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Training / Education

AS13004 Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plans

2021-05-18
In the Aerospace Industry there is a growing focus on Defect Prevention to ensure that quality goals are met. Process Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plan activities described in AS13004 are recognized as being one of the most effective, on the journey to Zero Defects. This two-day course is designed to explain the core tools of Process Flow Diagrams, Process Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plans as described in AS13004. It will show the links to other quality tools such as Design FMEA, Characteristics Matrix and Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA).
Training / Education

Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFM/DFA)

2021-02-15
This seminar provides both a functional understanding of the principles involved in conducting a Design for Manufacture/Design for Assembly (DFM/DFA) study and the process for implementing a DFM/DFA culture into the organization. DFM/DFA principles can apply to both manual and automated processes resulting in significant cost savings through not only simpler designs with fewer components but also analyses workstation setup and workflow, part orientations during build, and design considerations such as component placement, tolerancing and servicing considerations.
Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

2020-10-30
2020-32-2313
The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Investigations on NOx and Smoke Emissions Reduction Potential through Diesel-Water Emulsion and Water Fumigation in a Small Bore Diesel Engine

2020-10-30
2020-32-2312
In the present work, a relative comparison of addition of water to diesel through emulsion and fumigation methods is explored for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions in a production small bore diesel engine. The water to diesel ratio was kept the same in both the methods at a lower concentration of 3% by mass to avoid any adverse effects on the engine system components. The experiments were conducted at a rated engine speed of 1500 rpm under varying load conditions. A stable water-diesel emulsion was prepared using a combination of equal proportions (1:1 by volume) of Span 80 and Tween 80. The mixture of Span 80 in diesel and Tween 80 in water was homogenized using an IKA Ultra Turrax homogenizer with tip stator diameter 18mm at 5000 rpm for 2 minutes. The water-in-diesel emulsions thus formulated were kinetically stable and appeared translucent. No phase separation was observed on storage for approximately 105 days.
Training / Education

Design for Manufacturing & Assembly (DFM/DFA)

2020-10-06
Discounted pricing is in effect during the COVID-19 pandemic. Registration fees of $1355 applies to the special live, online August 3, 2020 offering. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM+A), pioneered by Boothroyd and Dewhurst, has been used by many companies around the world to develop creative product designs that use optimal manufacturing and assembly processes. Correctly applied, DFM+A analysis leads to significant reductions in production cost, without compromising product time-to-market goals, functionality, quality, serviceability, or other attributes.
Technical Paper

Enclosure-In-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1634
Measuring brake emission is still a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing. Updates of work in progress are presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emit in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguished from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. However, reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm³ appeared to be quite challenging.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Setup for Investigations on the Boundary Layer Dynamics

2020-10-05
2020-01-1617
The frictional behavior of a tribological contact is influenced by the dynamics in the forming boundary layer. Recurring structures, built up through self-organizing effects, were found in various frictional systems. To investigate those phenomena on a macroscopic scale and to better understand dynamical processes such as the formation and decay of contact patches, the first revision of the Wear Debris Investigator (WDI) was introduced in 2017. A friction gap is formed between two coaxial horizontally arranged discs. To mimic the presence of particles, artificial wear dust is fed into the gap. With a camera the formation of the boundary layer is recorded in situ. An implemented normal force and torque sensor enables to recognize correlations between the formed boundary layer and the occurring frictional forces. Numerous measurements revealed an insufficient precision of the previous WDI.
Technical Paper

Numerical Characterization of Brake System Cooling, Aerodynamic, and Particle Soiling Performances under Driving Conditions

2020-10-05
2020-01-1622
Effective cooling of a heated brake system is critical for vehicle safety and reliability. While some flow devices can redirect airflow more favorably for convective cooling, such a change typically accompanies side effects, such as increased aerodynamic drag and inferior control of brake dust particles. The former is critical for fuel efficiency while the latter for vehicle’s soiling and corrosion as well as non-exhaust emissions. These competing objectives are assessed in this study based on the numerical simulations of an installed brake system under driving conditions. The thermal behavior of the brake system as well as aerodynamic impact and brake dust particle deposition on areas of interest are solved using a coupled 3D transient flow solver, PowerFLOW. Typical design considerations related to enhanced brake cooling, such as cooling duct, wheel deflector, and brake air deflector, are characterized to evaluate the thermal, aerodynamic and soiling performance targets.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Resolution of Vehicle Brake Judder

2020-10-05
2020-01-1609
One of the major discomforts while driving any medium to heavy commercial vehicle is brake judder. Brake juddering can be defined as vibrations felt on steering wheel or brake pedal or cabin floor, when brakes are applied at certain speeds and pressures. The frequencies of this judder lie as high as 500 Hz to as low as 10Hz. The brake juddering can be caused by a number of factors because of which providing universal solution only from brakes point of view is difficult. Some of the causes are related to part fitment, part quality, material selection, manufacturing process, Design consideration, environmental factors, peripheral aggregates etc. This paper gives us a brief idea about resolution of juddering problem in intermediate commercial vehicle by DOE method, and this methodology can be applied in heavy commercial vehicles also.
Technical Paper

A Generic Testbody for Low-Frequency Aeroacoustic Buffeting

2020-09-30
2020-01-1515
Raising demands towards lightweight design paired with a loss of originally predominant engine noise pose significant challenges for NVH engineers in the automotive industry. From an aeroacoustic point of view, low frequency buffeting ranks among the most frequently encountered issues. The phenomenon typically arises due to structural transmission of aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations and/or, as indicated in this work, through rear vent excitation. A possible workflow to simulate structure-excited buffeting contains a strongly coupled vibro-acoustic model for structure and interior cavity excited by a spatial pressure distribution obtained from a CFD simulation. In the case of rear vent buffeting no validated workflow has been published yet. While approaches have been made to simulate the problem for a real-car geometry such attempts suffer from tremendous computation costs, meshing effort and lack of flexibility.
Technical Paper

Micro-Macro Acoustic Modeling of Heterogeneous Foams with Nucleation Perturbation

2020-09-30
2020-01-1526
The properties of a polyurethane foam are greatly influenced by the addition of graphite particles during the manufacturing process, initially used as a fire retardant. These thin solid particles perturbate the nucleation process by generating bubbles in its immediate vicinity. The preponderance of work so far has focused on foams that are locally relatively homogeneous. We propose a model for locally inhomogeneous foams (including membrane effects) consisting of a random stack of spheres that permits one to represent certain pore size distribution functions. The cellular structure of the foam is obtained through a Laguerre tessellation and the solid skeleton determined from the minimization of surface energy (Surface Evolver). The structure of real foam samples is analyzed using X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy followed by image processing to create computerized three-dimensional models of the samples.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection on Combustion of a Turbocharged GDI Engine

2020-09-27
2020-24-0003
This work focuses on the effects of cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection observed by conducting experimental tests consisting mainly of Spark Advance sweeps at different cooled LP-EGR and WI rates. The implications on combustion and main engine performance indexes are then analysed and modelled with a control-oriented approach, showing that combustion duration and phase and exhaust gas temperature are the main affected parameters. Results show that cooled LP-EGR and WI have similar effects, being the associated combustion speed decrease the main cause of exhaust gas temperature reduction. Experimental data is used to identify control-oriented polynomial models able to capture the effects of LP-EGR and WI on both these aspects. The limitations of LP-EGR are also explored, identifying maximum compressor volumetric flow and combustion stability as the main ones.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study Assessing the Viability of Shifting the Location of Peak In-Cylinder Pressure in Motored Experiments

2020-09-27
2020-24-0009
Some hybrid powertrains utilize an engine to benefit from the power density of the liquid fuel while the electric machine; for transient needs, for very low loads and where legislation prohibits any gaseous and particulate emissions. Consequently, the operating drive cycle of an engine also shifted from its conventional, broad range of speed and load to a narrower operating range of high thermal efficiency. This requires a drastic departure from conventional engine architecture, meaning that analytical models used to predict the behaviour of the engines early in the design cycle are no longer always applicable. Friction models are an example of sub-models which struggle with previously unexplored engine architectures. The pressurized motored method has proven to be a simple experimental setup which allows a robust FMEP determination against which engine friction simulation can be fine-tuned.
Technical Paper

Methods to Control Curing Induced Distortion in Hybrid Joining of Dissimilar Metals

2020-09-25
2020-28-0401
In lightweight structures with dissimilar metal designs, structural adhesive joining is a potential joining method. Adhesives help in reducing galvanic corrosion by minimizing physical contact between two dissimilar metals. Along with adhesives, fasteners are often used as a secondary joining method to hold the assembly together during adhesive curing. Therefore, a hybrid joint which is a combination of adhesives and mechanical fasteners is potential joining method to join dissimilar metals. However, when two dissimilar metals such as aluminum to steel are joined with hybrid joint by adhesive curing at elevated temperature, the distortion of assembly is observed when cooled at room temperature. This is due to the mismatch between coefficients of thermal expansion of aluminum vs steel. The adhesive may also experience residual stress and fracture. In this study, adhesive curing induced distortion is studied using 1.1 meter long specimens of aluminum to steel hybrid joint assembly.
Technical Paper

Experimental studies on weldability of Oil Hardening Non Shrinking die steel

2020-09-25
2020-28-0424
The Oil Hardening Non Shrinking (OHNS) die steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited for making tools. Though these steels are weldable, there is risk of crack formation. But, this can be avoided with convinced specifications like pre heating, proper choice of electrode etc., In the present work, OHNS die steel is welded with three different electrodes. The chosen electrodes are mild steel electrode, E312-16 chromium based electrode and E-NiCrFe-3 nickel based electrode. The OHNS steel is welded with these three electrodes and the welded specimens were examined for hot cracking tendency and mechanical properties of the joint. The hot cracking tendency was assessed by Houldcroft`s weldability test (Fishbone test). All the three electrodes proved the good results in terms of hot crack resistance and the specimen welded with E312-16 chromium based electrode provides good mechanical properties.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of A Fighter Aircraft Cabin Temperature Control System Using Amesim

2020-09-25
2020-28-0497
Environmental Control System (ECS) of an aircraft is a complex system which operates classically in an air standard refrigeration cycle. ECS controls the temperature, pressure and flow of supply air to the cockpit, cabin or occupied compartments. The air cycle system of ECS takes engine bleed air as input. Parameters like bleed air pressure and temperature, mass flow, the external factors like ambient temperature, pressure, and aircraft attitude affect the performance of ECS to a large extent especially during transient. So, it is very important to consider the transient characteristics of these parameters in the design stage itself in order to ascertain the dynamic response of the system. This paper explains in detail the importance of transient input characteristics during the detailed design of ECS. A typical temperature control scheme for combat aircraft ECS has been studied and modeled in LMS AMESim.
Technical Paper

Self-assembled ZnO nanostructure by one step emulsion combustion synthesis

2020-09-25
2020-28-0510
Self- assembled ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a simple, rapid and costeffective emulsion combustion method. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures have a hexagonal wurtzite structure. TEM micrographs of the sample consisted of looped chains that were <1μm in length and consisted of 30-120 isometric 13-16 nm sized nanoparticles. The assembling of nanoparticles transforms from branched chain to linear network by increasing the molar concentration of oleic acid from 0.5 to 1.5. The linear network was <700 nm in length and width varies from 15-35 nm respectively. The optical band gap (Eg) of 3.34, 3.38 and 3.43 eV based on the absorption edge 371, 367 and 361 nm respectively. Magnetization study reveals that the ZnO sample exhibits diamagnetic behavior.
Technical Paper

Optimization and experimental analysis of Magnesium alloy (AZ91E) hybrid nano composite by drilling operation

2020-09-25
2020-28-0509
The usage of AZ91E series magnesium alloy material increases in the field of automobile, aero space and structural applications because of its enhanced mechanical properties, light weight and good machinability characteristics. The present investigation is to optimize the drilling process parameters of magnesium alloy (AZ91E) hybrid nano composite consisting of chopped basalt fiber (9wt%) and SiCnp(7.5wt%) fabricated by vacuum stirring technique.. AZ91E hybrid nano composite is drilled by M-Tab vertical machining centre equipped with CNC under dry state (without coolant). The dry state drilling operation was performed by HSS tool with varied input parameters like drill diameter (4mm, 6mm, 8mm and 10mm), drill diameter prevailing with spindle speed, feed rate and constant depth of cut. The effect of machining time, metal removal rate and surface roughness is evaluated and optimum level of drilling parameters is determined through taguchi technique.
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