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Training / Education

Introduction to Failure Mode and Effects Analysis for Product and Process

2022-11-08
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a systematic method for preventing failure through the discovery and mitigation of potential failure modes and their cause mechanisms. Actions are developed in a team environment and address each high: severity, occurrence or detection ranking indicated by the analysis. Completed FMEA actions result in improved product performance, reduced warranty and increased product quality.
Training / Education

Weibull-Log Normal Analysis Workshop

2022-08-22
RMS (Reliability-Maintainability-Safety-Supportability) engineering is emerging as the newest discipline in product development due to new credible, accurate, quantitative methods. Weibull Analysis is foremost among these new tools. New and advanced Weibull techniques are a significant improvement over the original Weibull approach. This workshop, originally developed by Dr. Bob Abernethy, presents special methods developed for these data problems, such as Weibayes, with actual case studies in addition to the latest techniques in SuperSMITH® Weibull for risk forecasts with renewal and optimal component replacement.
Training / Education

Vehicle Crash Reconstruction Principles and Technology

2022-05-10
Crash reconstruction is a scientific process that utilizes principles of physics and empirical data to analyze the physical, electronic, video, audio, and testimonial evidence from a crash to determine how and why the crash occurred. This course will introduce this reconstruction process as it gets applied to various crash types - in-line and intersection collisions, pedestrian collisions, motorcycle crashes, rollover crashes, and heavy truck crashes. Methods of evidence documentation will be covered. Analysis methods will also be presented for electronic data from event data recorders and for video.
Training / Education

AS9100D Internal Auditor Training

2022-03-01
Internal audits (a requirement of the AS9100 Rev D Standard) are intended to verify the compliance and effectiveness of the organization's quality management system. Internal auditors must be knowledgeable of these requirements and the expectations as identified in the standard. In addition, the audit requirements outlined in the AS9101 Standard have significantly changed the way auditors are expected to conduct audits in the aviation, space and defense industries.
Training / Education

AS13004 Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plans

2021-11-09
In the Aerospace Industry there is a growing focus on Defect Prevention to ensure that quality goals are met. Process Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plan activities described in AS13004 are recognized as being one of the most effective, on the journey to Zero Defects. This two-day course is designed to explain the core tools of Process Flow Diagrams, Process Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plans as described in AS13004. It will show the links to other quality tools such as Design FMEA, Characteristics Matrix and Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA).
Technical Paper

Application of Brake System Failed State Performance and Reliability Requirements to System Architecting and Control of Autonomous Vehicles

2021-10-11
2021-01-1267
The modern braking system in the field today may be controlled by over a million lines of computer code and may feature several hundred moving parts. Although modern brake systems generally deliver performance, even with partial failures present in the system, that is well above regulatory minimums, they also have a level of complexity that extends well beyond what the authors of current regulations envisioned. Complexity in the braking system is poised for significant increases as advanced technologies such as self-driving vehicles are introduced, and as multiple systems are linked together to provide vehicle-level “features” to the driver such as deceleration (which can invoke service braking, regenerative braking, use of the parking brake, and engine braking). Rigorous safety-case analysis is critical to bring a new brake system concept to market, but may be too tedious and rely on too many assumptions to be useful in the early architecting stages of new vehicle development.
Technical Paper

In-Depth Considerations for Electric Vehicle Braking Systems Operation with Steep Elevation Changes and Trailering

2021-10-11
2021-01-1263
As the automotive industry prepares to roll out an unprecedented range of fully electric propulsion vehicle models over the next few years – it really brings to a head for folks responsible for brakes what used to be the subject of hypothetical musings and are now pivotal questions for system design. How do we really go about designing brakes for electric vehicles? What is really an “optimal’ design for brakes considering the imperatives for the entire vehicle? What are the real “limit conditions” for usage that drive the fundamental design? Are there really electric charging stations planned for or even already existing in high elevations that can affect regenerative brake capacity on the way down? What should be communicated to drivers (if anything) about driving habits for electric vehicles in routes with significant elevation change?
Technical Paper

Research on braking energy recovery strategy of pure electric vehicle

2021-10-11
2021-01-1264
With the increasingly serious global environmental and energy problems, as well as the increasing number of vehicles, pure electric vehicles with its advantages of environmental protection, low noise and renewable energy, become an effective way to alleviate environmental pollution and energy crisis. Due to the current pure electric vehicle power battery technology is not perfect, the range of pure electric vehicle has a great limit. Through the braking energy recovery, the energy can be reused, the energy utilization rate can be improved, and the battery life of pure electric vehicles can be improved. In this paper, a pure electric vehicle is taken as the analysis object, and the whole vehicle analysis model is built. Based on the ideal braking force distribution curve and fuzzy logic control principle, the braking energy recovery control strategy of pure electric vehicle is formulated through comparative analysis.
Technical Paper

Sensoring of Friction Materials based on LIQUID FRICTION Compounds Chip-in-Pad Concept

2021-10-11
2021-01-1296
The objective of the work conducted was to research how sensors can be integrated into the friction manufacturing process to monitor in-brake performance of the brake pad. Can these systems work during standard dyno test programs. As shown by the authors during Eurobrake 2018 and 2019, friction materials custom built for 3D printing can be utilized to die-cast friction materials. A sensor can be placed into a pretreated well-defined area close to the backing plate. After hardening of the compound, the sensor is completely integrated into the friction material. The friction pads are submersed in water to test the tightness of the sealing around the sensor. The cured friction material was dyno-tested in a Golf VI brake and an AK-Master program schedule 4.1 (temperature, pressure and speed) was conducted. Reed-contacts and other sensors can be integrated in friction material during a sequence of a die-casting process with LICFRIC® compounds.
Technical Paper

Thermomechanical Instabilities in Metal Free Friction Materials Using a Nonlinear Transient Simulation Approach

2021-10-11
2021-01-1286
The invention of metal-free friction materials is gaining popularity in the manufacturing of brake pads and clutch friction discs because of the negative factors associated with metals such as copper. To gain more insight into the failure mechanism of the recent invention during brake or clutch applications, a nonlinear transient thermomechanical model is established using ABAQUS. The model is based on a two-dimensional configuration for an investigation on the onset of TMI (Thermo-Mechanical Instability) during sliding contact in such material. The model is validated by comparing the transient simulation results for a full-contact regime to the result from the existing eigenvalue method. A parametric study is carried out to examine how the thermal conductivities and the elastic moduli influence TMI. The simulation results show that the thermal conductivities in the transverse direction can stabilize the system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Simulation for a Shim Durability Test

2021-10-11
2021-01-1283
Shim durability is an important aspect of the shim performance. During the brake operation, no mechanical failure of the shim is allowed. Typically, when releasing a shim into production, durability tests must be performed to ensure no failure occurs around the locator holes and the shim does not walk over the locators. Since the durability test requires an actual pad and shim, the mechanical retention mechanism for the shim (locators) need to be designed, and backplates must be produced. If a failure is detected during the durability test, either the shim needs to be changed or the retention locators have to be redesigned, which would negatively impact NVH performance and project timing/costs. In this paper, a finite element model is developed to simulate the shim durability test. The model can predict stress level and failure mode of a shim during a durability test.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Particle Dynamics on the Real Vehicle in Different Driving Scenarios with Swarm Sensors

2021-10-11
2021-01-1299
Due to the increase in public attention to non-exhaust emission sources and their impact on human health extensive measurements have been performed in recent years with the aim to establish a consistent and comparable test standard. In particular, the consideration of tyre and brake abrasion is key because of the small and hazardous particle size and because the increasing ratio of electric vehicles only has these non-exhaust emissions. Measurements under controlled and laboratory-like environments, for example with a brake on a dynamometers, lead to attempts of a uniform test standard according to the WLTP. However, a transfer to the real driving environment is not yet feasible because of many external variables, such as wheel housing or atmospheric influences. Typical reference measurement sensors in the vehicle are only suitable to a limited extent for mobile operation due to their size and the necessary measurement infrastructure.
Technical Paper

Investigation on brake disc deformation under asymmetric mechanical loads

2021-10-11
2021-01-1291
The mechanism of automobile brake hot spots is unclear, which is a problem in the brake industry. Complex coupling between friction, heat, contact, and structural is the main difficulty in revealing the mechanism of brake hot spots. This paper proposes a new way to study the mechanism of hot spots by analyzing the deformation behavior of brake discs under asymmetric mechanical load. The actual brake is simplified into a brake disc and friction lining system, and a transient dynamic finite element model under asymmetric mechanical loads is established to analyze the deformation characteristics of brake disc. It is found that the normal deformation of the brake disc under asymmetric mechanical loads consists of two parts: low-frequency bending deformation and high-frequency waviness deformation, which are caused by the squeezing effect of the asymmetric brake pressure on the brake disc and the constraint modal vibration of the brake disc.
Technical Paper

Development of Application-tailored Friction Performance of Race Pad Compounds

2021-10-11
2021-01-1282
As a race driver hits the pedal to trigger the braking event, a dynamic load transfer takes place in the car. This is a similar kind of weight transfer experienced on the road while stopping any vehicle abruptly. Modern race cars such as FIA-regulated Grand Touring Car classes GT3 and LMGTE produce a significant aerodynamic downforce at a reasonably high efficiency level. In this type of high downforce race cars, load variations originated by aerodynamics are added onto the mass transfer. The combination of these effects provide a braking effect with this type of cars a highly transient character. At the same time, our customers are facing the challenge of strict technical regulations, usually forbidding brake control systems. In motorsport competition, car performance is of primary priority to help our customers win championships.
Technical Paper

Vibration analysis of Gear defects using Machine learning approach

2021-10-01
2021-28-0182
Gear drives are considered as the most effective transmission method in automobiles as well as in various industries because of its high efficiency, reliability and high velocity ratio. As a result, from its trustful usage, failure in any part may lead to a large and unpredictable production loss along with massive service cost and safety concerns. Periodic maintenance and condition monitoring are the only solution to avoid the above scenario. Vibration analysis are most sounded term in the fault detection due to its runtime condition monitoring and low cost. Nowadays, vibration analysis was off set to machine learning methods, which is a modern technique enable us the automation such that the system can learn from the input data and make decision with a nominal human interface were as conventional methods are highly operator dependent. Here in this study, the effectiveness of a machine learning based gear fault diagnosis system is studied.
Technical Paper

Vibration analysis of partially perforated rectangular plates with circular perforations

2021-10-01
2021-28-0199
Starting from aerospace to agriculture, partially perforated plates are being used in almost all major spheres of technology. Though a substantial amount of work has been done in this area, the effect of the diameter of circular perforations on the vibration characteristics of rectangular sheets made of SS 316L has not been reported. The present work aims to bridge this gap through the modal analysis of the said system using respective computational softwares. In addition to the diameter of circular perforations, the effect of the thickness of the partially perforated rectangular sheets on the free vibrations of the system is also investigated. Through circular and parallel orientations of perforations, this work aims at establishing an understanding of the changes in vibrations depending on the pattern of perforations.
Technical Paper

Gear fault classification using fuzzy logic in an epicyclic gearbox with statistical features.

2021-10-01
2021-28-0220
Epicyclic geartrains are often preferred in heavy-duty machinery owing to its ability to transmit large amount of power with minimal loss, good load sharing capacity, huge reduction ratios and compact in size. Machineries employing such complex geartrains need an effective monitoring system to predict gear failure at an early stage which prevents catastrophic failure. In this work vibration signal of the geartrain is acquired using accelerometer under various gear faults conditions such as healthy gear, defect in sun gear, defect in planet gear, defect in ring gear, defect in both sun and planet gears respectively. Then, statistical characteristics or features such as mean, median, mode, variance, skewness, kurtosis, standard error, standard deviation, maximum and minimum, of the time domain vibration signals are extracted. Afterwards, a decision tree algorithm is used to select the most useful statistical features. These selected features form as an input to fuzzy classifier.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of an auto-rickshaw frontal crash using FE simulation with validation using captured crash video from India

2021-10-01
2021-28-0257
The three wheeled “Auto-Rickshaws” [Auto] plays a significant role in road transportation, especially in India. The crash safety and reconstruction studies have been widely used in four wheelers, whereas the availability of such data for Auto was found to be limited. In recent times, accident data processing from available videos is being utilised to observe the crash scenario, from which the crash parameters can be given as inputs to the crash analysis. This paper focusses on process the real-world accident data and study crash characteristics. With limitation in availability of detailed injuries post-crash, the study was restricted to reconstruction of crash kinematics and estimations of indicative injuries to driver. The source of video data is videos of crash available in public domains like YouTube. PYTHON video processing tool has been used to process the set of real-world accident video data.
Technical Paper

Shift fork design using finite element simulations

2021-10-01
2021-28-0244
Shift fork and shift fork are key shifting element in manual and dual clutch transmission for smooth operations of gear shifting. One of the main criteria for robust design of shift fork and shift swing is stiffness symmetry. Stiffness symmetry ensures straight movement of sleeve onto hub and thus helps in achieving good shift quality. Stiffness symmetry also ensures equal load distribution across two or three pads of shift fork while operation. In this paper we intend to demonstrate finite element simulation driven design process to improve stiffness symmetry of shift fork and shift swing. Various parameter affecting stiffness symmetry are analyzed through design of experiment and selected best range for optimum design of shift fork and shift swing. Output of this study will be useful for improving any design of shift fork to meet different targets of stiffness symmetry for all automobile suppliers and manufactures.
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