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Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Rust is not a Must. Improvement of Discs Corrosion Resistance by Tuning of Cast Iron Alloying Elements and Microstructure.

2020-10-05
2020-01-1624
In the last decade, the increasing electrification of road transports has stimulated the look for new braking systems with a high corrosion resistance. This resulted in a fervent research activity behind the development of disc brakes with a reduced corrodibility under demanding tribocorrosive environments. Despite of this, a significant reduction of the cast iron disc corrodibility can be achieved not only by developing variously coated rotors, but also by modulating the intrinsic corrodibility of iron. This can be done by and ad-hoc refining of the cast iron: a) alloying elements concentration; b) microstructure; and c) carbon content and morphology. At this regard, in this contribution, the corrosion properties of a representative ensemble of cast iron specimens are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Anodization: Recent Advancements on Corrosion Protection of Brake Calipers

2020-10-05
2020-01-1626
Brake calipers for high-end cars are typically realized using Aluminum alloys, with Silicon being the most common alloying element. Despite the excellent castability and machinability of AlSix alloys, anodization is often necessary in order to provide to AlSix components the required corrosion resistance or when the braking system has to withstand to severe chloride-rich environments [1]. Even if the anodization process is known for almost 100 years, a continuous research and process optimization can lead to the development of anodic layers with enhanced morphological and electrochemical properties, which enable a prolonged resistance of calipers under endurance corrosive tests (e.g. >1000hours Neutral Spray Tests).
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

Wear Evaluation of Niobium-Added Cast Iron for Brake Disc and Drum Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1627
Grey cast iron alloys for brake drum and brake disc applications are being developed with niobium additions and a range of equivalent carbon for commercial, passenger vehicle, and performance applications. The benefit of niobium in cast iron is based on the contribution of strength by matrix refinement for a given carbon equivalence that may permit the direct improvement of wear improvement or allow for an increase in carbon equivalence for a given strength. Proper carbon equivalency and pearlite stabilization contribute to an improved pearlite structure with an optimized distribution of graphite. These structures, when refined with niobium, demonstrate increased service life and reduced wear relative to their niobium-free equivalents as measured by lab dynamometer testing and by on-vehicle testing in passenger bus fleets.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

2020-09-30
2020-01-1549
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches.
Technical Paper

An Active Safety System Able to Counter Aquaplaning, Integrated With Sensorized Tires, ADAS and 5G Technology for Both Human-Driven and Autonomous Vehicles

2020-09-27
2020-24-0019
Autonomous vehicles must guarantee safety in all road conditions, including driving on wet roads. Aquaplaning (or hydroplaning) is a phenomenon known since the beginning of automotive history, never solved by an active safety system. Currently, no countermeasure system on the market is able to effectively counteract aquaplaning: ABS, ESP or TCS are still inefficient in overcoming this situation. Latest statistical data confirm that the higher percentage of accidents, injuries and deaths are caused by wet road conditions. The aquaplaning happens when the water on the road is too much and the tires start to float causing the instantaneous loss of control. Such phenomenon occurs in human-driven vehicles, with the responsibility of the driver, but in autonomous vehicles (e.g. Level 5), the responsibility for the safety depends on the car and the reduction of the speed is not a solution.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on Biogas Production from Waste Press Mud and Cow Dung under Anaerobic Condition

2020-09-25
2020-28-0467
Anaerobic digestion of textile wastes under mesophilic conditions were conducted in batch mode with aim of investigating the bio-methane evolution with an initial solid mass of cow dung – 2 kg, cotton and water in 3:1 ratio and press mud is use in the ratio 3:1 with water were evaluated subsequently for 7 weeks (42 days).The highest production of biogas is noted as 3 m3 in fourth week and the higher production of biogas due to press mud is noted as 0.49 in the fifth week.Carbon dioxide is produced as bi product in this bio digestion process. Highest production rate of methane,biogas and carbon dioxide are in their fourth week. Through this experiment 65%-75% of bio gas is collected by the fourth week.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications

2020-09-25
2020-28-0461
This research is an attempt to investigate the possibility of enhancing wear and corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy and composites for high-temperature applications. The 319 alloy with minor additions of Ni, Ti and Fe elements using the liquid metallurgy technique, Al-Si-Cu-Mg matrix alloy (Al alloy) was obtained and it was used as a base alloy and it is reinforced with Silicon carbide (SiC), Magnesium oxide (MgO) under the following composites, namely Al alloy/3wt % MgO (AA-SRM), Al alloy/ 3wt % SiC (AA-SRS) and Al alloy/3wt % SiC-3wt % MgO (AAHRSM) using stir casting route. The wear test was investigated under the following factors, namely constant sliding velocity 3.21 m/s, sliding distance up to 10000 m under different loadings (4.9, 9.8, 14.7, 19.62, and 24.5 N) using wear test by a pin on the disc test rig. The wear rate was calculated using the tested samples under different loadings, sliding distance and weight concentration conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Design and Analysis of Passenger Car Body Crash-worthiness in Frontal Impact using Radioss

2020-09-25
2020-28-0498
The development of Automobile Technology, more and more lightweight materials are applied to automobile body for the purpose of light weighting and passenger protection. The accidents are unexpected incidents most drivers cannot be avoided that trouble situation. Frontal crashes are responsible for occupant injuries and fatalities 42% of accidents occur on frontal crash. This paper aims at studying the frontal collision of a passenger car frame for frontal crashes based on numerical simulation of a 35 MPH. The model was developed to simulate frontal crash into a rigid barrier with a velocity of 15.6 m/s (56km/hr). The vehicle’s exterior body is designed by CATIA V5 R20 along with two material properties to our design. The existing Aluminum alloy 6000 series is compared with carbon fiber IM8 material. The simulation is being carried out by us in the “Radioss” available in “Hypermesh 17.0” software.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Automotive AC Components (Condenser & Piston) with Experimental Validation

2020-09-25
2020-28-0357
Automotive Air Conditioning is the process of removing the heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space to improve comfort of occupants. A condenser is a device or unit used to condense refrigerant from its gaseous to its liquid state, by cooling it. In so doing, the latent heat is given up by the substance and transferred to the surrounding environment. It is made of Aluminum Alloy Material and subjected to very high internal stresses due to refrigerant pressure, thermal / inertia and dynamic load. In order to evaluate the structural integrity of the condenser assembly under these loading conditions, operating frequency should be far away from the resonance frequency and component design should be robust to sustain external excitation load coming from the engine & road. The above design evaluation criteria is also applicable for piston of AC’s reciprocating compressor.
Technical Paper

The Effect of TiB2 on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of AZ91 Matrix Composites Manufactured by Cold Chamber Die Casting Process

2020-09-25
2020-28-0425
In these work AZ91 magnesium matrix composites reinforced with two weight fractions (5 and 10 wt. %) of TiB2 particulates were fabricated by cold chamber die casting process technique. The microstructure, density, hardness, mechanical properties of the specimens was investigated. Microstructure studies showed that fairly uniform distribution of reinforcements was achieved up to the weight fraction studied. As compared to base alloy AZ91, the hardness and tensile strength considerably increased with increasing reinforcement content. The presence of TiB2 particles improved the hardness around 24.4 %, compressive strength around 67.2% and the yield strength around 20%. The enormous amount of increment in the compressive strength due to the dislocation density created by the difference in thermal properties of matrix and composites and also due to the micro-pores presence in the composite.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Influence of Iron Oxide Nanofluids on Characteristics of a Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine Operated with Methyl Esters of Waste Cooking Oil

2020-09-25
2020-28-0412
In this study, an experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of Iron Oxide Nanofluids on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engine operated with methyl esters of Waste Cooking Oil (WCOME). In the first phase of the work, single-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine test rig was developed and tested for its baseline readings with diesel at different power outputs. In the second phase of the work, the test engine was operated with WCOME and tested for its characteristics.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Effect of Pulsed Frequency on Microstructure and Hardness of Alloy C-2000 by Current Pulsing

2020-09-25
2020-28-0420
The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of current pulsation frequency on the weld bead microstructure, segregation, and hardness of Hastelloy C-2000 weldments. Bead on Plate (BoP) welds was made by using the Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding method (PCGTAW) at eleven different frequencies. The weld bead width and depth of penetration was measured with the help of Dinolite macro analyzer. The microstructure of weldments is further examined through an optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify the type of grain, grain coarsening and extent of the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). The grain structure turns into finer and equiaxed in all cases and there was an optimum frequency range over which the significant grain refinement was observed. Microsegregation of alloying elements was computed with the aid of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Vickers Hardness Tester was used to measure the hardness of the weld samples at ambient conditions.
Technical Paper

Computation Design and Analysis of Brake Disc with Various Profiles

2020-09-25
2020-28-0350
In automobiles, the most commonly used braking system is disk brake. The disk is the important component in either slowing or stopping the vehicle. When a brake is applied, there occurs friction between the brake pad and the disk. Due to this action, a large amount of heat is generated. In order to reduce the generated heat, different sandwich structures were designed. The main objective is to analyze the thermal behavior of the sandwich ventilated structures of different profiles and compare their results and suggest the suitable ventilation structure that highly influences the convective heat transfer of the brake disc under on-road rigorous braking conditions. The chosen brake disc material is titanium alloy. The profiles which are analyzed are X-core, Corrugated, Round O-core and Honeycomb. The heat transfer and the pressure drop characteristics of the sandwich structures were found with one face sheet heated by constant heat flux and cooled by forced air convection.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies on Conventional Groove SMA and GMA Welds of Dissimilar 304LN ASS and HSLA Steels

2020-09-25
2020-28-0405
Dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), between austenitic stainless steel (ASS) and micro alloyed high strength low alloy steel (HSLA), are used in high temperature applications in power stations and petrochemical plants. The gas metal arc welding (GMAW) has surpassed the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process due to its advantages of producing fast, long, clean continuous weld at any position [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. A studies on mechanical and metallurgical properties of conventional V-groove SMAW and GMA Welding of dissimilar 20 mm thick 304LN ASS and micro alloyed HSLA steel plate were carried out by using austenitic E308L- 15 electrode with gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) root pass. The tensile (axial and all-weld) properties, hardness and microstructure of the weld and HAZ are analyzed.
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