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Technical Paper

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator

Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.
Technical Paper

The Improvement Brake`s Qualities of the Car by Developing the Method of the Choosing Frictional Pairs of the Brakes Mechanisms

The cause of a large number of traffic accidents is an instability of frictional pairs characteristic of the braking system. The car went from the factory`s conveyor has a brake pads which were quality selected. The owner buys a brake pads of various firms in the process of exploitation. It is not pass by it`s characteristic of the thermal stability to frictional pairs of the back axle. It was identified a significant deviation of braking force allocation between axles in the process of traffic and stand experiments with the car with different combination of frictional pairs characteristic which were setting on the front and back of the brake`s system. The reduction of the braking force`s distribution`s coefficient on the front axle that were identified with experiments can become a cause of braking wear. It is necessity for cars and road trains to ensure not only high marks of the brake characteristics but uniform distribution braking force on the axles.
Technical Paper

Knock Mitigation by Means of Coolant Control

The potentiality of knock mitigation by means of the control of the coolant flow rate is investigated. As a first step, the dynamic behavior of the wall temperature in response to a sudden variation of the coolant flow rate is analyzed experimentally in a small displacement, 4-valve per cylinder SI engine, which is equipped with an electrically driven pump. Subsequently, the influence of the wall temperature on knock onset is analyzed through a zero-dimensional model and the Livengood and Wu integral. Finally, an experimental activity on the engine test bed is carried-out in order to evaluate the influence of the coolant flow rate and of the engine inlet coolant temperature on the knock phenomenon. Results show that, even though a retarded spark advance and a mixture enrichment are not avoidable in the early stage of knock onset, a cooling control can help reducing the time of use of these fuel consuming strategies in the case of prolonged high-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Efficient Test Bench Operation with Early Damage Detection Systems

The efficient operation of test benches within the framework of research and development projects directly correlates with the "health" of the examinee to be investigated. The use of so-called Early Damage Detection Systems (EDDS) is becoming increasingly popular for reasons of Unit Under Test (UUT) monitoring. In the context of this publication the expectations of an EDDS and its structure are discussed as well as its advantages and disadvantages in test bench operation analyzed and compared with the results of measurements. The used EDDS should primarily prevent the damage, up to the loss of the test object by a total loss, in order to ensure a finding possibility of the damaged part at the examined test object. A deviation of the test object behavior from the undamaged condition must be recognized in an early status and must lead to a shutdown of the test bench operation after reaching a defined limit value.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Powertrain Technology Assessment Through an Integrated Simulation Approach

Global automotive fuel economy and emissions pressures mean that 48V hybridisation will become a significant presence in the passenger car market. The complexity of the powertrain solutions is increasing in order to further increase fuel economy for hybrid vehicles and maintain robust emissions performance. However, this results in complex interactions between technologies which are difficult to identify through traditional development approaches, resulting in sub-optimal solutions for either vehicle attributes or cost. This paper presents the results from a simulation programme focussed on the optimisation of various advanced powertrain technologies on 48V hybrid vehicle platforms. The technologies assessed include an electrically heated catalyst, an insulated turbocharger, an electric water pump and a thermal management module (a coolant valve replacing a conventional thermostat).
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Compact Heat Exchangers for I.C. Engine Oil Cooling

In the last years, the increase of the specific power of the modern engines has required a parallel improvement of the performances of the cooling system. In this context, also the control of the oil temperature has become an important issue, leading to the introduction of dedicated cooling circuits (air-cooled or liquid-cooled). Among the two, the liquid-cooled solution results in a more compact installation in which the oil-to-liquid heat exchanger is directly mounted on the engine block and integrated in the engine cooling system. It is clear that, in a liquid-cooled solution, the design of the heat exchanger represents an issue of extreme concern, which requires a compromise between different objectives: high compactness, low pressure drop, high heat-transfer efficiency. In this work, a computational framework for the CFD simulation of compact oil-to-liquid heat exchangers, including offset-strip fins as heat transfer enhancer (turbolator), has been developed.
Technical Paper

Validity of a Steady-State Friction Model for Determining CO2 Emissions in Transient Driving Cycles

Due to its high benefit-cost ratio, decreasing mechanical friction losses in internal combustion engines represents one of the most effective and widely applicable solutions for improved engine efficiency. Especially the piston group – consisting of piston, rings and pin – shows significant potential for friction reduction, which can be evaluated through extensive experimental parameter studies. For each investigated variant, the steady-state friction measurements are fitted to an empirical polynomial model. In order to calculate the associated fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in transient driving cycles, the steady-state friction model is used in a map-based vehicle simulation. If transient engine operation entails friction phenomena that are not included in the steady-state model, the simulation could yield erroneous fuel consumption and CO2 predictions.

Hydraulic Hose

This SAE Standard provides general, dimensional and performance specifications for the most common hoses used in hydraulic systems on mobile and stationary equipment. The general specifications contained in Sections 1 through 12 are applicable to all hydraulic hoses and supplement the detailed specifications for the 100R-series hoses contained in the later sections of this document (see Tables 1 and 2). This document shall be utilized as a procurement document only to the extent as agreed upon by the manufacturer and user. The maximum working pressure of a hose assembly comprising SAE J517 hose and hose connectors per SAE J516, SAE J518, SAE J1453, etc., shall not exceed the lower of the respective SAE maximum working pressure values. When using SAE J517 hose for marine applications, reference SAE J1475, SAE J1942, and SAE J1942-1. The SAE J517 100R9, 100R10, and 100R11 hoses are discontinued due to lack of demand. For DOD orders see Appendix C.

Formed Tube Ends for Hose Connections and Hose Fittings


This SAE Standard provides general and dimensional specifications for formed tube ends and hose fittings. These connections are intended for general applications in low pressure automotive and hydraulic systems on automotive, industrial, and commercial products. The fittings shown in Figures 2 and 3 are intended to be retained by hose clamps as specified in SAE J1508.

It is recommended that where step sizes or additional types of fittings are required, they be designed to conform with the specifications of this document insofar as they may apply. The following general specifications shall supplement the dimensional data contained in the tables with respect to all unspecified detail.


Heat Resistant Aluminized Paint

This specification establishes requirements for a heat resistant aluminized organic coating with sufficient corrosion and erosion resistance for the finished substrate.