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Technical Paper

Self-Sensing, Lightweight and High Modulus Carbon Nanotube Composites for Improved Efficiency and Safety of Electric Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2532
Carbon Composites (CFRP) have been touted to be an essential component of future automobiles due to their mechanical properties and lightweight. CFRP has been adopted successfully for secondary and primary structures in Aerospace industry. In Automobiles, they are incorporated in models like the BMW i-series. CFRP suffers from 2 major problems. Delamination of Composites leads to catastrophic and rapid failure which could be dangerous in passenger vehicles. Delamination occurs whenever there is a shock on the composite. Secondly, Composites need regular expensive maintenance to ensure that the material is intact and will not compromise passenger safety. Carbon Nanotubes in composites have shown a substantial increase in delamination resistance. A 0.1wt% addition of HiPCO® Single-walled Carbon Nanotube provides both self-sensing and improved fracture resistance.
Technical Paper

High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat system for tractor sheet metal application.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2541
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Durability of Mold-In-Color Engineering Plastics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2542
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles.
Technical Paper

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LOW CYCLE FATIGUE PROPERTIES IN METALS FOR ROBUST DESIGN

2019-11-21
2019-28-2576
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed.
Technical Paper

An alternate cost effective material for rocker arm used in heavy commercial vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2550
Rocker arm in internal combustion engine is very important part which transfer the cam motion and force to the valve. In heavy commercial vehicles, the engine components are design for an infinite life (considerable higher than other components). Recently industries are working for light weight and optimized cost material. Hence it is required to have an optimized cost effective design of rocker arm without affecting its performance. A rocker arm should meet the stiffness and strength requirement. The objective of this study is to find out the alternate material for rocker arm which can provide the similar strength & stiffness as conventional rocker arm material. To achieve the performance and cost target, alternate material cast iron has been evaluated for rocker arm. Cast iron is lighter than the forged steel rocker arm, also it has a good frictional characteristic. Further bush is eliminated from the rocker arm assembly due to self-lubricant property of the cast iron rocker arm.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Areca and Tamarind fiber reinforced hybrid polymer composites for structural applications

2019-10-11
2019-28-0168
In recent years, natural fibers reinforced composites are used in various engineering arenas owing to its specific rewards like biodegradable, low cost, readily available, easy processing, less toxic and eco-friendly physiognomies. However, the commonly used E-glass fiber polymer composite was just inverse to the properties of the reported natural fibers. Therefore, in the present work discarded areca and tamarind fibers was collected, extracted, fabricated and evaluated for its overall performance and to implement it as an alternative for synthetic fiber composites. Composite specimens are fabricated with different proportions of fiber/matrix and investigated for their potentiality by exploring its mechanical, physical, chemical, water absorption and thermal properties as per standard test procedures. Moreover, the obtained areca and tamarind hybrid composite results are better than their individual based composites and in par with the existing synthetic fiber products.
Technical Paper

Machinability and parametric optimization of Inconel 600 using Taguchi-Desirability analysis under dry environment

2019-10-11
2019-28-0068
Inconel 600 is a face-centered cubic structure and nickel-chromium alloy. Alloy 600 has good resistance to oxidation, corrosion resistant, excellent mechanical properties and good creep rupture strength at higher temperature. Alloy 600 is used in chemical and food processing, heat treating, phenol condensers, soap manufacture, vegetable, and fatty acid vessels. In this context, the present paper investigates the machinability characteristics of Alloy 600 under dry environment. Also, the parametric effect of cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth on the force, surface roughness and tool wear are carried out using 3-Dimensional surface and 1-Dimensional plots. The optimal parameters are determined systematically based on Taguchi-desirability analysis with turned with TiAlN coated carbide insert. From the graphical analysis of collected data, the low rate of feed and moderate cutting for roughness and cutting force and average feed rate for tool wear with low cutting depth.
Technical Paper

Turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool applying vegetable-based cutting fluid mixed with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles by MQL

2019-10-11
2019-28-0060
Inconel 825 is nickel (Ni)-iron (Fe)-chromium (Cr) alloy with additions of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), and titanium (Ti). The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion and is often the most cost-effective alloy in sulphuric acid piping vessels and chemical process equipment. No attempt of applying MQL with the addition of nanoparticles was reported conferring to the works accessed. The present study is focused on evaluating the effect of the addition of nanoparticles (CUO, Al2O3 and CNT) in vegetable oil applied by MQL mode during turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool. Cutting force, surface roughness and tool wear are evaluated. The results showed that the addition of nCNT substantially improved the machining performance, smaller flank and crater wear on the tool edge, while the adhesion and abrasion are observed as wear mechanism and better results are obtained at 0.5% of nCNT+ vegetable oil to produce the lowest values.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Aluminium-Flyash Composite for Connecting Rod

2019-10-11
2019-28-0166
In this modern era of rapid growth of technology and need of economical machining processes and materials, there is an increasing demand for new materials for different mechanical applications. Composites with fly ash as reinforcement are likely to overcome the cost barrier for wide spread applications in automotive and small engine applications. To improve wettability, elements such as Mg and Si are added into Al melt to incorporate the ceramic particles. The chemical composition and engineering properties of fly ash, its physical and chemical properties make it an ideal raw material for producing various application based composites. The main objective this paper is to fabricate an aluminium- fly ash composite material suitable for parts like engine connecting rod which demand high strength and temperature sustainability at comparatively less weight. The composite will be made using casting process and Engine connecting rod will be designed in AutoCAD software.
Technical Paper

Corrosion and Corrosive Wear of Steel for Automotive Exhaust Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0178
In the current scenario, durable exhaust system design, development and manufacturing are mandatory for the vehicle to be competitive and challenging in the automotive market. Material selection for the exhaust system plays a major role due to the increased warranty requirements and regulatory compliances. The materials used in the automotive exhaust application are cast iron, stainless steel, mild steel. The materials of the exhaust systems should be heat resistant, wear and corrosion resistant. Stainless steel is the most commonly used material in the automotive exhaust system. Due to increasing cost of nickel and some other alloying elements, there is a need to replace the stainless steel with EN 8 steel. Recent trends are towards light weight concepts, cost reduction and better performance. In order to reduce the cost and to achieve better wear and corrosion resistance, the surface of the EN 8 steel is modified with coatings.
Technical Paper

Study of Mechanical Properties and Multi Response Optimization of Process Parameter for Showing Signs of Improvement Product Quality in Drilling of Alsi7cu4 Utilizing GRA in Taguchi Method

2019-10-11
2019-28-0058
Showing and streamlining of cutting parameters are a champion among the most essential components in drilling processes. This examination displays the change of drilling procedures parameters on AlSi7Cu4 made by Gravity Die Casting and with replies in light of OA with Taughi GRA and ANOVA. The effects of alloying parts were bear on the Chemical Composition, microstructures, mechanical property, Hardness, X-Ray and S Das response is particularly analyzed. Motivations on the progression of Drilling parameters using the Taguchi strategy to obtain slightest surface Roughness (Ra), Circularity Error, Burr size and Thrust Force. Different Drilling preliminaries were coordinated using the L9 OA on CNC Milling machine. The examinations were accomplished on AlSi7Cu4 composite piece cutting tool of an ISO 460.1-1140-034A0-XM GC3 of 12 mm measurement with Tool 140 degrees, used all through the preliminary work under dry cutting conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of thermal shock resistance of CeO2 coating on Titanium alloy by magnetron sputtering

2019-10-11
2019-28-0103
Titanium alloy (Grade V) is used in aerospace, medical, marine and chemical processing industries. To improve the thermal shock resistance and corrosion resistance of the titanium alloy at elevated temperatures, Thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been predominantly used. Cerium oxides have been proposed as TBC, due to their high thermal expansion coefficient, higher thermal shock resistance, good adhesion strength, low corrosion rate and excellent tribological performance. In this study, CeO2 were coated on Titanium alloy by magnetron sputtering by varying the deposition time. The microstructure and mechanical properties of CeO2 coatings were systematically investigated. Deposition time was varied as 30 mins, 60 mins and 90 mins respectively, to achieve the variation in thickness of the coating on the substrate. The thickness of the coated specimen was measured by atomic force microscopy and found to be 500 nm, 180 nm and 70 nm respectively.
Technical Paper

Banana Stem Based Activated Carbon as Filler in Polymer Composites for Automobile Applications

2019-10-11
2019-28-0093
Activated carbon was produced from a new part of banana plant namely true stem in this current research and used as fillers in polymer composites for automobile application. True stems of banana plants are the main wastes in banana or fruit markets which refer to the remains after banana fruits are removed from the supporting stems. Conversion of raw material into activated carbon particles is done by chemical and heat activation. The raw material used here were dried samples of banana plant’s true stem. This material was heated in a crucible at 400°C and then powdered. These crushed samples were activated using hydro-chloric acid at 120°C for 5 hours and finally in a furnace for thermal activation at 700°C for 1 hour. These particles were incorporated as fillers in composites at proportions of 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The activated carbon samples were characterized by determining its fixed carbon content and bulk density.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Characteristic Comparison of Superconducting Synchronous Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

2019-09-16
2019-01-1912
Aircraft service has been increasing today and it also results in the increase of the greenhouse gas emission. To solve this problem, the electric aircraft propulsion system is the key solutions to realize the clean and high efficiency aircraft, while demanding higher output density motors. So far, though 5 kW/kg is realized with permanent magnet type synchronous motors, the electric aircraft for over 100 passengers demands motors with 16 -20 kW/kg. Superconducting (S.C.) technology is one of the effective candidates for higher output density motors. In comparison with copper wires, the S.C. wires have higher current density at less than –200 ℃. And we can make a lighter weight coil with the S.C. wires. So far, many groups have been studying the S.C. motors over 16 kW/kg. Generally, there are two kinds of S.C motors. One is the S.C. motors made of the S.C. field coils and copper armature windings. The other is the fully S.C. motors using S.C. field and armature windings.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction(III)

2019-09-15
2019-01-2112
In the latest works [12], we presented the guideline for reducing Metal pick up(MPU, the main component of disc scoring) by controlling the location of the roughness of disc, the brake pad friction coefficients and the disc slot's size. In this study, the previously studied iron transfer theory to 'Cu free' brake pad and the disc surface roughness controlling methods which are based on the mass production manufacturing process are applied. It is possible to suggest the ways to improve the scoring-free disc without reducing friction coefficient between the disc and pad, and any demerit such as increased wear and airplane noise like conventional slot discs [11].
Technical Paper

Ceramic Bound Materials: A Suitable Solution for Light Brakes

2019-09-15
2019-01-2109
A ceramic bound matrix has been investigated to be used as a friction material. The materials were produced by means of ceramic technology using frits containing silicates, and ceramic friction modifiers such as tin oxide, zircon, iron oxide, magnesium oxide. Four formulations were tested by means of a tribometer (pin-on-disc tester) using a gray cast iron counterpart. Test section included speeds between 1 and 12 ms-1, and loads between 25 and 400 N. The coefficient of friction of the tested specimens were between 0.7 and 0.4, and exhibited sensitivity to speed at low loads (25 N), while they are quite stables at high loads (400N). The characterization of the tribolayers was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy. The four developed materials were named A, B, C, and D. They exhibited different wear rates and coefficients of friction. All the materials exhibited sensitivity to speed, while showed a lower sensitivity to load.
Technical Paper

Brake Rotor Corrosion and Friction Cleaning Effect on Vehicle Judder Performance

2019-09-15
2019-01-2115
Brake disc corrosion has emerged as an important field of study within the automotive industry due to the wide range of lining materials that are currently used worldwide, and their inherent rust-cleaning properties. The presence of oxide layers irregularly deposited on the cast iron disc surfaces usually leads to a forced, braking-induced vibration that can reach the driver’s position as a pronounced annoyance. Hence, the friction material composition directly impacts on the judder performance during the early corrosion-removal stage. This study incorporates both dynamometer and vehicle tests into the definition of a predictive methodology that allows corrosion-induced vibrations to be investigated at both system and vehicle levels. The oxide film is artificially generated by means of a salt spray chamber under steady-state climate conditions in order to guarantee a repetitive and robust procedure.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characterization of Catalytic Converter Substrates During Warm-Up

2019-09-09
2019-24-0163
The transient heat transfer behavior of a real size automotive catalytic reactor has been simulated with OpenFOAM in 1D. The model takes into consideration the gas-solid convective heat transfer, axial wall conduction and heat capacity effects in the solid phase, but also the chemical reactions of CO and C3H6 oxidations, based on simplified Arrhenius and Langmuir-Hinshelwood approaches. The associated parameters have been chosen based on the tuning of experimental data. The impact of different initial catalytic converter temperatures, inlet flow temperatures and inlet flow rates have been quantified, even in terms of overall cumulative emissions. . A dimensional analysis is proposed and dimensionless temperature difference and space-time coordinate are defined. Using this suitably modified coordinates, for the case of negligible axial solid conduction, computed solid temperature at the reactor outlet lay on the typical S-curve.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Structures on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Swirl-Supported Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0009
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
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