graphite Particles Size in Brake-Pads in Controlling Tribological and Noise Performance.

2019-09-15
2019-01-2106
Graphite plays a crucial role in friction materials, since it has good thermal conductivity, lubricity and act as a friction modifier. The right type, amount, shape and size of the particles control the performance of the brake-pads. In this study, particles of synthetic graphite produced in a unique highly controlled graphitization process were selected to develop NAO- Cu-free brake-pads. The four types of pads had identical composition except variation in average particle size of the graphite (60 µm, 120 µm, 200 µm and 400 µm). Physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of the developed brake-pads was done. Tribological performance was studied using a full- scale inertia brake dynamometer following a Japanese automobile testing standard (JASO C406) and noise studies were done on reduced scale prototype following SAE J2521 standard.
Technical Paper

Study on Applicable Methods to Mitigate Galvanic Corrosion between Wheel Bearing and Aluminum knuckle

2019-09-15
2019-01-2136
The substitution of aluminum for steel is an effective weight reduction solution where the application permits it; aluminum knuckles have been being widely used for this reason. However, when an aluminum knuckle is assembled with the steel outer-ring of a wheel bearing without any means for galvanic corrosion prevention, the aluminum knuckle may severely corrode. Galvanic corrosion product can make it difficult to remove a wheel bearing from the aluminum knuckle during vehicle maintenance. Prevention of this problem is the focus of this paper. In this study, several concepts were examined to prevent or mitigate galvanic corrosion between a wheel bearing and its mating aluminum knuckle. One set of concepts involves using surface treated metal sleeves (using ferritic nitro-carburizing or a special coating). The sleeves were then inserted onto the outer-ring diameters of the wheel bearings prior to assembly into the steering knuckle.
Technical Paper

Analysis of TWC Operation Characteristics in a Euro6 Gasoline Light Duty Vehicle

2019-09-09
2019-24-0162
A Euro6 gasoline light duty vehicle has been tested at the engine dynamometer and the emissions have been analyzed upstream and downstream the Three-Way-Catalyst (TWC) during the WLTP cycle. Catalyst simulations have been used for assessing the processes inside the catalytic converter using a reaction scheme based on 19 brutto reactions (Direct oxidation and reduction, selective catalytic re-ductions with CO, C3H6 and H2, steam reforming, water-gas shift and bulk Ceria as well as surface Ce-ria reactions). The reactions have been parametrized in order to best approximate the measurements. Based on the reactions taken into account, the real vehicle emissions can be predicted with good accu-racy. The simulations show that the cycle emissions are comprising mainly by the cold start contribution as well as discrete emission break-through events during transients.
Technical Paper

Chemical and Physical Characterization of Organic Particulate Matter from Last Generation Exhaust Aftertreatment System of Medium Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0053
Particulate Matter from Euro 6 Medium Duty diesel engine was analyzed from engine-out, downstream of particulate filter (DPF), and up to the exit of a selective catalytic reactor (SCR) to characterize its chemical and physical nature. Particular attention was devoted to the analysis of particles down to 23 nm. An array of chemical, physical and spectroscopic techniques (Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), mobility analyzer, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy) was applied for characterizing the organic particulate matter (PM, constituted of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), heavy aromatic compounds, soot) in the exhaust. The engine was operated at “full-load” (100% of the total power, representing the best performance of the engine operation) condition, and at different engine speeds. Results showed that the DPF efficiency was greater than 96% in the reduction of the sub 23 nm particles across the speeds range.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characterization of Catalytic Converter Substrates During Warm-Up

2019-09-09
2019-24-0163
The transient heat transfer behavior of a real size automotive catalytic reactor has been simulated with OpenFOAM in 1D. The model takes into consideration the gas-solid convective heat transfer, axial wall conduction and heat capacity effects in the solid phase, but also the chemical reactions of CO and C3H6 oxidations, based on simplified Arrhenius and Langmuir-Hinshelwood approaches. The associated parameters have been chosen based on the tuning of experimental data. The impact of different initial catalytic converter temperatures, inlet flow temperatures and inlet flow rates have been quantified, even in terms of overall cumulative emissions. . A dimensional analysis is proposed and dimensionless temperature difference and space-time coordinate are defined. Using this suitably modified coordinates, for the case of negligible axial solid conduction, computed solid temperature at the reactor outlet lay on the typical S-curve.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of NOx Reduction Based on the Reactivity of Cu Active Sites and Brønsted Acid Sites in a Cu-Chabazite SCR Catalyst

2019-09-09
2019-24-0150
In this study, the NOx purification reactivity of a Cu-chabazite SCR catalyst was analyzed over a wide temperature range based on the NH3-SCR mechanism considering Cu redox reactions and reactions on a Brønsted acid site. It was revealed that the De-NOx reactions on the active site of Cu proceeded in different paths at lower and higher temperatures. This means that the rate-limiting step of SCR reactions was changed as each temperature. The reaction rate of NOx purification on a Cu site less than 200 °C was determined by the reaction rate of oxidation of Cu sites. On the other hand, the NH3 adsorption on Cu sites played a dominant role in NOx purification at temperature range higher than 300°C. Moreover, it was also observed that the Cu reaction site took different states at low and high temperatures during the NOx purification and was estimated that the valence state of a Cu site was changed as the temperature increased.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Structures on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Swirl-Supported Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0009
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
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