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Training / Education

AS13004 Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plans

2021-05-18
In the Aerospace Industry there is a growing focus on Defect Prevention to ensure that quality goals are met. Process Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plan activities described in AS13004 are recognized as being one of the most effective, on the journey to Zero Defects. This two-day course is designed to explain the core tools of Process Flow Diagrams, Process Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plans as described in AS13004. It will show the links to other quality tools such as Design FMEA, Characteristics Matrix and Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA).
Training / Education

Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFM/DFA)

2021-02-15
This seminar provides both a functional understanding of the principles involved in conducting a Design for Manufacture/Design for Assembly (DFM/DFA) study and the process for implementing a DFM/DFA culture into the organization. DFM/DFA principles can apply to both manual and automated processes resulting in significant cost savings through not only simpler designs with fewer components but also analyses workstation setup and workflow, part orientations during build, and design considerations such as component placement, tolerancing and servicing considerations.
Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Training / Education

Design for Manufacturing & Assembly (DFM/DFA)

2020-10-06
Discounted pricing is in effect during the COVID-19 pandemic. Registration fees of $1355 applies to the special live, online August 3, 2020 offering. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM+A), pioneered by Boothroyd and Dewhurst, has been used by many companies around the world to develop creative product designs that use optimal manufacturing and assembly processes. Correctly applied, DFM+A analysis leads to significant reductions in production cost, without compromising product time-to-market goals, functionality, quality, serviceability, or other attributes.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Setup for Investigations on the Boundary Layer Dynamics

2020-10-05
2020-01-1617
The frictional behavior of a tribological contact is influenced by the dynamics in the forming boundary layer. Recurring structures, built up through self-organizing effects, were found in various frictional systems. To investigate those phenomena on a macroscopic scale and to better understand dynamical processes such as the formation and decay of contact patches, the first revision of the Wear Debris Investigator (WDI) was introduced in 2017. A friction gap is formed between two coaxial horizontally arranged discs. To mimic the presence of particles, artificial wear dust is fed into the gap. With a camera the formation of the boundary layer is recorded in situ. An implemented normal force and torque sensor enables to recognize correlations between the formed boundary layer and the occurring frictional forces. Numerous measurements revealed an insufficient precision of the previous WDI.
Technical Paper

Numerical Characterization of Brake System Cooling, Aerodynamic, and Particle Soiling Performances under Driving Conditions

2020-10-05
2020-01-1622
Effective cooling of a heated brake system is critical for vehicle safety and reliability. While some flow devices can redirect airflow more favorably for convective cooling, such a change typically accompanies side effects, such as increased aerodynamic drag and inferior control of brake dust particles. The former is critical for fuel efficiency while the latter for vehicle’s soiling and corrosion as well as non-exhaust emissions. These competing objectives are assessed in this study based on the numerical simulations of an installed brake system under driving conditions. The thermal behavior of the brake system as well as aerodynamic impact and brake dust particle deposition on areas of interest are solved using a coupled 3D transient flow solver, PowerFLOW. Typical design considerations related to enhanced brake cooling, such as cooling duct, wheel deflector, and brake air deflector, are characterized to evaluate the thermal, aerodynamic and soiling performance targets.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Resolution of Vehicle Brake Judder

2020-10-05
2020-01-1609
One of the major discomforts while driving any medium to heavy commercial vehicle is brake judder. Brake juddering can be defined as vibrations felt on steering wheel or brake pedal or cabin floor, when brakes are applied at certain speeds and pressures. The frequencies of this judder lie as high as 500 Hz to as low as 10Hz. The brake juddering can be caused by a number of factors because of which providing universal solution only from brakes point of view is difficult. Some of the causes are related to part fitment, part quality, material selection, manufacturing process, Design consideration, environmental factors, peripheral aggregates etc. This paper gives us a brief idea about resolution of juddering problem in intermediate commercial vehicle by DOE method, and this methodology can be applied in heavy commercial vehicles also.
Technical Paper

Micro-Macro Acoustic Modeling of Heterogeneous Foams with Nucleation Perturbation

2020-09-30
2020-01-1526
The properties of a polyurethane foam are greatly influenced by the addition of graphite particles during the manufacturing process, initially used as a fire retardant. These thin solid particles perturbate the nucleation process by generating bubbles in its immediate vicinity. The preponderance of work so far has focused on foams that are locally relatively homogeneous. We propose a model for locally inhomogeneous foams (including membrane effects) consisting of a random stack of spheres that permits one to represent certain pore size distribution functions. The cellular structure of the foam is obtained through a Laguerre tessellation and the solid skeleton determined from the minimization of surface energy (Surface Evolver). The structure of real foam samples is analyzed using X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy followed by image processing to create computerized three-dimensional models of the samples.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics on Nondestructive Testing of Additively Manufactured Parts in the Mobility Industry

2020-09-30
EPR2020018
This SAE EDGE Research Report identifies key unsettled definitions of the role of smart assembly tools in the Industry 4.0 world. “Smart” refers to tools that are “specific, measurable, achievable, reasonable/realistic, and time bound.” Smart assembly tools are used in all industries, including automotive, aerospace, and space. These tools are employed for measuring, inspecting, gauging, drilling, and installing all existing fastening systems. The role of an assembly tool inside the Industry 4.0 environment is quite important as the smart, intelligent assembly tools have an enablement function. Smart assembly tools have a huge influence on Information and Communication Technology (ICT), assembly cost reduction, process control, and even the product and process quality. These four four domains—and their undefined nature—are the focus of this SAE EDGE Research Report.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Technical Paper

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

2020-09-30
2020-01-1549
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

An Active Safety System Able to Counter Aquaplaning, Integrated With Sensorized Tires, ADAS and 5G Technology for Both Human-Driven and Autonomous Vehicles

2020-09-27
2020-24-0019
Autonomous vehicles must guarantee safety in all road conditions, including driving on wet roads. Aquaplaning (or hydroplaning) is a phenomenon known since the beginning of automotive history, never solved by an active safety system. Currently, no countermeasure system on the market is able to effectively counteract aquaplaning: ABS, ESP or TCS are still inefficient in overcoming this situation. Latest statistical data confirm that the higher percentage of accidents, injuries and deaths are caused by wet road conditions. The aquaplaning happens when the water on the road is too much and the tires start to float causing the instantaneous loss of control. Such phenomenon occurs in human-driven vehicles, with the responsibility of the driver, but in autonomous vehicles (e.g. Level 5), the responsibility for the safety depends on the car and the reduction of the speed is not a solution.
Technical Paper

Methods to Control Curing Induced Distortion in Hybrid Joining of Dissimilar Metals

2020-09-25
2020-28-0401
In lightweight structures with dissimilar metal designs, structural adhesive joining is a potential joining method. Adhesives help in reducing galvanic corrosion by minimizing physical contact between two dissimilar metals. Along with adhesives, fasteners are often used as a secondary joining method to hold the assembly together during adhesive curing. Therefore, a hybrid joint which is a combination of adhesives and mechanical fasteners is potential joining method to join dissimilar metals. However, when two dissimilar metals such as aluminum to steel are joined with hybrid joint by adhesive curing at elevated temperature, the distortion of assembly is observed when cooled at room temperature. This is due to the mismatch between coefficients of thermal expansion of aluminum vs steel. The adhesive may also experience residual stress and fracture. In this study, adhesive curing induced distortion is studied using 1.1 meter long specimens of aluminum to steel hybrid joint assembly.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on Biogas Production from Waste Press Mud and Cow Dung under Anaerobic Condition

2020-09-25
2020-28-0467
Anaerobic digestion of textile wastes under mesophilic conditions were conducted in batch mode with aim of investigating the bio-methane evolution with an initial solid mass of cow dung – 2 kg, cotton and water in 3:1 ratio and press mud is use in the ratio 3:1 with water were evaluated subsequently for 7 weeks (42 days).The highest production of biogas is noted as 3 m3 in fourth week and the higher production of biogas due to press mud is noted as 0.49 in the fifth week.Carbon dioxide is produced as bi product in this bio digestion process. Highest production rate of methane,biogas and carbon dioxide are in their fourth week. Through this experiment 65%-75% of bio gas is collected by the fourth week.
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