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Technical Paper

Assessing the Structural Feasibility and Recyclability of Flax/PLA Bio-Composites for Enhanced Sustainability

2024-06-01
2024-26-0407
Bio-composites have gained significant attention within the aerospace industry due to their potential as a sustainable solution that addresses the demand for lightweight materials with reduced environmental impact. These materials blend natural fibers sourced from renewable origins, such as plant-based fibers, with polymer matrices to fabricate composite materials that exhibit desirable mechanical properties and environmental friendliness. The aerospace sector's growing interest in bio-composites originates from those composites’ capacity to mitigate the industry's carbon footprint and decrease dependence on finite resources. This study aims to investigate the suitability of utilizing plant derived flax fabric/PLA (polylactic acid) matrix-based bio-composites in aerospace applications, as well as the recyclability potential of these composites in the circular manufacturing economy.
Technical Paper

Elastomeric Swaging Finite Element Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Structural Integrity of Internal Swaged Joints

2024-06-01
2024-26-0428
In applications demanding high performance under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature, a range of Mechanically Attached Fittings (MAFs) is offered by various Multinational Corporations (MNCs). These engineered fittings have been innovatively designed to meet the rigorous requirements of the aerospace industry, offering a cost-effective and lightweight alternative to traditional methods such as brazing, welding, or other mechanically attached tube joints. One prominent method employed for attaching these fittings to tubing is through Internal Swaging, a mechanical technique. This process involves the outward formation of rigid tubing into grooves within the fitting. One of the methods with which this intricate operation is achieved is by using a drawbolt - expander assembly within an elastomeric swaging machine.
Technical Paper

Selective Laser Melting based Additive Manufacturing Process Diagnostics using In-line Monitoring Technique and Laser-Material Interaction Model

2024-06-01
2024-26-0420
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) has gained widespread usage in aviation, aerospace, and die manufacturing due to its exceptional capacity for producing intricate metal components of highly complex geometries. Nevertheless, the instability inherent in the SLM process frequently results in irregularities in the quality of the fabricated components. As a result, this hinders the continuous progress and wider acceptance of SLM technology. Addressing these challenges, in-process quality control strategies during SLM operations have emerged as effective remedies for mitigating the quality inconsistencies found in the final components. This study focuses on utilizing optical emission spectroscopy and IR thermography to continuously monitor and analyze the SLM process within the powder bed, with the aim of strengthening process control and minimizing defects.
Training / Education

Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFM/DFA)

2024-05-16
This course is verified by Probitas as meeting the AS9104/3A requirements for Continuing Professional Development. This course provides both a functional understanding of the principles involved in conducting a Design for Manufacture/Design for Assembly (DFM/DFA) study and the process for implementing a DFM/DFA culture into the organization.
Training / Education

Design for Manufacturing & Assembly (DFM/DFA)

2024-05-13
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM+A), pioneered by Boothroyd and Dewhurst, has been used by many companies around the world to develop creative product designs that use optimal manufacturing and assembly processes. Correctly applied, DFM+A analysis leads to significant reductions in production cost, without compromising product time-to-market goals, functionality, quality, serviceability, or other attributes. In this two-day course, you will not only learn the Boothroyd Dewhurst Method, you will actually apply it to your own product design!
Technical Paper

Effect of Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing on Strength Behaviour of Automotive Alloy Wheel

2024-04-09
2024-01-2736
Strength, creep and fatigue of the chassis components are greatly influenced by the material used and its manufacturing process. Alloy wheel is one of the critical chassis components manufactured using the casting process. Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) is one of the important microstructural parameters generated during the solidification stage of the casting process. SDAS has a significant role in altering the mechanical properties and the behavior of the component. Variation in solidification time and alloy composition will have a major impact in SDAS. The combined effect of SDAS with microstructural variations and the strength behavior has not been studied in earlier literature for an alloy wheel. The scope of this study is to perform casting simulation for an alloy wheel, predict the SDAS and capture the variation of mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength & elongation).
Technical Paper

A Special User Shell Element for Coarse Mesh and High-Fidelity Fatigue Modeling of Spot-Welded Structures

2024-04-09
2024-01-2254
A special spot weld element (SWE) is presented for simplified representation of spot joints in complex structures for structural durability evaluation using the mesh-insensitive structural stress method. The SWE is formulated using rigorous linear four-node Mindlin shell elements with consideration of weld region kinematic constraints and force/moments equilibrium conditions. The SWEs are capable of capturing all major deformation modes around weld region such that rather coarse finite element mesh can be used in durability modeling of complex vehicle structures without losing any accuracy. With the SWEs, all relevant traction structural stress components around a spot weld nugget can be fully captured in a mesh-insensitive manner for evaluation of multiaxial fatigue failure.
Technical Paper

Distribution of In-Vehicle Task Element Times for Determining Task Distraction and Ease of Use

2024-04-09
2024-01-2505
Often, when assessing the distraction or ease of use of an in-vehicle task (such as entering a destination using the street address method), the first question is “How long does the task take, on average.” Mean static (while parked) task times can be estimated by summing times for the included task elements (e.g., press a button) from SAE J2365 or similar datasets. Times for the occlusion conditions in J2365 and the NHTSA Distraction Guidelines can be determined using Pettit’s Method or Purucker’s Method. These first approximations of mean task times are reasonable and can be determined quickly. The next question usually is “How likely is it that the task will exceed some limit.” Discrete event simulations such as IMPRINT can provide the answer. Unfortunately, those simulations require the distribution types and parameters (mean, standard deviation, etc.) for each task element, which generally are not available in the published literature for in-vehicle tasks (e.g., SAE J2365).
Technical Paper

Topology and Build Orientation Optimization for Additive Manufacturing: Influence of Printing on Raft and Build Plate

2024-04-09
2024-01-2572
As additive manufacturing technology advances, it is becoming a more feasible option for fabricating highly complex, lightweight structures in the automotive industry. To take advantage of the improved design freedom and to reduce support structures for the selected printing orientation, components must be designed specifically for additive manufacturing. A new approach for accomplishing this process combines topology and build orientation optimization, which aims to simultaneously determine the ideal build direction and component design to maximize stiffness and reduce additive manufacturing costs. Current techniques in literature are formulated for specific categories of additive manufacturing: either methods that print on a support structure raft or print directly on the build plate. However, these two categories have very different relationships between part orientation and support structure, resulting in distinct optimal orientations for each additive manufacturing category.
Technical Paper

New Solution for Material Damage Characterization of CFRP Laminate with Filament Winding Structure Using a Hexagonal-Shaped Mandrel

2024-04-09
2024-01-2884
CFRP manufactured by a filament winding process has a unique laminate structure. So far, a material damage model applied to design CFRP component manufactured by FW process was identified using a material property of a CFRP flat plate laminated unidirectionally with predetermined angle. However, from these material properties the effect of filament winding structure cannot be evaluated nor can be introduced to the material model. In this study, a newly hexagonal shaped mandrel with flat parts on the cylinder and dome region of the high-pressure vessel was devised and a procedure of a flat plate laminate with filament winding structure was proposed. Filament winding structure on a flat surface by this method matched well with that of the curved surface simulated by ComposCad. In addition, the FEM simulation result of meso-scale laminate coupon model using material damage model obtained from material property of coupon matched well with the experimental result. 
Technical Paper

Rivet resistance spot welding - a flexible manufacturing technique for the aluminum/FRPs-steel multi-material body structures

2024-04-09
2024-01-2071
Automotive body structures are being increasingly made in multi-material system consisting of steel, aluminum (Al) and fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP). Therefore, many joining tech-niques such as self-piercing riveting (SPR) and adhesive bonding have been developed. On the other hand, OEMs want to minimize the number of joining techniques to reduce the manufacturing complexity. Amount all joining methods, resistance Spot welding (RSW) is the most advanced and cost-effective one for body-in-white. However, RSW cannot be applied for joining dissimilar materials. Therefore, a novel Rivet Resistance Spot Welding method (RRSW) was developed in which Al or FRP Components can be directly welded to steel structures with existing welding systems. RRSW uses rivet-like steel elements as a welding adapter which are formed into Al or FRP components dur-ing their forming process. After that, they are welded to the steel components by RSW. This paper shows at first the results on Steel – Al RRSW.
Technical Paper

Virtual Chip Test and Washer Simulation for Machining Chip Cleanliness Management Using Particle-Based CFD

2024-04-09
2024-01-2730
Metal cutting/machining is a widely used manufacturing process for producing high-precision parts at a low cost and with high throughput. In the automotive industry, common engine components such as cylinder heads or cylinder blocks are all manufactured using such processes. Despite its cost benefits, manufacturers often face the problem of machining chips and cutting oil residue remaining on the finished surface after machining operations, and these wastes can be very difficult to clean. While part cleaning/washing equipment suppliers often claim that their washers have superior performance, determining the washing efficiency is challenging without knowledge of chip clogging locations and water jet flow patterns. In this paper, a virtual engineering methodology using particle-based CFD is developed to manage the metal chip cleanliness issue resulting from engine component machining operations. This methodology comprises two simulation methods.
Technical Paper

Parameter Optimization and Characterization of Aluminum-Copper Laser Welded Joints

2024-04-09
2024-01-2428
As the automotive industry accelerates its shift towards electric vehicles (EVs) in order to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, there is an escalating need for innovative approaches in manufacturing critical components, particularly battery packs. Battery packs of electric vehicles are typically composed of lithium-ion batteries with aluminum and copper acting as cell terminals. These terminals are joined together in series by means of connector tabs to accommodate sufficient power and energy output. These critical electrical and structural cell terminal connections involve several challenges when joining the thin, highly reflective and dissimilar materials with widely differing thermo-mechanical properties. This may involve potential deformation during the joining process, the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds with reduced conductivity and inferior mechanical properties.
Technical Paper

Development of the IIHS side impact crashworthiness evaluation deformable barrier 2.0 dynamic test protocol

2024-04-09
2024-01-2510
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) introduced its updated side impact ratings test in 2020 to address nearly 5,000 fatalities occurring annually on US roads. Research for the updated test indicated that the most promising avenue to address the remaining real-world injuries is a higher severity vehicle-to-vehicle test using a striking barrier representing a sport-utility vehicle (SUV). A multi-stiffness aluminum honeycomb barrier was developed to match these conditions. The complexity of a multi-stiffness barrier design warranted research into developing a dynamic certification test procedure to ensure uniform performance of the finished product. The current study outlines the process to develop a dynamic barrier certification protocol. The final configuration includes a stationary rigid inverted T-shaped fixture mounted to a load cell wall impacted by the updated IIHS side moving deformable barrier at 30 km/h.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Yaw Rate Regulation for Moderate Understeer in Four-Wheel Steering Vehicles with Zero Sideslip Angle

2024-04-09
2024-01-2516
The pursuit of maintaining a zero sideslip angle has long driven the development of four-wheel-steering (4WS) technology, enhancing vehicle directional performance, as supported by extensive studies. However, strict adherence to this principle often leads to excessive understeer characteristics before tire saturation limits are reached, resulting in counter-intuitive and uncomfortable steering maneuvers during turns with variable speeds. This research delves into the phenomenon encountered when a 4WS-equipped vehicle enters a curved path while simultaneously decelerating, necessitating a reduction in steering input to adapt to the increasing road curvature. To address this challenge, this paper presents a novel method for dynamically regulating the steady-state yaw rate of 4WS vehicles. This regulation aims to decrease the vehicle's sideslip angle and provide controlled understeer within predetermined limits.
Technical Paper

Design of an In-Plane Shear Test for Fracture Characterization of High Ductility Metals

2024-04-09
2024-01-2858
Fracture characterization of automotive metals under simple shear deformation is critical for the calibration of advanced fracture models employed in forming and crash simulations. Great strides in shear fracture characterization have been made over the past decade with several novel geometries proposed. However, in-plane shear tests of high ductility materials have proved challenging since the edge fails first in uniaxial tension before the shear fracture limit is reached in the center of the sample. Although through-thickness machining is undesirable, particularly for extrusions and castings, it appears required to promote higher strains within the shear zone to avoid edge cracking in materials where the shear fracture limit significantly exceeds that of uniaxial tension. The objective of the present study is to adapt existing in-plane shear geometries, which have otherwise been successful for many automotive materials, to have a local shear zone with a reduced thickness.
Technical Paper

Performance comparison between different battery architectures with cell-to-cell variations

2024-04-09
2024-01-2195
A 300 mile-range automotive battery pack is comprised of many individual cells connected in series/parallel to make up the required voltage, energy, and power. The cell groupings can take the form of parallel strings of series cell groups (S-P), series string of parallel cell groups (P-S), or a hybrid of the two. Though the different battery configurations deliver identical output voltage and energy, they exhibit varying cell level behaviors due to differing electrical structure, particularly when cell imbalance occurs. In this work, we explore the relative merits of various cell grouping configurations using a model-based approach. The emphasis of the study is to evaluate the impact of electrical variation between cell-to-cell, originating from cell manufacturing process variation, battery assembly (laser tab bonding) process variation or from normal operation, on the performance of the battery pack. A first-order equivalent circuit model is used to represent a lithium-ion cell.
Technical Paper

Threaded Joints Pre-Load Enhancement

2024-04-09
2024-01-2652
THREADED JOINTS ARE CONSIDERED THE MOST BASIC OF COMPONENTS. ALTHOUGH IN USE FOR OVER A CENTURY, SIGNIFICANT PROBLEMS STILL EXIST WITH THEIR USAGE. WHEEL BOLT LOOSENING IN OVERLOADED SEGMENTS SUCH AS HD TIPPERS AND HIGH-SPEED INTERCITY BUSES POSES A SAFETY CHALLENGE FOR DRIVERS, PASSENGERS AND PEDESTRIANS. WHEEL BOLT/NUT LOOSENING IS A NOTABLE CAUSE OF SERVICE, FRETTING, AND CRACKS IN THE MATING COMPONENTS CONTRIBUTING A SIGNIFICANT CHUNK OF WARRANTY COST TO THE COMPANY. THE NEED OF THE HOUR IS TO REINFORCE THESE JOINTS WHILE KEEPING RESOURCES AT BAY. THIS PAPER ESTABLISHES A METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION AND DESIGN OF A SAFE WHEEL BOLT JOINT INTERFACE INCLUDING KEY PARAMETERS SUCH AS EMBEDDING, AXIAL FORCES, SHEAR FORCES AND BEARING SURFACE AREA STRESSES. TO OBTAIN THE MINIMUM PRELOAD REQUIREMENT FOR A WHEEL BOLT JOINT TO HOLD THE BOLTED SURFACES INTACT, WHICH IF NOT MAINTAINED OTHERWISE WOULD CAUSE RELATIVE MOVEMENT, PLAY, SHEAR LOAD ONTO THE BOLT, AND EVENTUALLY FAILURE.
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