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Training / Education

Combustion and Emissions for Engineers

2019-12-09
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2521
Abstract:At present there are a few types of transmission system available in automated industry, there might some variation in transmission system but the basic working and principle is still the same. Many big automotive manufacturers use different technologies in their transmission system but they still use the same basic principle in their transmission systems. This new technology which is brought by Koenigsegg has changed the way people think about transmission system. This new transmission system is known as Koenigsegg Direct Drive and is currently used by one automotive manufacturer and in one vehicle only, but it soon might change the way it is now.
Technical Paper

A review on influence of different flushing methods on Material Removal Rate using EDM.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2543
Electrical release machining (EDM), is a material removal procedure whereby a coveted shape is acquired by utilizing electrical releases (sparks). Material is expelled from the work piece by a progression of quickly repeating current releases between cathode and anode, isolated by a dielectric fluid and subject to an electric voltage. At the point when the voltage between the two terminals is expanded, the power of the electric field in the volume between the anodes winds up more prominent than the quality of the dielectric (in any event in a few spots), which separates, enabling current to stream between the two cathodes. This wonder is the equivalent as the breakdown of a capacitor (condenser). Accordingly, material is expelled from the cathodes.
Technical Paper

High rigidity and light weight bumper material development in India

2019-11-21
2019-28-2553
Vehicle weight reduction becomes important at the view point of fuel efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction in India also as well as developed countries. With this background, High tensile and Super high tensile steel application has become increasing. Similary, weight reduction of big plastic parts like bumper face is one of the most important items, so Honda has developed Thin-wall and light weight bumper face. In the development of light weight bumper, rigidity, impact strength and flowability which are main requirement are cotradictory property. It is necessary to develop new material to achieve this technical concern. Moreover, we verified part shape and thickness optimization to achieve part requirement. Established high property material and part manufacturing technology were applied for current CITY firstly, and it has been expanded to other models sequentially to contribute weight reduction for Honda vehicles.
Technical Paper

Employing natural plant based fiber in interior automotive parts for cost & weight benefit

2019-11-21
2019-28-2559
The Automotive industry is in ever more need for a lesser weight car due to progressively stringent emission norms and the demand of customer to have better mileage. It can be a gargantuan challenge for automotive manufacturers to search for lesser weight material to meet both customers as well as regulatory norms. But in some cases such lower weight material can increase the cost and adding a expensive material which increases overall cost to a price sensitive market like India is not favorable. One such solution is using the indigenous plant fiber (Jute) in combination with propylene (PP) to make Interior plastics components. Jute a vegetable fiber also referred to as "the golden fiber" has high tensile strength, low extensibility and is well established in fabric, packing, agriculture, construction industries. The biodegradable Jute lesser weight & abundance (India is the leading manufacturer of the Jute) can be utilized in making automobile trim parts in India.
Technical Paper

To establish the correlation in between Computer Aided Engineering & physical testing of automotive parts returnable case (Stacktainer).

2019-11-21
2019-28-2569
Automotive returnable cases (Stacktainers) are being used to transport the automotive parts through surface & seaways. No automotive manufacturer wants to spend money on woods, paper & cardboard again and again, it`s better to pay once for robust & reusable cases. these provide better protection to parts from its manufacturing to assembly line of vehicle. While transporting, any kind of crack or failure of returnable cases may lead to loss of money, human & time. To ensure the safety, these pallets have to be validated for vibrations coming from surface irregularities, sea waves & load due to stacking of cases one above other. The objective of this study is to establish a correlation in between the physical testing & simulation in Computer added Engineering (CAE) of automotive returnable case (Stacktainers). There are different types of tests considered to validate the returnable case, rough road evaluation, Multi-axial Vibration & strength evaluation.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

Improved update-over-the-air solution through standardization of ‘software/firmware package format and flash jobs’

2019-11-21
2019-28-2435
This paper investigates and proposes the possibilities of standardizing the software/firmware package format and flash jobs in order to provide the possibility of productizing the update-over-the-air solution regarding on-board vehicle components and make use of it in all OEMs with minimum configuration changes and customization. The update-over-the-air solution in the automotive sector is provided by various suppliers and needs to be customized to meet various OEMs requirements. Possible Variants of OEM requirements are: • Variant 1 o Customer Portal + Backend + vehicle on-board components solution from supplier • Variant 2 o Customer Portal + Backend solution from OEM o Vehicle on-board components from supplier • Variant 3 o Backend from OEM o Customer Portal + vehicle on-board components from supplier ODX, VBF, and many other formats from OEMs include software/firmware packages.
Technical Paper

Paper Title : Connectivity in 2wheeler: Opportunities & Challenges

2019-11-21
2019-28-2437
Abstract: Future of Mobility is mainly driven by 3 main pillar viz Connected , Electrified and Automated Driving. With advancement in Communication Technology supplemented by huge customer Base , Connectivity has proven to deliver better Services to the End-user. The next step in this journey would be to connect the so called “Things” and the Things that we want to connect is the 2 wheeler in the Mobility domain This paradigm shift in the Mobility Landscape is expected to bring plethora of opportunities on one side as well as new challenges that were never witnessed in the realm of Mobility in the Past. This paper focuses on Opportunities in terms of Location Based services, Vehicle Management, Data Analytics, Infotainment , and possible Business scenarios and Models as well as challenges in Terms of Security and Data Ownership Methodology: Analysis of OEM and Supplier strategies/approaches and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification.
Technical Paper

Analysis Of GaN Based BLDC Motor Drive For Automotive Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2471
Objective Automotive sector is rapidly moving towards electric vehicle. BLDC motor is gaining popularity in the field of electric vehicle due to its high torque to weight ratio and simple control. In this paper we will focus on Switching loss characterization of 3 kW GaN based BLDC drive for electric vehicle. To improve efficiency of drive gallium-nitride based power transistor is used instead of Si MOSFET. GaN devices enable the design of inverter at higher frequencies with improved power density and efficiency as compared to traditional Si MOSFETs. Methodology In this paper commercially available GaN devices compared with Si MOSFETs. The power devices, which are selected for the performance comparison, are EPC2022 GaN by EPC, GS61008P GaN by Gan System and SiDR668DP Si MOSFET by Vishay. The Switching losses analytically predicted in MATHCAD tool and then compared with SPICE simulation losses. Double pulse test circuit is used to find out power losses of power transistors.
Technical Paper

Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System through Heat Shield Insulation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2539
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automotive safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of thesystem over time. Thermal management and insulation are extremely important and highly demanding in BSVI, RDE and Non-IC engine operating vehicles. Passenger vehicle and Commercial vehicle exhaust systems are facing multiple challenges such as packaging constraints, weight reduction andthermalmanagement requirements.Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. The focus of the paper is to design, develop and validate heat shield products with different variables such as design gap, insulation material, sheet metal thickness and manufacturing processes. 1D and 3D computational simulations are performed with different gaps from 3 mm to 14 mm are considered.
Technical Paper

Comparative Experimental Investigation of Thumba and Argemone oil Based Dual Fuel Blend in a Diesel Engine for its Performance and Emission Characteristics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2375
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the possibility of using the Thumba oil (Citrullus Colocyntis) and Argemone Mexicana (non-edible and adulterer to mustard oil) as a dual fuel blend with diesel as an alternative of using pure diesel for its performance and emission characteristics. The work was carried on a single cylinder, four strokes, In-line overhead valve, direct injection compression ignition engine. The argemone and thumba biodiesel were produced using the transesterification process and thereafter the important physio-chemical properties of produced blends were investigated. Four dual biodiesel blends like ATB10 (5% Argemone, 5% Thumba and 90% Diesel), ATB20, ATB30 and ATB40 were prepared for investigation process. The operating conditions adopted for the study was the entire range of engine loads and speed (1000-1500 r/min) keeping the injection pressure and injection timing at the OEM settings.
Technical Paper

Modeling for collective effect of Muffler geometric modifications and blended microalgae fuel use on exhaust performance of a four-stroke diesel engine: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2377
Engine performance significantly depends on the effective exhaust of the combustion gases from the muffler. With stricter BSVI norms more efficient measures has to be adopted to reduce the levels of exhaust emissions from the exhaust to the atmosphere. Muffler along with reducing the engine noise, is intended to control the back pressure as well. Back pressure change has significant effect on muffler temperature distribution which affects the NOx emission from the exhaust. Many research communications have been made to reduce the exhaust emissions like HC, CO and CO2 from the exhaust by using different generation biofuels as alternate fuel, yet they have confronted challenges in controlling the NOx content from exhaust. This work presents the combined effect of Muffler geometry modifications and blended microalgal fuel on exhaust performance with an aim to reduce NOx emission from the exhaust of a four-stroke engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder CRDI engine fuelled with a diesel-methanol blend.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2380
The diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel conversion efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuels as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuels produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blended fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this study, the effect of diesel methanol blends and injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure (FIP)and start of injection (SOI) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and iso-butanol to get a stable blend.
Technical Paper

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator

2019-11-21
2019-28-2381
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.
Technical Paper

EMISSION REDUCTION OF A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BLENDS OF BIOFUEL UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 1,4-DIOXANE AND RICE HUSK NANO PARTICLE.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2387
Research Objectives. In this modern era increase in Pollution became a huge impact in the lives of all living creatures, in this automobile tends to be one of the major contributors in terms of air pollution thanks to their exhaust emissions. The objective of the present study is to reduce the amount of harmful pollutants emitted from the automobiles by the utilization of a biofuel further influenced by two additives (liquid and a Nano additive). Methodology In this study, first the bio oil is extracted, Then the biofuel is mixed with diesel fuel at different proportions of 20%, 40% by volume. Experiments are carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine, which is a stationary test engine manufactured by Kirloskar, connected to a computer setup. The emission values in the exhaust gases are obtained using AVL exhaust gas analyzer.
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

2019-11-21
2019-28-2388
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2019-11-21
2019-28-2390
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds.
Technical Paper

Prospects of Bio Diesel and blends as a fuel supplement for diesel engines.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2393
Biodiesel can supplement petroleum product as a "perfect vitality source". It can ensure nature by diminishing CO2, SO2, CO, HC emission to an extent. The carbon cycle of Biodiesel is dynamic through the photosynthesis procedure .Plants ingest CO2, or, in other words those released by the biodiesel ignition process. Utilizing biodiesel can all the more adequately lessen the outflow of CO2, secure the indigenous habitat and keep up the environmental equalization, contrasted with the utilization of petroleum product. This paper considers the issues and gives understanding on the utilization of bio diesel in existing passenger vehicles which runs on diesel as a fuel. Because of increment in use of non-renewable energy sources viz., petroleum products are on an exponential decline. Today we have an option of electric vehicle or fuel cell based vehicles but what about the existing infrastructures of Billions of vehicles plying on Indian road. Bio diesel as a fuel solves this issue.
Technical Paper

Occupant Controlled Ventilation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2461
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter.
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