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Emissions-Related OBD Systems A Design Overview

On-board diagnostics, required by governmental regulations, provide a means for reducing harmful pollutants into the environment. Since being mandated in 1996, the regulations have continued to evolve and require engineers to design systems that meet strict guidelines. This one day seminar is designed to provide an overview of the fundamental design objectives and the features needed to achieve those objectives for generic on-board diagnostics. The basic structure of an on-board diagnostic will be described along with the system definitions needed for successful implementation.
Technical Paper

Energy Harvesting for lightweight design by means of ferroelectret transmission mechanisms arranged in clusters

Aircraft traffic causes a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Since modern aircrafts are highly electrified, the total weight is affected by cables within the components. Piezoelectric energy harvesting appears to be a reasonable option for reducing cables in certain parts of the aircraft and hence reducing fuel consumption. The proposed work covers energy harvesting in lightweight design with transmission mechanisms using so-called ferroelectrets. The energy harvester (EH) design is motivated by a strain-excitation in an aircraft wing caused by a quasi-stationary dynamic pressure. Ferroelectrets are piezoelectric polymers that show a higher ecological compatibility and a much higher structural flexibility than piezoceramics. Furthermore they provide charge constants in the same order of magnitude as piezoceramics.
Technical Paper

Modeling and controling acoustic performance of heterogenous materials made of recycled foams

Recycling channels for foam materials, especially mattress foams, are set up. The foams are generally crushed into flakes and then assembled resulting in heterogeneous materials. These materials are more valuable if their properties are controlled. This work focuses on their acoustical properties. First, the properties of initial foams have to be estimated and the assembling process has to be analyzed in order to model the acoustic behavior of the reconstructed heterogeneous materials. The foams flakes are assembled with a binder and compressed during the manufacturing process. This work presents the methodology set up to predict the sound absorption of such heterogeneous materials based on recycled foams, from the estimation of the raw material properties to the final assembly. First, a large number of foams were measured in order to distinguish categories of materials. The data is stored in a database management software in order to perform some statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

Experimental Assessment of Powertrain Components and Energy Flow Analysis of a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

European Union's (EU) Climate Law sets a legally binding target of net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. EU identified hydrogen technologies as a priority introducing hydrogen-powered propulsion systems into the market. Even though the new registrations of fuel cell (FC) passenger cars increased by 41% in 2020 in Europe, the research community faces a lack of public and independent available data regarding the performance and energy efficiency of state-of-the-art FC electric vehicles. This study introduces a tailored methodology to characterise the different powertrain components and analyse the energy flow for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) already available on the market. Experimental data are gathered over different driving conditions, including standard driving cycles such as WLTP and US06 tests performed in a laboratory.
Technical Paper

Calibrating a Real-time Energy Management for a Heavy-Duty Fuel Cell Electrified Truck towards Improved Hydrogen Economy

Fuel cell electrified powertrains are currently a promising technology towards decarbonizing the heavy-duty transportation sector. In this context, extensive research is required to thoroughly assess the hydrogen economy potential of fuel cell heavy-duty electrification. This paper proposes a real-time capable energy management strategy (EMS) that can achieve improved hydrogen economy for a fuel cell electrified heavy-duty truck. The considered heavy-duty truck is modelled first in Simulink® environment. A baseline heuristic map-based controller is then retained that can instantaneously control the electrical power split between fuel cell system and the high-voltage battery pack of the heavy-duty truck. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is consequently implemented to optimally tune the parameters of the considered EMS.