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Technical Paper

High rigidity and light weight bumper material development in India

2019-11-21
2019-28-2553
Vehicle weight reduction becomes important at the view point of fuel efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction in India also as well as developed countries. With this background, High tensile and Super high tensile steel application has become increasing. Similary, weight reduction of big plastic parts like bumper face is one of the most important items, so Honda has developed Thin-wall and light weight bumper face. In the development of light weight bumper, rigidity, impact strength and flowability which are main requirement are cotradictory property. It is necessary to develop new material to achieve this technical concern. Moreover, we verified part shape and thickness optimization to achieve part requirement. Established high property material and part manufacturing technology were applied for current CITY firstly, and it has been expanded to other models sequentially to contribute weight reduction for Honda vehicles.
Technical Paper

A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric truck

2019-11-21
2019-28-2514
A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric truck C.Venkatesh - Manager - Product Development, Sustainable Mobility & Advanced Technologies Abstract: A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle Abstract: Today's growing commercial vehicle population creates a demand for fossil fuel surplus requirement and develops highly polluted urban cities in the world. Hence addressing both factors are very much essential. Battery electric vehicles are with limited vehicle range and higher charging time. So it is not suitable for the long-haul application. Hence the hydrogen fuel cell based electric vehicles are the future of the commercial electric vehicle to achieve long range, zero emission and alternate for reducing fossil fuels requirement. The hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicle range, it means the total distance covered by the vehicle in a single filling of hydrogen into the onboard cylinders.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Car in India

2019-11-21
2019-28-2522
Automation is expanding in every possible direction and it was only time before it reached the Automobile sector. There has been tremendous traction towards autonomous cars since last 2-3 yrs as a probable solution to reduce accidents and promote safe and comfortable commute. Many companies have expressed their interest in developing some part(s) of it and when would all of this culminate resulting in a fully autonomous car. But as every coin has two aspects so same does automation. This paper covers the future of autonomous cars from Indian perspective, covering possible challenges, complex use cases, advantages, technology enablers, economy outlook etc. India has the dubious honor of ranking first in road deaths in the world at present & accounts for 10 percent of global road accidents with more than 1.46 lakh fatalities annually.
Technical Paper

Wiring Harness Optimization towards Wireless Vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2530
Paper Title - Wiring Harness Optimization towards Wireless vehicle Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective (maximum 100 words)  In current scenario, wiring harness plays a vital role in inter-connecting electrical & electronic components fitted all across the vehicle.  As per cable standard, DIN 72551 or ISO 6722, copper conductors being used in stranded wires against cable cross-section & corresponding weight.  While going complete wire-less requires each component to have its own battery, ground, transmitter & receiver which indeed is a very costly affair to be employed in vehicle as huge development cost is required.  Here I'm suggesting an innovative method to make a vehicle apparently Wire-Less by creating local clusters connected to each other via conventional wiring harness & wire-less module.  Such method will apparently give a look of Wire-less vehicle itself & better advantages in terms of installation, service, troubleshooting, uptime & customer delight.  Moreover, direct benefits of Cost, Weight, FE will also be achieved.
Technical Paper

High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat system for tractor sheet metal application.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2541
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
Technical Paper

MOLD IN COLOR DIAMOND WHITE ASA MATERIAL FOR AUTOMOTIVE EXTERIOR APPLICATION

2019-11-21
2019-28-2562
In this paper, mold in color diamond white ASA material has been explored for front bumper grill, fender arch extension and hinge cover applications. Other than aesthetic requirements, these parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition in real world usage profile. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analysed by using mold flow analysis. Complete product performances were validated for predefined key test metrics such as structural durability, thermal aging, cold impact, scratch resistance, and weathering criteria. This part met required specification. This mold in color ASA material-based parts has various benefits such as environmentally friendly manufacturing by eliminating environmental issues of coating, easily recycled, and faster part production because intended color achieved in one step during molding.
Technical Paper

NEXT GENERATION POWER DISTRIBUTION UNIT IN WIRING HARNESS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2571
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost.
Technical Paper

Effect of variable payload on Vehicle dynamics of Passenger buses in Indian usage conditions

2019-11-21
2019-28-2411
A high impetus from Government on road infrastructure development, is giving a fillip to passenger CV space. This has resulted in making the passenger CV segment lucrative enough, thereby pulling in many operators in the business. The quality of road has immensely improved over a decade, as a result of which the average speed and hence the quantum of distance covered by passenger buses has increased significantly. People are preferring to travel in buses over trains, owing to at par ticket cost, high availability, reduced travel time and also improved level of comfort. Aligned to the market need and the trend, OEM's are offering buses with capable powertrains to cater the need of speed, reduced trip time as well as a lot of attention is also being paid to tune in the comfort level for long hauls. A big chunk of passenger travel is catered by the bus operators especially during major festivals in India.
Technical Paper

Realtime Tuning and optimization of EV traction motors with controllers on E-motor testbench

2019-11-21
2019-28-2478
The need for dedicated development of indigenous electric power-train is becoming much essential in the recent times with upcoming trends and policies. Hence, The validation and optimization of the newly developed electric power-train becomes much crucial in order to ensure smooth real world operation. This can be only possible in E-motor test benches with dedicated equipment for thorough evaluation. Also, there are no practical limitations to check the peak characteristics in a controlled laboratory environment. Initially, the motor is setup by mechanically coupling with the dynamo-meter and the controller in the open loop method with constant parameters to check steady state operability without load or external parameters that affect the torque production and speed of the drive. Then progresses to closed loop method incorporating the feedback control and external parameters including torque loading at the shaft from the dynamo-meter.
Technical Paper

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator

2019-11-21
2019-28-2381
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.
Technical Paper

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2397
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for better fuel Economy

2019-11-21
2019-28-2431
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it not only accounts for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, improved volumetric efficiency, improved thermal efficiency etc. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include; combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected.
Technical Paper

Multi body dynamic simulation of tyre traction trailer

2019-11-21
2019-28-2430
Tyre Traction Trailer is a device designed to find the Peak Brake co-efficient of C2 and C3 tyre as per ECE R117. The trailer is towed by the truck and is braked suddenly to evaluate braking co-efficient of specimen tyre. It is a single wheel trailer equipped with load cell to capture tire loads (Normal and longitudinal)while braking. Traction Trailer is modelled in MSC Adams and rigid body simulation is carried out for static stability of the system. Dynamic simulations were performed to understand locking of wheels during braking. Body frame was further modelled as flex body to perform structural analysis of the frame. The paper contains stress and deformation plots of trailer Structure under various loading conditions, change in Centre of gravity, weight transfer and forces on springs during braking and cornering, plots of tractive and normal load on tyre during braking.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Hydrostatic Transmission (HST) system for OFF-Highway vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2453
The development of any country depends on capital energy consumption. Due to technological advancements, people want more comfort and performance with the tractors and at the same time less fatigue and reduced fuel consumption. At present, most of the tractors uses conventional Manual Transmission (MT) as main driveline, though there is research going on, with implementation in few cases, for shifting from conventional MT to advanced transmissions. A Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) provides Step Lesley an infinite number of effective gear ratios between maximum to minimum value. Hydrostatic Transmission (HST) is one of the types of CVT. HST can improve the fuel efficiency and smooth drivability than a MT without compromising vehicle performance. The development of HST in tractor is less costly as several existing components such as clutch, large number of gears in transmission system can be removed along with reducing of driver fatigue.
Technical Paper

Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2509
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options.
Technical Paper

Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

2019-11-21
2019-28-2504
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas aftertreatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost-efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented or simulated vehicle concepts for light duty gasoline and diesel powertrains.
Technical Paper

Equivalent Radiated Power driven optimization for driveline housings using simulation tools to cut-down the project time

2019-11-21
2019-28-2533
In the field of Automotive industry, being competitive makes you succeed. Industry is moving towards advancement day by day. New technologies to improve fuel efficiency, crash resistance, vehicle noise levels have been trending. At VECV, we have traditionally worked on CAE of driveline housings (clutch housing & transmission housing) based on static, dynamic and transient loadings. Currently, weight optimization technique depends on the structural and dynamic loading conditions, but do not consider acoustic concerns. Powertrain housings are highly prone to vibrations and leads to high level of noise. Noise has been constant issue in the casting components associated to driveline. There have been lot of research going on to reduce the level of noise and vibrations in the vehicle driveline, which ultimately leads to fuel efficiency and ergonomic benefits. Low noise generation can also lead to saving of lot of resources deployed to dampen the noises.
Technical Paper

Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for different Hybrid Architectures using 1-D Simulation technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2496
In order to improve fuel economy of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict engine fuel consumption using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. There is good agreement within 10% deviation between simulated cumulative fuel consumption and experimental cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying series hybridization, parallel P1 type and Parallel P2 type of hybridization. A design of experiment (DOE) model is run for different electric motor sizes, battery capacity and battery state of charge condition, to understand their effects on overall engine fuel consumption and cycle soot emission. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and soot emission.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Light Weighting Through Roll Stiffness Change on Vehicle Maneuverability and Stability

2019-11-21
2019-28-2406
Objective To achieve better fuel economy and reduced carbon footprint, OEMs are reducing the sprung and unsprung mass. This translates into a reduction in stiffness which profoundly deteriorates the handling/road holding characteristics of the vehicle. To model these changes in stiffness, modifications are made to suspension roll stiffness at the front and rear. This study compares different configurations of roll stiffness and evaluates vehicle behavior using frequency response characteristics and phase change of Yaw Gain recorded. The present work associates acquired data with subjective feedback to outline the shift in vehicle balance emerging from a variation of sprung and unsprung mass ratio. Methodology To study the frequency response characteristics of the vehicle, the pulse input is chosen for this. An ideal pulse input’s Fourier transform represents constant amplitude over all the frequency ranges. By giving a single input, the system is subjected to a range of frequencies.
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