As Battery cost is expected to see a Downward trend, Electrification of Powertrain in general is expected to pick up and 2wheeler Market is foreseen to be the Flag bearer in this race towards Electrification. In this paper, we would like to emphasize on the Journey of 2wheelers from Conventional Internal combustion Engine to Electrified Powertrains which we foresee in the future. Methodology: EV - Analysis of OEM strategies and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification. Estimation of current market size of 2Wheeler and segmentation based on different personas. Building survey data based personas around ownership patterns for electric 2Wheelers. Mapping consumer decision process for electric 2Wheelers. Analyse the decision influencers and role of influencers in decision making process. Hybrid - Analysis of different hybrid topologies. Feasibility study via simulation and focus group assessments to evaluate the design. PoC will also be tried to validate the concept.
Rolling resistance, is nothing but the rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body rolls on a surface. It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is,not all the energy needed for deformation of the wheel, roadbed, etc. It is recovered when the pressure is removed, in the form of hysteresis losses and permanent deformation of the tyre surface. So, the rolling resistance contributes to the deformation of roadbed as well as tyre surface of the vehicle. Factors contributing in rolling resistance are tyre inflation pressure, wheel diameter, speed, load on wheel,, surface adhesion, sliding, and relative micro-sliding between the surfaces of contact. In this concerned paper we are significantly working on effect of tyre inflation pressure on rolling resistance and taking all other factors constraint.
Vehicle weight reduction becomes important at the view point of fuel efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction in India also as well as developed countries. With this background, High tensile and Super high tensile steel application has become increasing. Similary, weight reduction of big plastic parts like bumper face is one of the most important items, so Honda has developed Thin-wall and light weight bumper face. In the development of light weight bumper, rigidity, impact strength and flowability which are main requirement are cotradictory property. It is necessary to develop new material to achieve this technical concern. Moreover, we verified part shape and thickness optimization to achieve part requirement. Established high property material and part manufacturing technology were applied for current CITY firstly, and it has been expanded to other models sequentially to contribute weight reduction for Honda vehicles.
Objective This paper explores the usage of Altair simulation driven concept process, C123 for developing the chassis frame of the SUV along with Multidisciplinary optimisation tool. C123 process is useful for strategic & systematic usage of optimisation to generate design alternatives, trade-off information, best balanced designs, design sensitivities, to actively support the concept development process on daily basis. Methodology C123 is used for developing initial concept design of the chassis frame of the SUV. C123 process is independent of vehicle architectures, manufacture process (e.g. extrusions, sheet metal) & material selection (e.g. metals, composites, mixed etc.) and platform sharing strategy. C1 process is used for identification of optimum Structural Layout, C2 is for rapid optimum Sizing of idealized Sections, C3 is used for detailed optimum Sizing of Manufacturable Sections. Automatic process is used for handling pre and post processing process very efficiently.
Electrical release machining (EDM), is a material removal procedure whereby a coveted shape is acquired by utilizing electrical releases (sparks). Material is expelled from the work piece by a progression of quickly repeating current releases between cathode and anode, isolated by a dielectric fluid and subject to an electric voltage. At the point when the voltage between the two terminals is expanded, the power of the electric field in the volume between the anodes winds up more prominent than the quality of the dielectric (in any event in a few spots), which separates, enabling current to stream between the two cathodes. This wonder is the equivalent as the breakdown of a capacitor (condenser). Accordingly, material is expelled from the cathodes.
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed.
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: Automobile Industry has driven through the ages with continuous development with innovative technologies and frugal engineering. Expectation of customer is also increasing through the generations. To meet the customer demand for performance and be best in market, OEM needs to deliver best performance of vehicle with cost effective and short development process. Steering and Handling of vehicle is one of major customer touchpoints and needs to be tuned to achieve various conflicting requirements. The objective of this research is to optimize the steering and handling using correlation between three major methods of evaluation. METHODOLOGY: Methodology for optimization of steering and handling performance using correlation between subjective evaluation, objective measurement and multi-body-dynamic simulation is presented.
Abstract: Future of Mobility is mainly driven by 3 main pillar viz Connected , Electrified and Automated Driving. With advancement in Communication Technology supplemented by huge customer Base , Connectivity has proven to deliver better Services to the End-user. The next step in this journey would be to connect the so called “Things” and the Things that we want to connect is the 2 wheeler in the Mobility domain This paradigm shift in the Mobility Landscape is expected to bring plethora of opportunities on one side as well as new challenges that were never witnessed in the realm of Mobility in the Past. This paper focuses on Opportunities in terms of Location Based services, Vehicle Management, Data Analytics, Infotainment , and possible Business scenarios and Models as well as challenges in Terms of Security and Data Ownership Methodology: Analysis of OEM and Supplier strategies/approaches and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification.
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. This development comes with challenges ranging across varied sub -systems in a vehicle including Power Train, HVAC, Accessories, etc. Objective: This paper would concentrate on the Power train related sub systems & improvement of the same both in terms of Efficiency & Performance. Methodology: The electric power train consists of three major sub parts: 1. Motor Unit 2. Controller with Power electronics 3. Battery Pack with BMS We would concentrate on improving the overall efficiency and performance of all these subsystems while they perform in vehicle environment and work in tandem by deploying following techniques: a. Improved Regenerative Braking for converting vehicles Kinetic energy into electrical energy using specific algorithms and control techniques b.
Two wheelers are the major mode of single transport in the metros of India. They contribute about 70 % of the auto market unit wise. Also it is proved from the research that for per unit energy consumption they contribute more to the environment emission. Conventional IC engine based energy supply unit can be replaced with an electric DC motor with chargeable battery as the energy source for the two wheelers present in the market. In the current research, engine is replaced with the motor, batteries and controller. The above system is placed on the space emptied by the conventional engine, The design developed is tested on different gradients for identifying the motor torque for minimum and maximum resistances available on the road. The paper provides an insight on the of the torque requirements based on variable resistances required for two wheelers. Also the system will be used as a retrofit for the existing IC engine bikes to be converted in electric bikes.
Research Objective The objective of the paper is to research what are the changes in experiences being brought about due to the advent of Electric Vehicles (EVs). EVs are silent, have less complex propulsion system, and have free space under the hood, amongst other things. Each change brings about both good and bad experiences across the spectrum of users. Some of the bad experiences can be safety incidents leading to death as well. Researching the areas that are harmful to end users, including pedestrians, will be our focus area. Methodology Our methodology will look at the changes at the vehicle architecture level which are inherent to the EV design. Research how are the experiences so far due to these changes. Are these just inconveniences or safety hazards? EVs have excellent NVH characteristics. A farmer may love a silent tractor, but a racing enthusiast may not like a relatively silent sports car.
Fuel lid is one of the parts which are mostly operated mechanically by the end user while filling the fuel. Therefore part design should be done in such a manner that it can be operated smoothly without any hassles. The conventional steel fuel filler doors are of two types: Three-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the dog-leg type and two-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the butterfly type. Both types of fuel filler doors have a pin that acts as a rotational hinge axis about which the fuel filler door opens and closes. Depending on the styling and shape of the side body outer, fuel lid type is decided. In the current study, dog-leg type fuel lid is considered. The factors that primarily affect the opening-closing performance are the weight of fuel lid, hinge axis, and the friction at the hinge area. The orientation of the hinge axis is derived from the profile of the side body outer panel. The fuel lid weight and hinge axis are decided in the initial design stage.
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings.
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter.
According to research study 45% of death cause due to not getting help on time to the injured person. Research has proven that if injured person is not found any option of help then they also loose the power to fight such critical situation due to psychological effect. When vehicle met accident, people are not getting on time support, this delay is the major cause of death in developing nations. Presently there is no any robust system available in market for passenger & commercial vehicles which helps to provide on time help to the injured persons & saves human life. In current situation low cost life saving device is need of our society. This paper deals with the design & development of the low cost-life saving device. This paper also comprises the scenario when any vehicle meet an accidents within certain speed limit then how the intelligent life saving device will work & save the life's.
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options.
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, these materials are chemically harmful and toxic, affects human health. The present investigation fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 Vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt fibre by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition using pin on disc apparatus configuration with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 30N to 70N with the interval of 20N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900rpm with the interval of 300rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and also increases the frictional force for the effect of basalt fibre content present in the composites. The co-efficient of friction was increases from 0.1 to 0.66 under normal loading condition.
Rocker arm in internal combustion engine is very important part which transfer the cam motion and force to the valve. In heavy commercial vehicles, the engine components are design for an infinite life (considerable higher than other components). Recently industries are working for light weight and optimized cost material. Hence it is required to have an optimized cost effective design of rocker arm without affecting its performance. A rocker arm should meet the stiffness and strength requirement. The objective of this study is to find out the alternate material for rocker arm which can provide the similar strength & stiffness as conventional rocker arm material. To achieve the performance and cost target, alternate material cast iron has been evaluated for rocker arm. Cast iron is lighter than the forged steel rocker arm, also it has a good frictional characteristic. Further bush is eliminated from the rocker arm assembly due to self-lubricant property of the cast iron rocker arm.