This course is offered in China only. More and more stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations are pushing the automotive industry towards electrified powertrain and electrified vehicles. This is particularly evident in China, where there is an increased demand for electric (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Infrastructure is being built across the country for convenient charging. It must now be determined how to meet the technical targets for EV/HEV regulations under economic constraints and how to best develop the major ePowertrain components (battery and motor).
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), and Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) technology model offerings and production volumes continue to accelerate with each model year. Advanced technology vehicle populations are significantly increasing throughout the world, making it vital for engineers, technicians, and educators to have a thorough understanding of these technologies and systems.
As the electrification of automobiles is on the rise, it is imperative that the capabilities and limits of the associated devices and systems be understood at a higher level than previously considered adequate. For example, the Tesla Model S has 62 electric motors while the Model X has 70! They propel the vehicle and provide comfort too. Their design must reflect the worst case operating scenarios, duty cycles, environment, country of use and its standards, etc.
Silicone rubber is comprised of inorganic-organic polymers. These materials consist of an inorganic backbone with organic side groups attached to silicon atoms. This family of polymers possesses unmatched versatility giving the formulator and user multiple forms and methods to cross link the polymers into rubber materials having the widest service temperature range of any rubber material. This course is designed to provide the participant with a thorough understanding of silicone’s engineering characteristics.
Recently sustainability has become a priority for industry production. This issue is even more valid for the automotive sector, where Original Equipment Manufacturers have to address the environmental protection additionally to traditional design issues. Against this background, many research and industry advancements are concentrated in the development of lightweight car components through the application of new materials and manufacturing technologies. The paper deals with an innovative lightweight design solution for the bumper system module of a B-segment car. The study has been developed within the Affordable LIght-weight Automobiles AlliaNCE (ALLIANCE) project, funded by the Horizon 2020 framework programme of the European Commission. A bumper demonstrator, that is currently in series production and mainly consists of conventional aluminum materials, is re-engineered making use of 7000 series aluminum alloys.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) powertrains are characterized by a complex design environment as a result of both the large number of possible layouts and the need for dedicated energy management strategies. When selecting the most suitable hybrid powertrain architecture at early design stage of HEVs, engineers usually focus on fuel economy (directly linked to tailpipe emissions) and vehicle drivability performance solely. However, high voltage batteries are a crucial component of HEVs as well in terms of performance and cost. This paper introduces a multitarget assessment framework for HEV powertrain architectures which considers both fuel economy and battery lifetime. A multi-objective formulation of dynamic programming is initially presented as off-line optimal HEV energy management strategy capable of predicting both fuel economy performance and battery lifetime of HEV powertrain layout options.
The energy storage devices of electrified vehicles (Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicles) are required to operate with highly dynamic current and power outputs, both for charging and discharging operation. When calculating the vehicle CO2 emissions and electrical energy consumption from a trip, the change in electrical energy content at vehicle-level has to be accounted for. This quantity, referred to as the electricity balance in the WLTP regulation, is normally obtained through a time-integration of the current or power supplied by the vehicle batteries during operation and the efficiency factor is often assumed to be unitary (as in the official type-approval procedure). The Joint Research Centre has collected experimental data from different electrified vehicles with regards to electrical energy use and battery State Of Charge (SOC) profile; the latter was used as a reference to quantify the actual vehicle electricity balance from a trip or driving cycle.
Hybridization is a promising way to further reduce the CO2 emissions of passenger vehicles. However, high engine efficiencies and the reduction of engine load, due to torque assist by an electric motor, cause a decrease of exhaust gas temperature levels. This leads to an increased time to light-off of the catalysts resulting in an overall lower efficiency of the exhaust aftertreatment system. Especially in low load driving conditions, at cold ambient temperatures and on short distance drives, the tailpipe pollutant emissions are severely impacted by these low efficiency levels. To ensure lowest emissions at all driving conditions, catalyst heating methods must be used. In conventional vehicles internal combustion engine measures, e.g. late combustion can be applied.
Gasoline Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FHEVs) are recognized as a cost-effective solution to comply with upcoming emissions legislation. However, several studies have highlighted that frequent start-and-stops worsen the HC tail-pipe emissions, especially when the light-off temperature of the three-way catalyst (TWC) has not been reached. In fact, strategies only addressing the minimization of fuel consumption tend to delay engine activation and hence TWC warming, especially during urban driving. Goal of the present research is therefore to develop an on-line powertrain management strategy accounting also for TWC temperature, in order to reduce the time needed to reach TWC light-off temperature. A catalyst model is incorporated into the model of the powertrain where torque-split is performed by an adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy (A-ECMS).
The Diesel powertrain remains an important CO2 reduction technology in specific market segments due to its inherent thermodynamic combustion efficiency advantages. Diesel powertrain hybridization can bring further potential for CO2 emissions reduction. However, the associated reduction in the exhaust gas temperature may negatively impact the performance of the exhaust aftertreatment (EAT) system and challenge the abatement of other emissions, especially NOx. Considering that active urea-SCR systems may be required to ensure compliance with the legislative limits, the total cost of the hybrid Diesel powertrain is expected to increase even more, therefore making it less commercially attractive. We present a model-based analysis of a 48V Diesel mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) which is combined with an exhaust aftertreatment (EAT) system using Lean-NOx trap (LNT) technology.
Over the next decade, CO2 legislation will be more demanding and the automotive industry has seen in vehicle electrification a possible solution. This has led to an increasing need for advanced powertrain systems and systematic model-based control approaches, along with additional complexity. This represents a serious challenge for all the OEMs. This paper describes a novel reverse engineering methodology developed to estimate relevant but unknown powertrain data required for fuel consumption-oriented hybrid electric vehicle modelling. The main estimated quantities include high-voltage battery internal resistance, electric motor and transmission efficiency maps, torque converter and lock-up clutch operating maps, internal combustion engine and electric motor mass moment of inertia, and finally front/rear brake torque distribution.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) can be considered as the most promising technology to achieve the European CO2 targets in 2025 together with a moderate infrastructure modification. However, the real benefits, in terms of CO2 emissions, depend on a great extent on the energy source (fuel and electricity mix), user usage, and vehicle design. Moreover, the electrification of the powertrain does not reduce other emissions as NOx and particles (mainly soot). In the last years, low temperature combustion (LTC) modes as the reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) have shown to achieve ultra-low NOx and soot emission simultaneously due to the use of two fuels with different reactivity and high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess, through numerical simulations fed with experimental results, the effects of different energy sources on the PHEV performance and emissions.