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Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

Development of the Active Sound Generation Technology using Motor Driven Power Steering System

2020-09-30
2020-01-1536
As original engine sound is usually not enough to satisfy the driver’s desire for the sporty and fascinating sound, active noise control (ANC) and active sound design (ASD) have been great technologies in automobiles for a long time. However, these technologies which enhance the sound of vehicle using loud speakers or electromagnetic actuators etc. lead to the increase of cost and weight due to the use of external amplifier or external actuators. This paper presents a new technology of generating a target sound by the active control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which is already mounted in vehicle. Firstly, an algorithm of this technology, called an active sound generation (ASG), is introduced with those signal conversion process, and then the high frequency noise issue and its countermeasure are presented.
Technical Paper

On Prediction of Automotive Clutch Torsional Vibrations

2020-09-30
2020-01-1508
Automotive clutches are prone to rigid body torsional vibrations during engagement, a phenomenon referred to as take-up judder. This is also accompanied by fore and aft vehicle motions. Aside from driver behaviour in sudden release of clutch pedal (resulting in loss of clamp load), and type and state of friction lining material, the interfacial slip speed and contact temperature can significantly affect the propensity of clutch to judder. The ability to accurately predict the judder phenomenon relies significantly on the determination of operational frictional characteristics of the clutch lining material. This is dependent upon contact pressure, temperature and interfacial slip speed. The current study investigates the ability to predict clutch judder vibration with the degree of complexity of the torsional dynamics model. For this purpose, the results from a four and nine degrees of freedom dynamics models are compared and discussed.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Technical Paper

Suggestive Sound Design Based on Virtual Gears

2020-09-30
2020-01-1543
With the electrification of vehicles, new questions and problems are rising in the field of NVH. The in-cabin noise was reduced significantly due to the new drive system. Additionally, the spectral composition of this noise changed dramatically. While the reduction of the in-cabin sound pressure levels is generally welcomed by customers and engineers alike, the predominantly high-pitched tonal sounds of the electrical drives are normally perceived with less enthusiasm. Active sound design can help both in masking those noises, or at the least embed them in new harmonic contexts so their annoyance can be reduced. A variety of research in the field of traffic psychology shows that acoustical feedback can alter the driving behavior. Based on this, our idea is, that if certain sounds induce specific reactions in drivers, a specifically designed active sound design could be used to influence said behavior.
Technical Paper

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

2020-09-30
2020-01-1549
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

An Active Safety System Able to Counter Aquaplaning, Integrated With Sensorized Tires, ADAS and 5G Technology for Both Human-Driven and Autonomous Vehicles

2020-09-27
2020-24-0019
Autonomous vehicles must guarantee safety in all road conditions, including driving on wet roads. Aquaplaning (or hydroplaning) is a phenomenon known since the beginning of automotive history, never solved by an active safety system. Currently, no countermeasure system on the market is able to effectively counteract aquaplaning: ABS, ESP or TCS are still inefficient in overcoming this situation. Latest statistical data confirm that the higher percentage of accidents, injuries and deaths are caused by wet road conditions. The aquaplaning happens when the water on the road is too much and the tires start to float causing the instantaneous loss of control. Such phenomenon occurs in human-driven vehicles, with the responsibility of the driver, but in autonomous vehicles (e.g. Level 5), the responsibility for the safety depends on the car and the reduction of the speed is not a solution.
Technical Paper

Designing and Static Analysis of the Roll Cage of an All-Terrain Vehicle (SAE e-Baja)

2020-09-25
2020-28-0378
An All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) as defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a vehicle that travels on low pressure tires and with a seat that is straddled by the operator, along with the handlebars for steering control. A roll cage can be defined as a skeleton of an ATV. It forms a structural base and 3-D shell around the driver. In case of impacts and roll over incidents, the roll cage is responsible for the protection of driver. The objective is to design, analyze and optimize the roll cage under a set of particular rules given by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The static analysis is carried out using CATIA V5 software for different collisions like front, side, rear and roll over. The main objective of the analysis is to obtain a roll cage enough strong to bear such adverse conditions as well as light in weight for better performance. The safety of roll cage can be ensured by obtaining optimum factor of safety.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hybrid Polyamide Composites for Replacement of Metallic Parts

2020-09-25
2020-28-0423
Over the past few decades, the world is looking for a better replacement option for metals. Polymers with reinforcements are finding their way deep inside in most of the engineering applications because of its lightweight and superior properties. The aim of this study is to investigate hybrid polymer composite polyphthalamide (PPA) reinforced with glass fiber and Poly tetra fluro ethylene. The reinforcement was varied as 10, 20, 30wt. % of Glass Fibre, while the fixed quantity of Poly Tetra Fluro Ethylene (PTFE) as 5wt. % was taken for hybrid composites preparation. The virgin and hybrid composite specimen were prepared under optimal process parametric conditions through the use of injection moulding techniques and test samples were produced as per ASTM standards. The response of physical properties such as density and various Mechanical testing like Hardness, Tensile Strength, and impact strength were carried out and noted.
Technical Paper

Motorist Warning System on Road Bends in Hilly Regions for Safer Riding

2020-09-25
2020-28-0480
Safety is a major concern addressed in various industries and most specifically in transportation industries. Road accidents are undoubtedly more frequent and are responsible for many permanent disabilities deaths worldwide. Many works have been done to improve the safety of different vehicles as the number of accidents is increasing. The main objective of this work is to further improve road safety by providing instantaneous warnings to drivers about hazards in their intended path in hilly region. This further it aims to provide a pleasant and peaceful hill travel and to avoid any possibility of accidents in hill curves. The roads in these hilly regions are always filled with many hectic and endless curves. These curves are classified into Hair-Pin Curves, Salient Curves and Re-entrant Curves. These curves offers partial or no visibility about the incoming traffic for the drivers.
Technical Paper

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON HYBRID SUSPENSION SYSTEM IN COMMERCIAL PASSENGER VEHICLE

2020-09-25
2020-28-0384
The recent commercial vehicle research emphasis to control noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH). The present study analyzes the performance of a hybrid suspension system for light commercial passenger vehicles under different road conditions. The full car model mathematical model and the experimental investigations were carried out under periodic and discrete road inputs. The parameters like the driver seat acceleration, body acceleration, suspension travel, tire displacement, pitching, and rolling motions were observed. The influence of hybrid suspension system related to driver seat acceleration as compared with the passive model, also simulation model and experimental model. Finally the proposed system improves the comfort level in terms of driver acceleration and keeping the handling performance within the acceptable range with small degradation.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on Biogas Production from Waste Press Mud and Cow Dung under Anaerobic Condition

2020-09-25
2020-28-0467
Anaerobic digestion of textile wastes under mesophilic conditions were conducted in batch mode with aim of investigating the bio-methane evolution with an initial solid mass of cow dung – 2 kg, cotton and water in 3:1 ratio and press mud is use in the ratio 3:1 with water were evaluated subsequently for 7 weeks (42 days).The highest production of biogas is noted as 3 m3 in fourth week and the higher production of biogas due to press mud is noted as 0.49 in the fifth week.Carbon dioxide is produced as bi product in this bio digestion process. Highest production rate of methane,biogas and carbon dioxide are in their fourth week. Through this experiment 65%-75% of bio gas is collected by the fourth week.
Standard

Packing, Preformed - O-Ring Seal, Standard Sizes and Size Codes, Metric

2020-09-22
WIP
MA2010A

This standard provides the standard sizes and side identification codes for preformed packings, elastomeric o-ring seals, for use in metric aerospace fluid systems.

The aerospace o-ring sizes and size identification codes in this standard are in agreement with ISO 3601/1, Series A.

Technical Paper

Particulate Contamination in Biodiesel Fuel under Long-Term Storage

2020-09-15
2020-01-2143
Many incidents associated with filter plugging have extensively been reported in microbially contaminated diesel and biodiesel fuel systems, especially under long term storage conditions. In this study a quantitative assessment of the undesirable insoluble solids produced in contaminated biodiesel fuels was carried out in order to evaluate their evolution rate during biodeterioration. For this purpose, a series of contaminated biodiesel fuel microcosms were prepared and stored for six months under stable conditions. The quantity of the particulate contaminants was monitored during storage by a multiple filtration technique which was followed at the end by a comparison with the active bioburden per ATP bioluminescence protocol. Additionally, identical microcosms were treated with a commercially available biocide in order to examine the latter’s activity both on solids formation and the microbial proliferation.
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