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Training / Education

Design for Manufacturing & Assembly (DFM/DFA)

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM+A), pioneered by Boothroyd and Dewhurst, has been used by many companies around the world to develop creative product designs that use optimal manufacturing and assembly processes. Correctly applied, DFM+A analysis leads to significant reductions in production cost, without compromising product time-to-market goals, functionality, quality, serviceability, or other attributes. In this two-day seminar, you will not only learn the Boothroyd Dewhurst Method, you will actually apply it to your own product design!
Training / Education

AS9145 Requirements for Advanced Product Quality Planning and Production Part Approval

Production and continual improvement of safe and reliable products is key in the aviation, space and defense industries. Customer and regulatory requirements must not only be met, but they are typically expected to exceeded requirements. Due to globalization, the supply chain of this industry has been expanded to countries which were not part of it in the past and has complicated the achievement of requirements compliance and customer satisfaction. The IAQG has established and deployed the AS9145 Standard, as a step to help achieve these objectives.
Training / Education

Fluids for Aerospace Hydraulic Systems

This four-hour short course provides an introduction to fluids for aerospace hydraulic systems. Topics covered include an introduction to basics fluid properties, rheology, tribology, and fluid product development. In addition, the history and performance of different classes of fluids are discussed in detail, and specific failure modes such as erosion and sludge formation will be described. Along with an introduction to fluid degradation, information on used oil analysis test methods and interpretation will be provided.
Training / Education

Critical Concepts of Tolerance Stacks ASME Y14.5 1994, 2009, 2018 - Advanced Level

Using tolerance stacks ensures that parts fit together properly, reducing scrap and rework, thereby increasing value. This 3-day advanced-level course includes everything covered in the 2-day foundational-level course. It explains how to use tolerance stacks to analyze product designs and how to use geometric tolerances in stacks.
Technical Paper

The ever-changing powertrain – how OTA makes powertrains change over vehicle lifetime.

Until about 2015 the design and calibration of a powertrain was considered fixed after the vehicle left the production plant. The developers considered efficiency and performance degradation due to wear and added required procedures to follow when replacing components. The technology advancements and increasing share of SW based functionality has resulted in Over-The-Air SW updates during the life of the vehicle the since around 2020. Besides SW updates, also SW-based function upgrades such as powertrain performance gains or increased trailer towing efficiency are possible. The UNECE regulation R156 for Software Update Management System defines a framework to implement such upgrades while still complying with the type approval. This regulation means an extra effort for OEMs to implement and maintain a process ensuring every SW update is covered by existing or updated type approval.
Technical Paper

Analytical approach to assess the strength and utilization rate of a case-hardened components based on FKM guideline

The major challenge for developing a gearbox for an electric hyper cars is to confine it within a tight design space whilst carrying enormous power density and torque. This unique situation poses a design challenge for fatigue failures. The intent of the paper is to develop analytical methodology to estimate the fatigue life using FKM approach with 97.5 percentage survival probability for the given duty cycle. Case hardened materials are common in powertrain engineering for shafts and gears and FKM provides with adequate material information to estimate the utilisation. A method is derived from FKM guideline to estimate component fatigue limit for constant amplitude with mean stress correction based on the material fatigue limit. Stress gradient and stress concentration factor is accounted to estimate variable amplitude fatigue strength of the component. A Miner elementary approach is used to evaluate the cumulative damage of the duty cycle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Cryogenic Nitrogen and Non-Cryogenic n-Dodecane and Ammonia Injections using a Real-Fluid Modelling Approach

To promote combustion performance and refrain harmful emissions, current high-edge compression ignition engines are set with a high compression ratio and a high-pressure injection system. The dense liquid fuel is directly injected into high pressure and temperature atmosphere, so the spray transitions from subcritical to supercritical conditions. To gain better control of the spray-combustion heat release process, it is significant to first get a good understanding of the spray development process. This work intends to investigate the complex injection phenomena using a real-fluid tabulation method. First, the open-source code CoolProp was utilized to generate a table that includes the fuel physical properties, which is served as the baseline case. Three more tables were also generated and evaluated using the different real-gas equations of state (EoSs), including the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK), Peng-Robinson (PR), and Redlich-Kwong-Peng-Robinson (RKPR).
Technical Paper

Light weighting of accessory support bracket from cast iron to aluminium through topology optimization

In today’s scenario, internal combustion engines have conflicting requirements of high-power density and best in class weight. High power density leads to higher loads on engine components and calls for material addition to meet the durability targets. Lightweight design not only helps to improve fuel economy but also reduces the overall cost of engine. Material change from cast iron to aluminium has a huge potential for weight reduction as aluminium has 62% lesser mass density. But this light-weighting impacts the stiffness of the parts as elastic modulus drops by around 50%. Hence, this calls for revisiting the design and usage of optimization tools for load-bearing members on the engine to arrive at optimized sections and ribbing profiles. This paper discusses the optimization approach for one of the engine components i.e., FEAD (front end accessory drive) bracket.
Technical Paper

Development of transaxle fluid for electrification vehicles

In order to contribute to the realization of the carbon-neutral society, the transmission efficiency of transaxles in electrification vehicles should be improved for better energy consumption. Furthermore, in electrification vehicles, motors are often located inside the transaxles and should be thermally managed with transmission fluids for high performance. Although lowering viscosity of transaxle oil is one of the effective methods for both the reduction of the torque loss at gears and the efficient cooling of motors, it could lead to the damage to gear surfaces such as the seizure, wear and pitting because of thinner oil film thickness between metal contacts. In order to solve this problem, we designed new additive formulation by applying proper additives such as anti-wear agents, metal detergents, and extreme pressure agents.