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Technical Paper

Modeling and experimental validation of a pure methanol-fueled small SI engine: impact of the laminar flame speed correlation

2024-09-18
2024-24-0033
In a context of growing concern for vehicle-related CO2 and pollutant emissions, non-conventional fuels like methanol (CH3OH) represent a valid alternative to fossil fuels to decarbonize the transport sector in a reasonable time. This is mainly due to its lower carbon content, compared to conventional gasoline and diesel. Moreover, methanol can be obtained either from biomass or CO2 capture from the atmosphere, which makes the latter a renewable fuel. Given the possibility of being stored in liquid phase at standard temperature and pressure (STP), methanol is very suitable for Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs), in which the need to contain fuel tank dimensions is relevant. Regarding the deployment of methanol as a fuel, it is not very challenging, as it can be adopted in current production Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) either in pure form or in blend with other fuels without any significant modifications.
Technical Paper

Development of a NG engine predictive simulation model and investigation of engine performances under hydrogen-blended operation

2024-09-18
2024-24-0029
Hydrogen-powered mobility is believed to be crucial in the future, as hydrogen constitutes a promising solution to make up for the non-programmable character of the renewable energy sources. In this context, the hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine represents one of the suitable technical solution for the future sustainable mobility. In a short-term perspective, the development of the green hydrogen production capability and distribution infrastructure do not allow a substantial penetration of pure hydrogen IC engines. For this reason, natural gas – hydrogen blends can represent a first significant step towards decarbonization, also determining a trigger effect on the hydrogen market development. The present paper is focused on the analysis of the combustion and performance characteristics of a production PFI natural gas engine, run on blends with 15% in volume of hydrogen (HCNG).
Technical Paper

EMS optimization of a series-hybrid urban bus with hydrogen-fueled engine accounting for NOx emissions and eco-driving

2024-09-18
2024-24-0009
The need to reduce vehicle-related emissions in the great cities has led to a progressive electrification of urban mobility. For this reason, during the last decades, the powertrain adopted for urban buses has been gradually converted from conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), diesel, or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), to hybrid or pure electric. However, the complete electrification of Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs) in the next years looks to be still challenging therefore, a more viable solution to decarbonize urban transport is the hybrid powertrain. In this context, the paper aims to assess, through numerical simulations, the benefits of a series hybrid-electric powertrain designed for an urban bus, in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse gases, and pollutants emissions. Particularly, a medium-size Spark Ignition (SI) engine, fueled with pure hydrogen, is considered as a range extender.
Technical Paper

Dual Injection Concept and Lean Burn Characteristics with Methanol on a SI-Engine

2024-09-18
2024-24-0030
To further unlock the potential of methanol, this paper focuses on a dual injection concept in a spark ignition (SI) combustion engine. The combination of port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI) for different fuel types, as well as single and dual fuel applications, such as gasoline for PFI and methanol for DI, has been discussed in the literature. The consideration of a single-fuel dual injection concept with pure methanol is intended to provide information on the characteristics of each injection method and, by combining these, eliminate the disadvantages of one type with the advantages of the other. The research for sustainable alternative fuels for combustion engines was driven by the urgency to meet future emission regulation norms and mitigate climate change and dependency on fossil fuels.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of Hydrogen Combustion under Ultra Lean Conditions in a Spark Ignition Research Engine using a Barrier Discharge Igniter

2024-09-18
2024-24-0036
The global push to minimize carbon emissions and the imposition of more rigorous regulations on emissions are driving an increased exploration of cleaner powertrains for transportation. Hydrogen fuel applications in internal combustion engines are gaining prominence due to their zero carbon emissions and favorable combustion characteristics, particularly in terms of thermal efficiency. However, conventional Spark-Ignition (SI) engines are facing challenges in meeting performance expectations while complying with strict pollutant-emission regulations. These challenges arise from the engine's difficulty in handling advanced combustion strategies, such as lean mixtures, attributed to factors like low ignition energy and abnormal combustion events. To address these issues, the Barrier Discharge Igniter (BDI) stands out for its capability to generate non-equilibrium Low-Temperature Plasma (LTP), a strong promoter of ignition through kinetic, thermal, and transport effects.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a virtual H2 engine using a 1D simulation tool targeting high engine performance along with near-zero emission levels.

2024-09-18
2024-24-0015
Hydrogen engines are currently considered as a viable solution to preserve the internal combustion engine (ICE) as a power unit for vehicle propulsion. In particular, lean-burn gasoline Spark-Ignition (SI) engines have been a major subject of investigation, due to their reduced emission levels and high thermodynamic efficiency. Lean charge is suitable for passenger car applications, where the demand of mid/low power output does not require an excessive amount of air to be delivered by the turbocharging unit, but can difficulty be tailored in the field of high-performance engine, where the air mass delivered would require oversized turbocharging systems or more complex charging solutions. For this reason, the range of feeding conditions near the stochiometric is explored in the field of high-performance engines, leading to the consequent issue of abatement of pollutant emissions.
Journal Article

Response Surface Optimization of Brake Thermal Efficiency and Specific Fuel Consumption of Spark-Ignition Engine Fueled with Gasoline–Pyrooil and Gasoline–Pyrooil–Ethanol Blends

2024-07-18
Abstract The present study explores the performance of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pyrooil and ethanol blends with gasoline in SI engine using statistical modeling and analysis using response surface methodology (RSM) and the Anderson–Darling (AD) residual test. The pyrooil was extracted from HDPE through pyrolysis at 450°C and then distilled to separate the liquid fraction. Two blends were prepared by combining pyrooil and gasoline, and pyrooil–ethanol mixture (volume ratio of 9:1) and gasoline, both at volumetric concentrations ranging from 2% to 8% to evaluate brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and specific fuel consumption (SFC) in a SI engine. An experimental matrix containing speed, torque, and blend ratio as independent variables for both blends were designed, analyzed, and optimized using the RSM. The results show that a 4% blend of pyrooil with gasoline (P4) and a 6% blend of pyrooil–ethanol mixture with gasoline (P6E) were optimum for an SI engine.
Journal Article

Optimizing Spark-Ignition Engine Performance with Ternary Blend Fuels and Hybrid Nanolubricants: A Response Surface Methodology Study

2024-07-17
Abstract The current research elucidates the application of response surface methodology to optimize the collective impact of methanol–isobutanol–gasoline blends and nanolubricants on the operational parameters of a spark-ignition engine. Diverse alcohol blends in conjunction with gasoline are employed in engine trials at 2500 rpm across varying engine loads. The alcohol blends exhibit notable enhancements in brake thermal efficiency, peak in-cylinder pressure, and heat release rate. At 2500 rpm and 75% load, the break thermal efficiency of iBM15 surpasses that of gasoline by 33.5%. Alcohol blends significantly reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions compared to gasoline. The iBM15 demonstrates a reduction of 25.2% and 51.12% in vibration along the Z and Y axes, respectively, relative to gasoline.
Journal Article

Simulation Studies of Pollutant Emission from Passenger Cars

2024-07-15
Abstract The article presents the results of simulation studies of pollutant emissions from passenger cars. The characteristics of emissions were determined using the vehicle driving test procedures, in consideration of differentiated average velocities as well as model traffic conditions: urban traffic jam, urban traffic with no congestion, rural, motorways, and highways. This article also presented the possibility of determining the characteristics of pollutant emission based on a singular realization of the vehicle velocities processes, as well as the intensity of pollutant emission, with the use of the Monte Carlo method. The pollutant emission characteristics enable specification of pollutant emission intensity, which can be used for the inventory of pollutant emissions from road transport (COPERT software applied as standard) and can be useful in the assessment of a degree of environmental hazard by modeling pollutant dispersion.
Technical Paper

Benefits of Supercharger Boosting on H2 ICE for Heavy Duty Applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3006
The fast acceleration of GHG (CO2 in particular) emitted by human activities into the atmosphere is accelerating the average temperature increase of our globe causing heavy climate change. This phenomenon has triggered a strong pressure on GHG emission reduction in all the human activities including the transportation sector which contributes for the 29% to the total emissions in EU [1]. A mitigation to this tendency can come from synthetic fuels: when produced by using clean energy, they can be considered CO2 neutral. H2 is the building block of synthetic fuels and can be used in spark ignited engines where releases the energy accumulated during its production. This solution is particularly attractive for HD applications thanks to the high energy density. H2 can be burned in a quite wide range of λ, but staying on 2,2 the amount of engine out NOx will be low enough for the use on a 13L engine with a relatively simple aftertreatment system.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging System Selection for a Hydrogen-Fuelled Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3019
Nowadays, green hydrogen can play a crucial role in a successful clean energy transition, thus reaching net zero emissions in the transport sector. Moreover, hydrogen exploitation in internal combustion engines is favored by its suitable combustion properties and quasi-zero pollutant emissions. High flame speeds enable a lean combustion approach, which provides high efficiency and reduces NOx emissions. However, high airflow rates are required to achieve the load levels typical of heavy-duty applications. In this framework, the present study aims at investigating the required boosting system of a 6-cylinder, 13-litre heavy-duty spark ignition engine through 1D numerical simulation. A comparison among various architectures of the turbocharging system and the size of each component is presented, thus highlighting the limitations and potentialities of each architecture and providing important insights for the selection of the best turbocharging system.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hydrogen Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines Using a Modified Wiebe Model

2024-07-02
2024-01-3016
Due to its physical and chemical properties, hydrogen is an attractive fuel for internal combustion engines, providing grounds for studies on hydrogen engines. It is common practice to use a mathematical model for basic engine design and an essential part of this is the simulation of the combustion cycle, which is the subject of the work presented here. One of the most widely used models for describing combustion in gasoline and diesel engines is the Wiebe model. However, for cases of hydrogen combustion in DI engines, which are characterized by mixture stratification and in some cases significant incomplete combustion, practically no data can be found in the literature on the application of the Wiebe model. Based on Wiebe’s formulas, a mathematical model of hydrogen combustion has been developed. The model allows making computations for both DI and PFI hydrogen engines. The parameters of the Wiebe model were assessed for three different engines in a total of 26 operating modes.
Journal Article

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2024-06-21
Abstract TOC
Technical Paper

Sustainable Fuels for Long-Haul Truck Engines: A 1D-CFD Analysis

2024-06-12
2024-37-0027
Heavy duty engines for long-haul trucks are quite difficult to electrify, due to the large amount of energy that should be stored on-board to achieve a range comparable to that of conventional fuels. In particular, this paper considers a stock engine with a displacement of 12.9 L, developed by the manufacturer in two different versions. As a standard diesel, the engine is able to deliver about 420 kW at 1800 rpm, whereas in the compressed natural gas configuration the maximum power output is 330 kW, at the same speed. Three possible alternatives to these fossil fuels are considered in this study: biodiesel (HVOlution by Eni), bio-methane and green hydrogen. While the replacement of diesel and compressed natura gas with biofuels does not need significant hardware modifications, the implementation of a hydrogen spark ignition combustion system requires a deep revision of the engine concept.
Technical Paper

Guided Port Injection of Hydrogen as an Approach for Reducing Cylinder-to-Cylinder Deviations in Spark-Ignited H2 Engines – A Numerical Investigation

2024-06-12
2024-37-0008
The reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and ever stricter regulations on pollutant emissions in the transport sector require research and development of new, climate-friendly propulsion concepts. The use of renewable hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines promises to provide a good solution especially for commercial vehicles. For optimum efficiency of the combustion process, hydrogen-specific engine components are required, which need to be tested on the test bench and analysed in simulation studies. This paper deals with the simulation-based investigation and optimisation of fuel injection in a 6-cylinder PFI commercial vehicle engine, which has been modified for hydrogen operation starting from a natural gas engine concept.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of a High-Performance Engine Fueled with H2 and Equipped with a Low NOx After-Treatment Device

2024-06-12
2024-37-0009
Hydrogen engines are currently considered as a viable solution to preserve the internal combustion engine (ICE) as a power unit for vehicle propulsion. In particular, lean-burn gasoline Spark-Ignition (SI) engines have been a major subject of investigations, due to their reduced emission levels and high thermodynamic efficiency. Lean charge is suitable for the purpose of passenger car applications, where the demand of mid/low power output does not require an excessive amount of air to be delivered by the turbocharging unit, but can difficulty be tailored in the field of high performance engine, where the air mass delivered would require oversized turbocharging systems or more complex charging solutions. For this reason, the range of feeding conditions near the stochiometric value is explored in the field of high performance engines, leading to the consequent issue of abatement of pollutant emissions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of an Optimal Engine Configuration for a SI Engine Fueled with Ethanol for Stationary Applications

2024-06-12
2024-37-0024
This work aims at investigating the optimal configuration of an internal combustion engine fueled with bio-ethanol for improving its brake power and efficiency as well as for reducing the NOx emissions, in stationary applications. A turbocharged spark ignition engine characterized by a single-point injection was preliminarily considered; subsequently, a direct injection configuration was investigated. For both cases, a 1-D numerical model was developed to compare the injection configurations under stoichiometric conditions and different spark timings. The analysis shows that the direct injection guarantees: a limited improvement of brake power and efficiency when the same spark timing is adopted, while NOx emissions increases by 20%; an increase of 6% in brake power and 2 percentage points in brake thermal efficiency by adopting the knock limited spark advance, but an almost double NOx emissions increase.
Journal Article

Effects of Dimethyl Ether and Propane Blends on Knocking Behavior in a Boosted SI Engine

2024-06-12
Abstract Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative fuel that, blended with propane, could be an excellent alternative for exploring the use of fuels from renewable sources. DME–propane blends are feasible for their comparable physicochemical properties; these fuels may be pressured as liquids using moderate pressure at ambient temperature. Adding a proportion of DME with a low octane number to a less reactive fuel like propane can improve the combustion process. However, the increased reactivity of the mixture induced by the DME could lead to the early appearance of knocking, and this tendency may even be pronounced in boosted SI engines.
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