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Technical Paper

Implementation of Long Assembly Drills for 777X Flap Carriers

Large diameter, tightly-toleranced fastener patterns are commonplace in aerospace structures. Satisfactory preparation of these holes is often challenging and can be further complicated by difficult or obstructed access. Bespoke tooling and drill jigs are typically used in conjunction with power feed units leading to a very manual, inflexible, and expensive manufacturing process. For 777X flap production, Boeing and Electroimpact partnered to create a novel, automated solution to generate the fastener holes for the main carrier fitting attachment pattern. Existing robotic automation used for skin to substructure assembly was modified to utilize extended length (up to 635mm), bearing-supported drill bar sub-assemblies. These Long Assembly Drills (LADs) had to be easily attached and detached by one operator, interface with the existing spindle(s), supply cutting lubricant, extract swarf on demand, and include a means for automatically finding datum features.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Coated and Uncoated Inserts of the Cutting Tool for Improved Machinability of Inconel 825 Alloy

The limitations of commonly used materials such as steel in withstanding high temperatures led to exploring alternative alloys. For instance, Inconel 825 is a nickel-based alloy known for its exceptional corrosion resistance. Thus, the Inconel 825 is used in various applications, including aerospace, marine propulsion, and missiles. Though it has many advantages, machining this alloy at high temperatures could be challenging due to its inadequate heat conductivity, increased strain hardening propensity, and extreme dynamic shear strength. The resultant hardened chips generated during high-speed machining exhibit elevated temperatures, leading to tool wear and surface damage, extending into the subsurface. This work investigated the influence of varying process settings on the machinability of Inconel 825 metal, using both uncoated and coated tools.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Enhanced Magnetorheological Fluid Damper and Its Influence on Sustainable Hard Turning of SS410

Sustainable manufacturing, a term that has been used in the recent past on numerous occasions. A primary reason for it being in limelight, is that it does not cause any damage to the environment and also to the personal involved. Additionally, another important parameter of concern is the energy consumed during the machining process. One major reason for higher energy consumption is because of the presence of tool vibration. There have been several attempts made to reduce vibration and though they have been proved to be effective, they could be not classified under sustainable manufacturing. When used as a semi-active damper in metal cutting, magnetorheological fluid (MRF) has proven to be successful in vibration suppression. MRF is an intelligent non-Newtonian fluid that can change its viscosity instantly when a magnetic field is applied to it. They've utilised it as a damper in a number of areas because of this quality and its toughness.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Influence on Machining Characteristics of Nimonic 80

The quality of the finished product depends on the contribution of many factors along with the complex process involved to move forward towards the new product development. Many operations like turning, drilling, milling in metal machining deserves the quality as a predominant measurement. The tool and work piece plays a vital role in machining process which depends on machining parameters such as spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, approach angle. In the present work the turning operation was carried out on Nickel alloy (Nimonic 80) as a work piece and the carbide insert was used as a tool for performing the machining operations. The cutting parameters were optimized using Taguchi based grey relational analysis. Provided that, the ANOVA analysis to find the predominant factors that affects the quality were also determined. The experimental results were compared with the predicted results and found to be a promising agreement between the factors and responses.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Turning Parameters of Austempered Ductile Iron Using Response Surface Methodology Approach

Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is an alternative to hardened steel for machined parts with high hardness, ductility, strength and fatigue strength. The optimal cutting parameters to perform turning operation on ADI with PCBN insert are predicted through the response surface methodology (RSM) approach. Design Expert Software was used to design fifteen experiment trials by changing cutting parameters including speed (N) rpm, feed (f) mm/min, and depth of cut (d) mm. The outcomes of the experiments were then examined. The mathematical model determined in the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) satisfied output responses concerning the input parameters. The optimal turning parameters, N: 1039.11 rpm, f: .5 mm/min and d: 0.0974 mm is revealed the both responses. The confirmation experiment results revealed that the predicted value of responses is better in agreement with experimented responses.
Technical Paper

Application of Desirability Approach to Determine Optimal Turning Parameters

Aluminum alloys are employed in agricultural equipment, aerospace sectors, medical instruments, machinery, automobiles, etc. due to their physical and mechanical characteristics. The geometrical shape and size of the parts are modified in turning operation by using a single-point cutting tool. A356 aluminum alloy is widely used in various engineering sectors, hence there is a necessity to produce A-356 components with quality. The inappropriate cutting parameters used in turning operation entail high production costs and reduce tool life. Box–Behnken design (BBD) based on response surface methodology (RSM) was used to design the experiments such that the experiment trials were conducted by varying cutting parameters like N-spindle speed (rpm), f-feed rate (mm/rev), and d-depth of cut (mm). The multi-objective responses, such as surface roughness (SR) and metal removal rate (MRR) were analyzed with the desirability method.
Technical Paper

Scientific Approach for Pickup Cargo Weight Reduction

In this study, the benchmarked-based statistical Light Weight Index (LWI) technique is developed for predicting the world in class optimum weight. For these four statistical Lightweight Index numbers are derived based on the geometrical dimensions. This strategy is used for the target setting. To achieve the target, the Value Analysis approach for Cargo assembly is to redesign and make Refresh Cargo assembly. The organization also benefited directly by reducing the inventory cost and transportation costs because of the deletion of parts and minimizing the assemblies. Vehicle power-to-weight ratio and fuel economy also improved based on cutting weight. The complete case study with details has been mentioned in the work. The weight benefit led to an increase in the profit margin and caters to the difficulty because of the daily increase in the price of raw materials.
Technical Paper

Detailed Tire-Wheel Modelling for Crash Related Development in LS-Dyna

Vehicle performances in Crash related events like Small offset rigid barrier tests are crucially dependent on Tire-Wheel modelling. The objective of this study is to develop a detailed tire-wheel model subjected to loading, performance and failure criteria. The modelling technique should be robust, replicable and stable across a wide spectrum of simulations cutting down on unnecessary delays. This project evaluates the options offered in LS-dyna (damping, loads, sensors, materials etc.) and current states of models being widely used. There is a focus on offering additional tools in the model for analyst to control the failure and model behavior. This tire-wheel model is subjected to scrutiny at multiple levels namely standalone, sub-system and full vehicle. The results achieved on this new modelling technique shows confidence in this. This model checks all the right boxes in terms of robustness, efficiency and development. The correlation is better on subsystem level tests.
Technical Paper

Simulation applied to compaction process in sintered components for product performance optimization

Sintered parts mechanical properties are very sensitive to final density, which inevitable cause an enormous density gradient in the green part coming from the compaction process strategy. The current experimental method to assess green density occurs mainly in set up by cutting the green parts in pieces and measuring its average density in a balance using Archimedes principle. Simulation is the more accurate method to verify gradient density and the main benefit would be the correlation with the critical region in terms of stresses obtained by FEA and try to pursue the optimization process. This paper shows a case study of a part that had your fatigue limit improved 1000% using compaction process simulation for better optimization.
Technical Paper

Thermomechanical Impact of Machining-Induced Heating on Tensile Performance of Aerospace Composite Material

The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of cutting temperature on the post-machining performance of “carbon fiber-reinforced polymer” (CFRP), providing insights into how temperature variations during machining influence the material’s mechanical properties and structural integrity. First, cutting temperatures generated during machining were monitored and used to categorize specimens. These specimens were then subjected to control heating at various temperatures, simulating the range of cutting conditions. Subsequently, the heated specimens were left to cool naturally in ambient air. A comprehensive tensile experiment was conducted on these specimens to assess the impact on mechanical behavior. The tensile properties, including elastic modulus and maximum tensile stress, were analyzed and compared across the different temperature.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Laser Cutting Process on Al 7075 Metal Matrix Composites for Automobile Applications

Aluminum is preferred as a material for matrix composites due to its high technical characteristics and low density. Due to its stiffness, specific strength, and wear resistance, MMCs are being widely used in various automotive applications. Due to its high strength and toughness, Al 7075 is a widely used heat treatable aluminum alloy. It is also used in the car and aerospace industries. B4C is a highly attractive reinforcing material due to its thermal and chemical stability. Compared to other reinforcements such as SiC and Al2O3, B4C has a higher hardness and lower density. The proposed technique is based on the L27 orthogonal array design of Taguchi. The laser cutting process was designed to optimize the input parameters of the given process, such as the cutting speed, pulse width, and frequency. The two response parameters, the surface roughness and the MRR, were then analyzed using the ANFIS technique.
Technical Paper

Application of Taguchi Approach on Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of SS304 for Automotive Applications

SS304 is a type of stainless steel that is well-known for its high ductility and resistance to corrosion; as a result, it is typically utilized in a variety of applications, such as the exhaust systems of automobiles and the springs that are used in seatbelts. Because of its qualities, it will eventually be employed in a variety of body parts, including fuel tanks and chassis, among other things. Due to its properties, SS304 is known to be incredibly difficult to machine using conventional methods. Through a wire electrical discharge machining process, it is easier to cut complex materials with high surface finishes. In this study, a study was conducted on the WEDM process parameters of SS304 to optimize its machining process. The study was carried out using the DoE approach, which involved planning the various experiments. The parameters of the process, such as the pulse on time, peak current, and off time, were analyzed to determine their performance.
Technical Paper

Taguchi’s Approach to Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

One of the most common types of lightweight materials used in aerospace is magnesium alloy. It has a high strength-to-weight ratio and is ideal for various applications. Due to its corrosion resistance, it is commonly used to manufacture of fuselages. Unfortunately, the conventional methods of metal cutting fail to improve the performance of magnesium alloy. One amongst the most common methods used for making intricate shapes in harder materials is through Wire-Electro-Discharge (WEDM). In this study, we have used magnesium alloy as the work material. The independent factors were selected as pulse duration and peak current. The output parameters of the process are the Surface Roughness (SR) and the Material Removal Rate (MRR). Through a single aspect optimization technique, Taguchi was able to identify the optimal combination that would improve the effectiveness of the WEDM process.
Journal Article

Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm for Multi-objective Optimization of Multi-pass Face Milling of Polyamide (PA6)

Abstract Milling is a prevalent machining technique employed in various industries for the production of metallic and non-metallic components. This article focuses on the optimization of cutting parameters for polyamide (PA6) using carbide tools, utilizing a recently developed multi-objective, nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm known as the Multi-Objective Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm (MOGOA). This optimization process’s primary objectives are minimizing surface roughness and maximizing the material removal rate. By employing the MOGOA algorithm, the study demonstrates its efficacy in successfully optimizing the cutting parameters. This research’s findings highlight the MOGOA algorithm’s capability to effectively fine-tune cutting parameters during PA6 machining, leading to improved outcomes in terms of surface roughness reduction and enhanced material removal rate.
Technical Paper

Influence of EP-Additives on the Efficiency and ecological Aspects of Metalworking Fluids

The trend towards electric vehicles has a significant influence on the type and complexity of the metalworking processes that are used for car manufacturing. Many cutting processes will be replaced by forming and separating processes. The energy consumption in these manufacturing processes is comparatively high, particularly if high strength steel grades are machined to reduce weight and to increase the energy efficiency of the electric vehicles. This paper shows how sulfur based EP-additives reduce energy demand as well as tool wear of manufacturing processes whilst at the same time improve the occupational safety and decrease the ecological impact of metalworking fluids.
Technical Paper

Implementation of IR Cut and Solar Green Glass to Optimize the Heat Load for Air Conditioning in Electric Buses

Commercial electric vehicle air conditioning system keeps occupants comfortable, but at the expense of the energy used from the battery of vehicle. Passengers around the world are increasingly requesting buses with HVAC/AC capabilities. There is a need to optimise current air conditioning systems taking into account packaging, cost, and performance limits due to the rising demand for cooling and heating globally. Major elements contributing to heat ingress are traction motor, front firewall, windshield & side glasses and bus body parts. These elements contribute to the bus’s poor cooling and lack of passenger comfort. This topic refers to the reduction of the heat ingress through usage of different glass technology like IR Cut & solar green glass with different types of coating.