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Technical Paper

High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat system for tractor sheet metal application.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2541
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Durability of Mold-In-Color Engineering Plastics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2542
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles.
Technical Paper

Occupant Controlled Ventilation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2461
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter.
Technical Paper

Banana Stem Based Activated Carbon as Filler in Polymer Composites for Automobile Applications

2019-10-11
2019-28-0093
Activated carbon was produced from a new part of banana plant namely true stem in this current research and used as fillers in polymer composites for automobile application. True stems of banana plants are the main wastes in banana or fruit markets which refer to the remains after banana fruits are removed from the supporting stems. Conversion of raw material into activated carbon particles is done by chemical and heat activation. The raw material used here were dried samples of banana plant’s true stem. This material was heated in a crucible at 400°C and then powdered. These crushed samples were activated using hydro-chloric acid at 120°C for 5 hours and finally in a furnace for thermal activation at 700°C for 1 hour. These particles were incorporated as fillers in composites at proportions of 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The activated carbon samples were characterized by determining its fixed carbon content and bulk density.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Areca and Tamarind fiber reinforced hybrid polymer composites for structural applications

2019-10-11
2019-28-0168
In recent years, natural fibers reinforced composites are used in various engineering arenas owing to its specific rewards like biodegradable, low cost, readily available, easy processing, less toxic and eco-friendly physiognomies. However, the commonly used E-glass fiber polymer composite was just inverse to the properties of the reported natural fibers. Therefore, in the present work discarded areca and tamarind fibers was collected, extracted, fabricated and evaluated for its overall performance and to implement it as an alternative for synthetic fiber composites. Composite specimens are fabricated with different proportions of fiber/matrix and investigated for their potentiality by exploring its mechanical, physical, chemical, water absorption and thermal properties as per standard test procedures. Moreover, the obtained areca and tamarind hybrid composite results are better than their individual based composites and in par with the existing synthetic fiber products.
Technical Paper

Machinability and parametric optimization of Inconel 600 using Taguchi-Desirability analysis under dry environment

2019-10-11
2019-28-0068
Inconel 600 is a face-centered cubic structure and nickel-chromium alloy. Alloy 600 has good resistance to oxidation, corrosion resistant, excellent mechanical properties and good creep rupture strength at higher temperature. Alloy 600 is used in chemical and food processing, heat treating, phenol condensers, soap manufacture, vegetable, and fatty acid vessels. In this context, the present paper investigates the machinability characteristics of Alloy 600 under dry environment. Also, the parametric effect of cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth on the force, surface roughness and tool wear are carried out using 3-Dimensional surface and 1-Dimensional plots. The optimal parameters are determined systematically based on Taguchi-desirability analysis with turned with TiAlN coated carbide insert. From the graphical analysis of collected data, the low rate of feed and moderate cutting for roughness and cutting force and average feed rate for tool wear with low cutting depth.
Technical Paper

Turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool applying vegetable-based cutting fluid mixed with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles by MQL

2019-10-11
2019-28-0060
Inconel 825 is nickel (Ni)-iron (Fe)-chromium (Cr) alloy with additions of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), and titanium (Ti). The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion and is often the most cost-effective alloy in sulphuric acid piping vessels and chemical process equipment. No attempt of applying MQL with the addition of nanoparticles was reported conferring to the works accessed. The present study is focused on evaluating the effect of the addition of nanoparticles (CUO, Al2O3 and CNT) in vegetable oil applied by MQL mode during turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool. Cutting force, surface roughness and tool wear are evaluated. The results showed that the addition of nCNT substantially improved the machining performance, smaller flank and crater wear on the tool edge, while the adhesion and abrasion are observed as wear mechanism and better results are obtained at 0.5% of nCNT+ vegetable oil to produce the lowest values.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Aluminium-Flyash Composite for Connecting Rod

2019-10-11
2019-28-0166
In this modern era of rapid growth of technology and need of economical machining processes and materials, there is an increasing demand for new materials for different mechanical applications. Composites with fly ash as reinforcement are likely to overcome the cost barrier for wide spread applications in automotive and small engine applications. To improve wettability, elements such as Mg and Si are added into Al melt to incorporate the ceramic particles. The chemical composition and engineering properties of fly ash, its physical and chemical properties make it an ideal raw material for producing various application based composites. The main objective this paper is to fabricate an aluminium- fly ash composite material suitable for parts like engine connecting rod which demand high strength and temperature sustainability at comparatively less weight. The composite will be made using casting process and Engine connecting rod will be designed in AutoCAD software.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Numerical Cold Flow Testing of Gas Turbine Combustor through an Integrated Approach using Rapid Prototyping and Water Tunnel

2019-10-11
2019-28-0051
In the present work, it is aimed at developing an integrated approach for combustor modeling involving rapid prototyping and water tunnel testing to assess the cold flow numerical simulations; the physical model will be subjected to cold flow visualization and parametric studies and CFD analysis to demonstrate its capability for undergoing rigorous cold flow testing. A straight through annular combustor is chosen for the present study because of it has low pressure drop, less weight and used widely in modern day aviation engines. Numerical Analysis has been performed using ANSYS-FLUENT. Three dimensional RANS equations are solved using k-ɛ model for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.64 x 10^5- 1.5 x 10^5 based on the annulus diameter. Post processing the results is done in terms of jet penetration, formation of re-circulation zone, effective mixing, flow split and pressure drop for different cases.
Technical Paper

Study of Mechanical Properties and Multi Response Optimization of Process Parameter for Showing Signs of Improvement Product Quality in Drilling of Alsi7cu4 Utilizing GRA in Taguchi Method

2019-10-11
2019-28-0058
Showing and streamlining of cutting parameters are a champion among the most essential components in drilling processes. This examination displays the change of drilling procedures parameters on AlSi7Cu4 made by Gravity Die Casting and with replies in light of OA with Taughi GRA and ANOVA. The effects of alloying parts were bear on the Chemical Composition, microstructures, mechanical property, Hardness, X-Ray and S Das response is particularly analyzed. Motivations on the progression of Drilling parameters using the Taguchi strategy to obtain slightest surface Roughness (Ra), Circularity Error, Burr size and Thrust Force. Different Drilling preliminaries were coordinated using the L9 OA on CNC Milling machine. The examinations were accomplished on AlSi7Cu4 composite piece cutting tool of an ISO 460.1-1140-034A0-XM GC3 of 12 mm measurement with Tool 140 degrees, used all through the preliminary work under dry cutting conditions.
Technical Paper

Design for Adaptive Rear floor carpet for changing shapes and complex architecture

2019-10-11
2019-28-0004
Floor carpets in vehicle find their use to hide the metal floor. It is primary designed to protect the floor of a vehicle from dirt, wear, BSR and salt corrosion. The paper presented here proposes an engineering solution for development of an adaptive carpet which can be commonly used across three variants. The three variants have different seating configurations and the mounting strategies are specifically designed to cater to the needs of the particular variant which requires the development of different rear carpets and underlay NVH felts. This requires heavy investment owing to the requirement of different tools. The paper demonstrates engineering one single Adaptive rear floor carpet meeting mounting requirement of all the three variants and also matching with the carryover front floor & carpet, door scuff plate, RQT and Rear Scuff plate. Single Underlay felt and single carpet is designed considering all three variants seat mounting configurations.
Technical Paper

Investigation of thermal shock resistance of CeO2 coating on Titanium alloy by magnetron sputtering

2019-10-11
2019-28-0103
Titanium alloy (Grade V) is used in aerospace, medical, marine and chemical processing industries. To improve the thermal shock resistance and corrosion resistance of the titanium alloy at elevated temperatures, Thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been predominantly used. Cerium oxides have been proposed as TBC, due to their high thermal expansion coefficient, higher thermal shock resistance, good adhesion strength, low corrosion rate and excellent tribological performance. In this study, CeO2 were coated on Titanium alloy by magnetron sputtering by varying the deposition time. The microstructure and mechanical properties of CeO2 coatings were systematically investigated. Deposition time was varied as 30 mins, 60 mins and 90 mins respectively, to achieve the variation in thickness of the coating on the substrate. The thickness of the coated specimen was measured by atomic force microscopy and found to be 500 nm, 180 nm and 70 nm respectively.
Technical Paper

A Coupled Lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume Method for the Thermal Transient Analysis of an Air Cooled Li-ion Battery Module for Electric Vehicles with Porous Media Insert Modeled at REV Scales

2019-10-07
2019-24-0242
Lithium ion batteries are the most promising candidates for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, owe to their ability to store higher electrical energy. As a matter of fact, in automotive applications, these batteries undergo frequent and fast charge and discharge processes, which are associated to internal heat generation, which in turns causes temperature increase. Thermal management is therefore crucial to keep temperature in an appropriate level for safe operation and battery wear prevention. In a recent work authors have already demonstrated the capabilities of a coupled lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume Method to deal with thermal transient of a three dimensional air-cooled Li-ion battery at different discharging rates and Reynolds numbers. Here, in order to improve discharge thermal capabilities and reduce temperature levels of the battery itself, a layer of porous medium is placed in contact with the battery so to replace a continuum solid aluminum layer.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Characteristic Comparison of Superconducting Synchronous Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

2019-09-16
2019-01-1912
Aircraft service has been increasing today and it also results in the increase of the greenhouse gas emission. To solve this problem, the electric aircraft propulsion system is the key solutions to realize the clean and high efficiency aircraft, while demanding higher output density motors. So far, though 5 kW/kg is realized with permanent magnet type synchronous motors, the electric aircraft for over 100 passengers demands motors with 16 -20 kW/kg. Superconducting (S.C.) technology is one of the effective candidates for higher output density motors. In comparison with copper wires, the S.C. wires have higher current density at less than –200 ℃. And we can make a lighter weight coil with the S.C. wires. So far, many groups have been studying the S.C. motors over 16 kW/kg. Generally, there are two kinds of S.C motors. One is the S.C. motors made of the S.C. field coils and copper armature windings. The other is the fully S.C. motors using S.C. field and armature windings.
Technical Paper

Chemical and Physical Characterization of Organic Particulate Matter from Last Generation Exhaust Aftertreatment System of Medium Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0053
Particulate Matter from Euro 6 Medium Duty diesel engine was analyzed from engine-out, downstream of particulate filter (DPF), and up to the exit of a selective catalytic reactor (SCR) to characterize its chemical and physical nature. Particular attention was devoted to the analysis of particles down to 23 nm. An array of chemical, physical and spectroscopic techniques (Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), mobility analyzer, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy) was applied for characterizing the organic particulate matter (PM, constituted of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), heavy aromatic compounds, soot) in the exhaust. The engine was operated at “full-load” (100% of the total power, representing the best performance of the engine operation) condition, and at different engine speeds. Results showed that the DPF efficiency was greater than 96% in the reduction of the sub 23 nm particles across the speeds range.
Technical Paper

Development of a Dedicated CNG Three-Way Catalyst Model in 1-D Simulation Platforms

2019-09-09
2019-24-0074
A growing interest in heavy-duty engines powered with CNG dictated by stringent regulations in terms of emissions, has made it essential to study a specific Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Oxygen storage phenomena characterize catalytic converter efficiency under real world driving operating conditions and, consequently, during strong dynamics in Air-to-Fuel (A/F) ratio. A numerical “quasi-steady” model has been set-up to simulate the chemical process inside the reactor. A dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in order to evaluate the catalyst response to a defined lambda variation pattern of the engine exhaust stream, thus providing the data necessary for the numerical model validation. In fact, goal of the present research activity was to investigate the effect of very fast composition transitions of the engine exhaust typical of the mentioned driving conditions (including fuel cutoffs etc.) on the catalyst performance and on related emissions at the tailpipe.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characterization of Catalytic Converter Substrates During Warm-Up

2019-09-09
2019-24-0163
The transient heat transfer behavior of a real size automotive catalytic reactor has been simulated with OpenFOAM in 1D. The model takes into consideration the gas-solid convective heat transfer, axial wall conduction and heat capacity effects in the solid phase, but also the chemical reactions of CO and C3H6 oxidations, based on simplified Arrhenius and Langmuir-Hinshelwood approaches. The associated parameters have been chosen based on the tuning of experimental data. The impact of different initial catalytic converter temperatures, inlet flow temperatures and inlet flow rates have been quantified, even in terms of overall cumulative emissions. . A dimensional analysis is proposed and dimensionless temperature difference and space-time coordinate are defined. Using this suitably modified coordinates, for the case of negligible axial solid conduction, computed solid temperature at the reactor outlet lay on the typical S-curve.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Structures on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Swirl-Supported Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0009
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Linear Approximation Error for Model Predictive Control of Spark Ignited Turbocharged Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0014
Modern turbocharged spark-ignition engines are being equipped with an increasing number of control actuators to simultaneously meet fuel economy, emissions and performance targets. The response time variations between a given set of engine control actuators tends to be significant during transients and necessitate highly complex actuator scheduling routines. Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithms have the potential to significantly reduce calibration and control tuning efforts as compared to current methodologies that are designed around integration of multiple single-input single-output sub-system controllers. MPC systems simultaneously generate all actuator responses by using a combination of current engine conditions and optimization of a control-oriented plant model. To achieve real-time control the engine model and optimization processes must be computationally efficient without sacrificing effectiveness.
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