This course is verified by Probitas as meeting the AS9104/3A requirements for Continuing Professional Development. This course provides both a functional understanding of the principles involved in conducting a Design for Manufacture/Design for Assembly (DFM/DFA) study and the process for implementing a DFM/DFA culture into the organization.
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM+A), pioneered by Boothroyd and Dewhurst, has been used by many companies around the world to develop creative product designs that use optimal manufacturing and assembly processes. Correctly applied, DFM+A analysis leads to significant reductions in production cost, without compromising product time-to-market goals, functionality, quality, serviceability, or other attributes. In this two-day course, you will not only learn the Boothroyd Dewhurst Method, you will actually apply it to your own product design!
This course is verified by Probitas Authentication as meeting the AS9104/3A requirements for continuing Professional Development. In the Aerospace Industry there is a focus on Defect Prevention to ensure that quality goals are met. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plan activities are recognized as being one of the most effective, on the journey to Zero Defects. This two-day course is designed to explain the core tools of Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA), Process Flow Diagrams, Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plans as described in AS13100 and RM13004.
EVs are a fast-growing market and appear as a promising option against the high emission of gasoline and diesel vehicles. The growth in the EV market has been decent and a regular buyer is still skeptical due to fire incidents occurring with EVs. Complex electronics, improper thermal management, mechanical abuse, improper cell grading activities and control in production, lack of testing in a production plant, and of course, uneven degradation of cells can be one of the reasons this promising technology is facing thermal runaway and in turn, the wrath of the government and public alike. One of the reasons thermal runaway can be triggered after a cell catches fire is because a part of heat travels via busbars to the neighboring cells, as the busbars can conduct heat faster than the air. For the heat that is conducted, it is easily understandable that we need to break the electrical, as well as thermal conduction connection to the neighboring cells.
Due to increasing competitiveness, the arrival of industry giants, product pricing, etc., the automobile market in India is becoming more dynamic to adopt the changes. Apart from this, the product needs to be competitive to capture market by lowering the benefit margin. After launch and gaining of mass volume of the market, the Value Analysis and Value Engineering (VAVE) helps in minimizing the design and development costs through removal of non-value adding processes and activities by understanding the product's value, functions, features, customer demand, quality, and Real-World Usage Pattern (RWUP) without affecting the performance and eventually help in increasing the profit margin of organization. In this study, the benchmarked based statistical Light Weight Index (LWI) technique is developed for the predicting the world in class optimum weight. For these four statistical Light weight Index numbers is derived based on the geometrical dimensions.
Cracks on metallic components may appear due to manufacturing, handling, installation, repair, welding etc. and are controlled by quality documents. However, if cracks violate the limit defined in quality document, then either parts will be scraped or will need additional evaluation through detailed and specialized Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) approach. The initial size, orientation and shape of crack, part geometry and loading highly impacts the behavior of crack growth and remaining useful life. Study has been performed to understand the effect of crack aspect ratio on stress intensity factor under different stress gradient scenario. This paper also provides the simplified methodology to address the multiple cracks in complex geometries under static and fatigue loading.
Vehicle performances in Crash related events like Small offset rigid barrier tests are crucially dependent on Tire-Wheel modelling. The objective of this study is to develop a detailed tire-wheel model subjected to loading, performance and failure criteria. The modelling technique should be robust, replicable and stable across a wide spectrum of simulations cutting down on unnecessary delays. This project evaluates the options offered in LS-dyna (damping, loads, sensors, materials etc.) and current states of models being widely used. There is a focus on offering additional tools in the model for analyst to control the failure and model behaviour. This tire-wheel model is subjected to scrutiny at multiple levels namely standalone, sub-system and full vehicle. The results achieved on this new modelling technique shows confidence in this. This model checks all the right boxes in terms of robustness, efficiency and development. The correlation is better on subsystem level tests.
Manufacturing processes such as casting, welding and additive manufacturing (AM) are prone to internal porosity and high surface roughness on the manufactured parts. These defects are inherent in the process and cannot be completely eliminated. Handling, transport and maintenance of manufactured parts can also lead to defects such as scratches and dents due to abusive loads. The defects can be characterized in a number of ways, assuming they resemble a U-notch or V-notch, elliptical pores, or a continuous distribution of consecutive defects in combination with surface roughness. The designer utilizes existing analytical and empirical equations to predict stress concentration due to presence of various types of defects and compute factor of safety to ensure structural integrity of design subjected to various load cases. The applicability of existing analytical and empirical equations is studied, and modifications are suggested to improve the predictions.
Axles are a prominent part of automotive design. Along with a power transmission and differential system, axles support a vehicle’s weight and road-load reactions. Axles carry different attachments such as brakes and suspensions using brackets. Welds play an important role in design and longevity of bracket assemblies. Welds can be susceptible to fractures caused by intrusions akin to cracks and/or discontinuities, compounded by stress concentration due to weld profile and welding processes. Additionally, the simultaneous optimization of both brackets and welds remains a challenge with limited available methods. While topography or shape optimization techniques can enhance bracket robustness by minimizing compliance as the objective, this approach might inadvertently elevate the likelihood of weld fracture if weld dimensions are not concurrently updated.
One of the important aspect to consider at the design stage is the condensation of water vapor inside the lighting system, under particular weather conditions of temperature and humidity, which may compromise the device functionality. Condensation of water vapor is an issue affecting functional and aesthetics of Head Lamp. The current paper analyses the process of water vapor condensation inside an automotive LED head lamp. This paper also discusses the design methodology to avoid condensation under particular conditions. Design methodology includes design considerations for better air movement for heat management, material selection, ease of moisture exchange, breather or vent selection, placement. Additionally, this paper would also discuss about effective use of simulations tools, test methods and assembly process guidelines to avoid impact due to condensation. This paper would consist of one example with application of above methodology, its test and field results.
Tractor usage is growing due to introduction of wide range of implements and applications. Tractor plays a major role in Agri and Construction applications. Due to the environmental factors, restrictions are set on the tractor emissions. This brings new challenge in the tactor industry to reduce the carbon footprint. By reducing the weight of the tractor, Co2 emissions can be reduced. Many of the components in the Hydraulic systems are made of metal casting. Conventional casting process involves preparation of die & mold, material removal at unwanted regions, machining in the final stage to get the desired final product. Contrary to conventional manufacturing process, Additive Manufacturing process is a transformative approach to industrial production that enables creation of lighter and stronger parts. The process involves creation of 3D component by adding material layer by layer.
Automotive industry is a major contributor to global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and waste generation. Not only do vehicles produce emissions during use, but they also generate emissions during production phase and End of Life disposal. There is an urgent need to address sustainability and circularity issues in this sector. This thesis explores how circularity and CO2 reduction principles can be applied to design and production of automotive parts, with the aim of reducing the environmental impact of these components throughout their life cycle. Also, this thesis highlights impact of design principles on End-of-Life Management of vehicles. As Design decisions of Component impacts for 80% of emissions, it is important to focus on this phase for major contribution in reduction of emissions.
This abstract presents an experimental study on using Computed Tomography (CT) scan technology for analyzing battery cell failures. Lithium-ion battery cells with known failure modes were subjected to cyclic test under different temperature and C-rates. CT scans provided high-resolution cross-sectional images of internal structures, revealing failure-related features. The advanced image processing techniques quantitatively assessed electrode morphology, active material distribution, and separator integrity. The study demonstrated CT scan's potential in non-destructive analysis, enabling a deeper understanding of failure mechanisms and informing improvements in cell design and manufacturing processes.
To meet different target of light-weighting, lower fuel economy, crash safety and emission requirement, advanced high strength steel (AHSS) is commonly used in automotive vehicles and has become popular now a days. AHSS material up-to 1500 MPa is commonly used for structural components and major reinforcement of automotive BIW. Manufacturing of AHSS material requires precise control of chemical composition, and subsequent rolling and heat treatment to get optimum combination of required phases In most of the AHSS material microstructure, martensite is present along with ferrite or other phases. Hot stamp steel with strength level 1500 MPa strength also have martensite phase in microstructure after press hardening. However during heating and cooling cycle in resistance spot welding, martensite phase tempering affects hardness at Heat Affected Zone (HAZ).
The use of electrical contacts in aerospace applications is crucial, particularly in connectors that transmit signal and power. Crimping is a widely preferred method for joining electrical contacts, as it provides a durable connection and can be easily formed. This process involves applying mechanical load to the contact, inducing permanent deformation in the barrel and wire to create a reliable joint with sufficient wire retention force. This study utilizes commercially available Abaqus software to simulate the crimping process using an explicit solver. The methodology developed for this study correlates FEA and testing for critical quality parameters such as structural integrity, mechanical strength, and joint filling percentage. A four-indenter crimping tool CAD model is utilized to form the permanent joint at the barrel-wire contact interfaces, with displacement boundary conditions applied to the jaws of the tool in accordance with MIL-C-22520/1B standard.
Nowadays, friction welding is recognised as a highly productive and economic joining process for similar as well as dissimilar welding of automobile and aerospace components. Friction welding is the viable solution to offset the challenges of dissimilar fusion welding due to varying thermal and physical properties as well as limited mutual solubility. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the interface microstructure and interface bonding strength for dissimilar rotary friction welding of 3.15 mm E46 disc and 45 mm AA6061-T6 bar at different friction time and forging pressure. The direct drive rotary friction welding of E46 and AA6061-T6 is performed at combinations of two different friction time (4 sec and 7 sec) and forging pressure (108 MPa and 125 MPa). Mechanical bonding strength at the interface is evaluated based on the push-off and multi-step shear strength. Further, fractography of failed samples is carried out to understand the failure mechanism of welded joints.
High strength aluminium alloys are an ideal material in the automotive sector leading to a significant weight reduction and enhancement in product safety. In recent past extensive development in the field of high strength steel and aluminium was undertaken. This development has been propelled due to demand for light weight automotive parts. The high strength to weight ratio possessed by Al alloy helps in reducing the total weight of the vehicle without effecting the overall performance, thereby increasing the fuel economy and reducing the carbon emission level. Joining of high strength aluminium alloy is critical to develop durable automotive products. Joining of high strength aluminium alloy for mass production in automobile industry is a challenging task. Laser welding is recognized as an advanced process to join materials with a laser beam of high-power, high-energy density.
Light weight and Robust manufacturing technologies are always needed for transformation drive to the Automotive industry for next-generation vehicles with better Power to weight ratio. Innovations and process developments in materials and manufacturing processes are key to this light weighting transformation. Aluminium material has been widely used for this light weighting opportunities. However aluminium joining techniques, quality and poor consistency are limiting this transformation. This technical paper represents one of such case, where the part is made up of Aluminium through conventional casting route which affected laser weld quality due to poor casting soundness. This experiment explains in detail about the importance of Casting soundness for Laser weld Quality, Penetration, Strength etc., and the product consistency.