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Technical Paper

Object Detection Method of Autonomous Vehicle Based on Lightweight Deep Learning

2021-04-06
2021-01-0192
Object detection is an important visual content of the autonomous vehicle, the traditional detecting methods usually cost a lot of computational memory and elapsed time. This paper proposes to use lightweight deep convolutional neural network (MobilenetV3-SSDLite) to carry out the object detection task of autonomous vehicles. Simulation analysis based on this method is implemented, the feature layer obtained after h-swish activation function in the first Conv of the 13th bottleneck module in MobilenetV3 is taken as the first effective feature layer, and the feature layer before pooling and convolution of the antepenultimate layer in MobilenetV3 is taken as the second effective feature layer, and these two feature layers are extracted from the MobilenetV3 network.
Technical Paper

Novel Research for Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Dual Motors Based on Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle Optimized by Reinforcement Learning

2021-04-06
2021-01-0726
The plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with dual-motor and multi-gear structure can realize multiple operation modes such as series, parallel, hybrid, etc. The traditional rule-based energy management strategy mostly selects some of the modes (such as series and parallel) to construct the energy management strategy. Although this method is simple and reliable, it can’t fully exert the full potential of this structure considering both economy and driving performance. Therefore, it is very important to study the algorithm which can exert the maximum potential of the multi-degree-of-freedom structure. In this paper, a new RL-PMP algorithm is proposed, which does not divide the operation modes, and explores the optimal energy allocation strategy to the maximum extent according to the economic and drivability criteria within the allowable range of the characteristics of the power system components.
Journal Article

Active Launch Vibration Control of Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Nonlinear Backlash

2021-04-06
2021-01-0667
The backlash between engaging components in a driveline is unavoidable, especially when the gear runs freely and collides with the backlash, the impact torque generated increases the vibration amplitude. The power-split hybrid electric vehicle generates output torque only from the traction motor during the launching process. The nonlinear backlash can greatly influence the driveability of the driveline due to the rapid response of the traction motor and the lack of the traditional clutches and torsional shock absorbers in the powertrain. This paper focuses on the launch vibration of the power-split hybrid electric vehicle, establishes a nonlinear driveline model considering gear backlash, including an engine, two motors, a Ravigneaux planetary gear set, a reducer, a differential, a backlash assembly, half shafts, and wheels.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Electric Vacuum Pump Mount to Improve Sound Quality of Electric Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-1259
The noise and vibration of electric vacuum pump (EVP) become a major problem for electric vehicles when the vehicle is stationary. This paper aims at the EVP’s abnormal noise of an electric vehicle when stationary. Driver’s right ear (DRE) noise was tested and spectrogram analysis was carried out to identify the noise sources. In order to attenuate this kind of abnormal noise, a new EVP rubber mount with a segmented structure was introduced, which optimized the transfer path of vibration. Then dynamic stiffness and fatigue life of the EVP mount with different rubber hardness were calculated through finite element analysis (FEA) approach. Bench tests of fatigue life and DRE noise were performed to validate the FEA results. Test data of the sample mount shows that sound pressure level of DRE was dramatically attenuated and thus passengers’ ride comfort was enhanced.
Journal Article

Acoustic Characteristics Prediction and Optimization of Wheel Resonators with Arbitrary Section

2020-04-14
2020-01-0917
Tire cavity noise of pure electric vehicles is particularly prominent due to the absence of engine noise, which are usually eliminated by adding Helmholtz resonators with arbitrary transversal section to the wheel rims. This paper provides theoretical basis for accurately predicting and effectively improving acoustic performance of wheel resonators. A hybrid finite element method is developed to extract the transversal wavenumbers and eigenvectors, and the mode-matching scheme is employed to determine the transmission loss of the Helmholtz resonator. Based on the accuracy validation of this method, the matching design of the wheel resonators and the optimization method of tire cavity noise are studied. The identification method of the tire cavity resonance frequency is developed through the acoustic modal test. A scientific transmission loss target curve and fitness function are defined according to the noise characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Road Load Data Processing Method for Transmission Durability Optimization Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-1062
With increasing pressure from environment problem for reduction in CO2 emissions and stricter fuel targets from road vehicles, new transmission technologies are gaining more attention in different main market. To get suitable road load data for transmission durability development is becoming increasingly important and can shorten the development time of new transmission. This paper presents the procedure and methods of road load data development for durability design of transmission product and optimization based on the real road data measurement, statistical characteristics evaluation and fatigue damage equivalency. Apply this road load data method procedure on 3 type of vehicle which represent conventional vehicle, BEV and HEV.
Technical Paper

A Method of Acceleration Order Extraction for Active Engine Mount

2017-03-28
2017-01-1059
The active engine mount (AEM) is developed in automotive industry to improve overall NVH performance. The AEM is designed to reduce major-order signals of engine vibration over a broad frequency range, therefore it is of vital importance to extract major-order signals from vibration before the actuator of the AEM works. This work focuses on a method of real-time extraction of the major-order acceleration signals at the passive side of the AEM. Firstly, the transient engine speed is tracked and calculated, from which the FFT method with a constant sampling rate is used to identify the time-related frequencies as the fundamental frequencies. Then the major-order signals in frequency domain are computed according to the certain multiple relation of the fundamental frequencies. After that, the major-order signals can be reconstructed in time domain, which are proved accurate through offline simulation, compared with the given signals.
Technical Paper

Torsional Vibration Modeling of Driveline System for EV Low-Frequency Flutter

2015-06-15
2015-01-2191
In view of the problem of low-frequency (less than 10Hz, such as 0.5Hz, 1.15Hz, 8Hz in this paper) longitudinal vibration exists in a pure electric vehicle, modeling methods of drive-line torsion vibration system are conducted. Firstly, dynamometer test is performed, signals of motor speed and seat rail acceleration are obtained, the frequency characteristics of flutter is determined using the order analysis and time frequency analysis. Then four types of modeling and analysis are investigated facing the drive-line torsion vibration problem, including single model without electromagnetic stiffness, branch model without electromagnetic stiffness, single model considering electromagnetic stiffness and branch model considering electromagnetic stiffness. The results show that, modeling taking into account the electromagnetic stiffness and branches can reflect more low-frequency characteristics helps to reveal the low-frequency longitudinal flutter of the researched electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Optimization of EV Mounting System Considering Power Train Torsion Control

2015-06-15
2015-01-2225
Faced on transient vibration of EV, considering the characteristics of the electric drive system, active and passive integrated transient vibration control method of power train mounting system was proposed. Models of power train system and mounting system were established, modal characteristics were grasped by simulation and experiment. A feed-forward controller was constructed from the facet of active control, mounting system transient vibration and power train torsion vibration were reduced. Based on this, further optimization of mounting system was conducted from a passive control perspective. Results show that the active and passive integrated control method can effectively reduce the dynamic reaction force of mounting points, improve the vibration conditions of power train and vehicle body as well.
Technical Paper

Experimental Research on Powertrain NVH of Range-extended Electric Vehicle

2015-03-10
2015-01-0043
From traditional vehicle to pure electric vehicle and then to range-extended electric vehicle (ReEV), the electrification of vehicle has caused a great change in NVH characteristics. ReEV has the most complex noise and vibration problems because it behaves both like traditional vehicle and pure electric vehicle. In addition, it has its own specific NVH characteristics. Firstly, internal combustion engine drives the generator rather than drives the vehicle. Due to the structure and load change, auxiliary power unit (APU) performs specific NVH characteristics. In addition, the pure electric mode will have the high frequency noise generated from the driveline because the noise couldn't be masked by the engine. In system level, unexpected and confusing sound in passenger compartment may affect the driver's comfort and judgments. Therefore, more and more attentions on these issues should be paid. NVH study and improvement methods on ReEV are emphasized.
Technical Paper

NVH Performance of Accessories in Range-Extended Electric Vehicle

2015-03-10
2015-01-0040
In course of the electrification of vehicle's powertrain, one of the vital problems we've been faced with is the limitation of the vehicle's driving range due to the capacity of currently available batteries. Therefore, range-extended electric vehicle (ReEV) concept has become one of the most promising transitory technologies to compensate this defect. Electric vehicle is supposed to be quiet and comfortable for the customers. However, some annoying sound derived from powertrain and accessories must be reduced or eliminated to meet this requirement. Accessory NVH has an important contribution to ReEV's NVH performance. If it is not well handled, poor vibration and noise may appear. This paper focuses on accessories' NVH performance in ReEV including the NVH problems from steering pump, vacuum pump and AC compressor.
Technical Paper

Subjective and Objective Evaluation of APU Start-Stop NVH for a Range-Extended Electric Vehicle

2015-03-10
2015-01-0047
In recent years, electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle are either on the market or under intensive research and development (R&D). Since the concept of auxiliary power unit (APU) was brought into the automotive industry, the range-extended electric vehicle (ReEV) has become the favor of the worldwide manufacturers. Normally, the APU starts and stops more frequently in response to the control strategy compared with traditional vehicles, which will affect the ride comfort of passengers. Thus, APU start-stop NVH refinement is an important aspect of ReEV R&D. In this paper, a subjective evaluation on a ReEV was performed to quickly diagnose NVH issues firstly. Based on subjective results, the NVH experiment in a semi-anechoic room was carried out to troubleshoot these issues. The accelerations of the APU mounts, the seat track and the steering wheel as well as interior noise level were acquired and analyzed.
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