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Technical Paper

A Hybrid method for Automotive Entity Recognition

2021-04-06
2021-01-0179
Over the past decades, automotive industry has made substantial investments in automation solutions, electric and autonomous vehicles and advanced product technologies for enhancing vehicular communication and so on. The rise of industry 4.0 brings out a revolutionary transformation in the automotive industry with low-cost computing, high-speed connectivity, and machine learning that have enabled the digitization of the physical world, transforming insights into optimized actions. These technologies have an important role in the growth and future of automotive domain. Hence it is relevant and important to get insight of different OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturer) at different geographical locations and their focusing technologies adapted currently and in the nearby future. In this paper, we are implementing a hybrid method for entity recognition, which is a combination of both rule-based and machine learning based entity recognition techniques.
Technical Paper

Review and Comparison of Different Multi-channel Spatial-phase Shift Algorithms of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

2021-04-06
2021-01-0304
Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is one of most sensitive and accurate methods for 3D deformation measurement in micro and sub micro-level. ESPI measures deformation by evaluating the phase difference of two recorded speckle interferograms under different loading conditions. By a spatial phase shift technique, ESPI enables a phase measurement with a single image (multi images are usually required in the temporal phase shift technique) and, thus, it allows for the rapid, accurate and continuous 3D deformation measurement. Multi-channel and carrier frequency are the two main methods of spatial phase shift. Compared with carrier frequency method, which is subject to the problem of spectrum aliasing, multi-channel method is more flexible in use. For extracting the phase value of speckles, three-step algorithm, four-step algorithm and five-step arbitrary phase algorithm are commonly used.
Technical Paper

Designing a Production-Ready Ultra-Lightweight Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Door

2021-04-06
2021-01-0365
Vehicle ultra-lightweighting provides opportunities for enhancing fuel efficiency. In this regard, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Vehicle Technology Office set a challenge to lightweight a fully assembled driver’s side front door by at least 42.5% with the cost constraint of a maximum $5 increase for every pound saved. A baseline door of an OEM’s 2013 mid-size SUV is selected, and integrated design, analysis, and optimization approach is implemented to meet this goal. It is required that the ultra-lightweight door design must meet or exceed the baseline door’s fit and function, and mechanical performance (static and dynamic) while being suitable for mass production. A strategy of parts consolidation and multi-material distribution enabled weight reduction without compromising the fit and functional requirements. The primary structural component of the ultra-lightweight door design is a composite inner panel that is made up of a woven carbon/Nylon-6 composite material.
Technical Paper

Pneumatic Power Unit for a Wheeled Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0640
The article theoretically substantiates the choice of the full-load curve of a pneumatic power unit and a pneumatic power unit combined with an internal combustion engine by the example of a compact wheeled vehicle. The aim is to prove the possibility of using a pneumatic power unit for moving the compact wheeled vehicle taking into account work processes of a pneumatic power unit and an internal combustion engine. The unique feature of the considered theoretical approach in justifying the choice of the full-load curve of a pneumatic power unit and a pneumatic power unit combined with an internal combustion engine is comparison of operating modes of units being a part of a vehicle and the using the capacity of different units combination with similar burn processes at 800–1000 RPM-1.
Technical Paper

A Review of Toxicity analysis of particulate emissions from conventional and advanced low-temperature combustion engines

2021-04-06
2021-01-0617
Automotive engines produce pollutant species which has the potential to damage human health as well as the environment. The toxicity potential of these species depends on the concentration, route, and time of exposure. Toxicity studies are required in the current scenario due to increase in pollution level by vehicles used for transportation.The presented study is a review focused on the toxicity analysis of particulate, elemental and organic carbon emission from the internal combustion engine with conventional and alternative fuels like biodiesel and alcohols. The study is focused on the formation, characterization and quantification of particulate matter, elemental and organic carbon, and their effect on human health. The other part of the study is focused on mutagenicity (mutation in DNA), Cytotoxicity (cell toxicity), ecotoxicity (plant and ambient toxicity) analysis of the particulate emitted from the engines.
Technical Paper

Development and Characterization of aerosol conditioning devices for Solid Ultrafine Particle Measurement from Diesel Engines: A Review

2021-04-06
2021-01-0615
Emission regulations mandate the measurement of solid particles of size greater than 23 nm according to particle measurement protocol (PMP). The analysis of solid particles from diesel engines requires the use of aerosol conditioning systems which can remove effectively volatile particles/species with minimum solid particles losses. Two types of aerosol conditioning devices (thermodenuder and catalytic stripper) are used for the measurement of solid ultrafine particles emitted from the diesel engine. This paper reviews the recent literature related to design and operating characteristics (temperature profile, particle losses, penetration efficiency) of the thermodenuder and catalytic striper. The origin of various particle losses such as due diffusion, thermophoresis, sedimentation in these devices is discussed. Further theoretical calculation using the empirical equation of these particle losses is also described.
Technical Paper

Multiple Metamodeling Approaches for Improved Design Space Mapping

2021-04-06
2021-01-0840
The complexities involved in an optimization problem at a system level require accessing different approaches and tune these approaches to the problem that needs to be addressed. One approach that is commonly used is the metamodel based design optimization ,which creates an accurate metamodel to replace the simulation model by covering the design space with a Design of Experiments (DOE). Optimization is performed based on this metamodel. This metamodel approach has been proven effective and accurate in providing the global optimum. Depending upon the setup in an organization, the metamodel based optimization could be much faster way of achieving the optimized solution. However, the accuracy of the optimization is highly dependent on the quality of metamodel generated. The quality of a metamodel depends on the space-filling properties of the DOE, the better the space-filling properties the better the accuracy of the metamodel.
Technical Paper

Fusing offline and online trajectory optimization techniques for goal-to-goal navigation of a scaled autonomous vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0097
Over the past few decades, enabling self-driving vehicles with the capacity to navigate a collision-free path efficiently and autonomously through an obstacle-filled environment has been of paramount interest. Motion-planning frameworks, encapsulating both path and trajectory-planning, have played a dominant role in realizing the deployment of a “sense-think-act” intelligence for autonomous vehicles. However, verification and validation of such intelligence on actual self-driving autonomous vehicles has been limited. Simulation-based verification and validation has the advantage of permitting diverse scenario-based testing and comprehensive “what-if” analyses – but is ultimately limited by the simulation fidelity and realism. In contrast, testing on full-scale real-world systems is constrained by the usual challenges of time, space and cost engendered in reproducing diverse scenarios in practice.
Technical Paper

Automotive Hood Panel Design Utilizing Anisotropic Multi-Material Topology Optimization

2021-04-06
2021-01-0361
Topology optimization (TO) represents an invaluable instrument for the structural design of components, with extensive use in numerous industries including automotive and aerospace. TO allows designers to generate lightweight, non-intuitive solutions that often improve overall system performance. Utilization of multiple materials within TO expands its range of applications, granting additional freedom and structural performance to designers. Often, use of multiple materials in TO results in material placement that may not have been previously identified as optimal, providing designers with the ability to produce novel high-performance systems. As numerous modern engineering materials possess anisotropic properties, a logical extension of multi-material TO is to include provisions for anisotropic materials. Herein lies the focus of this work.
Technical Paper

xEV Propulsion System Control - Overview and Current Trends

2021-04-06
2021-01-0781
Propulsion system control algorithms covering functional needs of xEV propulsion ('x' donates P1-P4 configurations) system is presented in this paper. The scope and foundation are based on generic well established HEV controller architectures. However, unlike conventional HEV powertrains, next generation of integrated electric propulsion configurations there is a single ECU that supports multiple control functions of motor-inverter, actuators, solenoid, coolant pump etc. This presents a unique challenge to architect control algorithms in AUTOSAR framework with the addition of motor/generator-inverter (MGi) hardware driving complex timing requirements, increased API definitions between software components to realize high level of functional integration between propulsion system and its sub systems.
Technical Paper

A comprehensive study on the design & development methodology of automotive steel wheel rims undergoing highly transient cornering events

2021-04-06
2021-01-0827
Wheel rim is one of the most critical safety parts in a vehicle. Cornering is one of the most important durability test requirements for a steel rim apart from others like vertical and impact loads. Based on the category of vehicle and customer usage pattern, the dynamic accelerated cornering test for testing wheel rims is derived. The simulation and certification of wheel for the required dynamic durability testing requirement involves many steps ranging from acceptance criteria derivation to reliably addressing known potential failure zones in steel rims. Given the pitch circle diameter, at the concept stage, the known effects of key parameters like crown height, Naïve radius are determined from DOE and used as reliable indicators on how the shape of the steel rim section should be. Potential failure zones are typically crown and naïve radius from weather side surface and vent hole from the inner surface.
Technical Paper

Optimal sensor placement for High pressure and low pressure EGR estimation

2021-04-06
2021-01-0423
Low pressure EGR is becoming a state-of-the-art technique for NOx reduction in CI engines. However, despite of the pollutant reduction benefits, low pressure EGR suffers from strong non-linearities and delays which are difficult to handle, leading to a diminish of the engine performance. Measurement and observation of oxygen concentration at the intake might be critical for transition phases (from low pressure to high pressure EGR). The present paper analyses different sensor configurations, that are currently available in commercial vehicles, and combines observation techniques and sensor models to determine the potential of each configuration. Experimental results from a 2.2 diesel engine are used to validate the presented techniques
Technical Paper

Right the First Time: Cloud-based Cyber-Physical System for Data Acquisition and Remote Diagnostics to Optimize the Service Quality

2021-04-06
2021-01-0158
This paper describes the components of a cloud-based Cyber-Physical System (CPS) for data acquisition and remote diagnostics, their interconnection, and their interaction. The CPS serves the purpose of merging several data sources so that the service quality can meet the Right-the-First-Time target. With the increasing complexity of the automotive E/E systems, the online support of the workshop mechanic by an experienced technician also helps to reach the target, whereby the technician has access to fleet data sets and diagnosis expert systems with complex guided fault finding procedures. The data acquisition system consists of a TCU that is permanently installed in the vehicle. It autonomously reads CAN signals and requests diagnostic data via OBD and UDS communication protocols. The TCU records the position (GPS), the acceleration and the motion direction of the vehicle and transfers all the data as MQTT packages via LTE in the Cloud.
Technical Paper

3beLiEVe: towards delivering the next generation of LMNO Li-ion battery cells and packs fit for electric vehicle applications of 2025 and beyond

2021-04-06
2021-01-0768
This paper aims at providing the scientific community with an overview of the H2020 European project 3beLiEVe and of its early achievements. 3beLiEVe has the objective of delivering the next generation Lithium-Nickel-Manganese-Oxide (LNMO) cells, in line with the performance objectives of the “generation 3b” Li-ion battery cells, as per EU SET-plan Action 7.
Technical Paper

Functional Safety & Safety Critical Systems - An Overview

2021-04-06
2021-01-0157
Advances in technology have continued to drive increased automation, and with it the capability and necessity to respond to adverse conditions in a controlled manner. As the automotive industry implements capabilities such as autopilot, adaptive cruise control, lane-keep assist, etc., with the ultimate goal of achieving fully autonomous vehicles, functional safety becomes increasingly relevant. One of the main aspects of functional safety is identifying risks and hazards associated with these different capabilities and implementing corresponding safety functions in these systems. Hazards may occur as a result of hardware or software failures, environmental conditions, or driver error. Modern vehicles are expected to accurately detect and diagnose these problems and quickly deploy an appropriate reaction that minimizes the risk to human life.
Technical Paper

A Study on Functional Safety, SOTIF and RSS from the Perspective of Human-Automation Interaction

2021-04-06
2021-01-0858
As perhaps the primary conduit of the physical expression of human freedom of movement, transportation in its various forms plays a critical role in human society. The availability of ready transport has shaped the fabric, infrastructure, and, to some degree, even the culture of whole human society. Now, automated driving technology is promising a safe, efficient, and productive life to humans by relieving human driver from active driving tasks in the context of road transportation system. However, recent high-profile crashes, e.g. fatalities involving automated driving system like Uber test autonomous vehicle or Tesla car, have undermined the automated-driving promise of enhanced safety. Still, safety standards like ISO 26262 and several others in-development are expected to mitigate the risk resulting from automated driving technology.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of Injection Pressure Variation in Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2021-04-06
2021-01-0517
Compression-ignited engines are still considered the most efficient and reliable technology for automotive applications. However, the increasingly stringent emission regulations, which severely limit the production of NOx, particulate matter and CO2, hinder the use of diesel-like fuels. As a matter of fact, the spontaneous ignition of directly-injected Diesel leads to a combustion process that is heterogeneous by nature, therefore characterized by the simultaneous production of particulate matter and NOx. In this scenario, several innovative combustion techniques have been investigated over the past years, the goal being to benefit from the high thermal efficiency of compression-ignited engines, which results from high Compression Ratio, diluted/lean mixture and unthrottled operation, while simultaneously mitigating the amount of pollutant emissions.
Technical Paper

Benefits of Semi-Analytical Model Polymer Techniques (SAMP-1 with GISSMO failure) for crashworthiness of critical thermoplastic automotive structural parts

2021-04-06
2021-01-0352
The emergence of thermoplastics in automotive structural parts is constantly increasing as designers recognize the benefits thermoplastics bring, such as lightweighting, cost effectiveness, the ability to integrate parts the flexibility to design intricate shapes, and the materials’ high specific energy absorption capacity. In order to predict the behavior of plastics by simulation using finite elemental analysis (FEA) tools such as LS-DYNA®1, an extensive understanding of properties and implementation using FEA is very important. In order to obtain reliable results from simulation, the FEA solver should support material models which predict the behavior of plastics accurately. LS-DYNA® supports several material models which are used to predict behavior of plastics, and one, the Semi-Analytical Model for Polymers (SAMP-1 with GISSMO failure), was developed exclusively for plastics.
Technical Paper

Dual-recliner ABTS Seats in Severe Rear Sled Tests with the 5th, 50th and 95th Hybrid III

2021-04-06
2021-01-0917
The strength of seats has increased over the past four decades, which includes a transition to dual recliners. There are performance issues with stiff ABTS (All Belts to Seat) and very strong seats in rear impacts with different occupant sizes and physical conditions. In this study, eight rear sled tests were conducted in four series: 1) ABTS in a 56 km/h (35 mph) test with a 50th Hybrid III ATD (Anthropometric Test Device) at MGA, 2) dual-recliner ABTS and F-150 in a 56 km/h (35 mph) test with a 5th female Hybrid III ATD at Ford, 3) dual-recliner ABTS in a 48 km/h (30 mph) test with a 95th Hybrid III ATD leaning inboard at CAPE and 4) dual-recliner ABTS and Escape in 40 km/h (25 mph) in-position and out-of-position tests with a 50th Hybrid III ATD at Ford. The sled tests showed that single-recliner ABTS seats twist in severe rear impacts with the pivot side deformed more rearward than the stanchion side.
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